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字幕列表 影片播放

  • This episode is brought to you by 24houranswers.com.

    本集由24houranswers.com提供

  • Hey everyone! China is a big country with lots of history and culture.

    嘿大家! 中國是一個有著許多歷史和文化的大國。

  • Obviously, in this video, I won't be able to cover everything.

    顯然,在這個視頻中,我不能覆蓋一切。

  • But, I'll try my best to explain. Okay? Good?

    但是,我會盡我所能解釋。 好的? 好?

  • Alright... Let's get started!

    好吧...讓我們開始吧!

  • It's time to learn Geography... NOW!

    是時候學習地理!

  • Hey everyone, I'm your host, Barby.

    大家好,我是主持人Barby

  • China, China, China... or the People's Republic of China.

    中國,或是中華人民共和國

  • Everybody knows something about this place, and everybody has something to say about it.

    大家都對中國有些認識,也有些想法

  • Now let's see what the flag has to say about itself.

    現在,來看看代表中國的國旗

  • The flag is a simple red banner with five yellow stars in the upper hoist or canton corner;

    是簡單的紅旗,左上角有五顆紅星

  • a large star surrounded by four smaller ones in a semi-circular pattern to the right.

    四顆小星以半圓排列在右,圍繞著大星

  • According to the governmental interpretation,

    根據官方的解釋

  • the red background symbolizes the revolution,

    紅色背景代表革命

  • and the five stars were made yellow to radiate against the red.

    而向紅色輻射的五顆黃星

  • The stars represent unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

    這些星星代表,在中國共產黨領導下,團結一致的中國人民

  • The largest star symbolizes the Communist Party of China,

    大星代表中國共產黨

  • and the four smaller stars that surround the big star symbolize the four social classes:

    而圍繞在旁的四顆星星則象徵四種社會階級

  • the working class, the peasantry, the urban petite bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie.

    工人階級、農民階級、城市小資產階級和民族資產階級

  • Well, that was pretty easy. Unfortunately, that will be the only easy part of this video.

    這很簡單,不幸的是,這只是影片中最簡單的部份

  • Let's get messy in...

    讓我們開始吧

  • Okay Geograpeeps, get your popcorn and notebooks,

    好,同學們,爆米花和筆記本準備好

  • because this is where things are gonna get really complicated, messy and dramatic and confusing.

    現在開始,事情變得開始複雜,淩亂又戲劇化

  • This is why I watch Geography Now!

    這就是我看Geography Now的原因!

  • First of all, mainland China is located in and dominates the heart of East Asia.

    首先,中國坐落於東亞心臟地帶

  • At over 22,000 kilometres, it has the world's longest combined land border with 14 other countries.

    有著世界上最長的國界,超過22,000公里,與14個國界接壤

  • The country spans all the way from the Taklamakan Desert to the coast of Fujian.

    疆域橫跨東西,從塔克拉馬干沙漠到福建海岸

  • Depending on your method of measurement,

    根據不同算法

  • China could either be the second, third, or fourth largest country in the world by total area.

    中國面積可以是第二,第三或第四名

  • If you include all the water territories, Canada is the second,

    如果算進水域面積的話,加拿大排第二

  • even though China has slightly more land mass,

    雖然中國的陸地面積較大

  • and if you include Alaska, Hawaii and all the official territories, the US is slightly larger than China,

    但是如果美國包含阿拉斯加,夏威夷,等其他領土的話,美國稍大於中國

  • but if China's disputed and confusing territories are all included, then China is a little bit larger.

    如果把其他爭議領土都加進來,中國會大一些

  • Yeah, I know!

    我知道

  • It's only been a couple of minutes and I'm already making it look like:

    影片才開始沒多久,就已經觸及敏感議題,變成這樣

  • *fighting*

    *打架*

  • Speaking of territories, let's stick our hands in the first layer of mud!

    說到領土,我們從行政區開始看

  • China has some of the most complex administrative divisions in the world,

    中國有著複雜的行政區劃分

  • and it all has to do with certain types of people and the rise of the 20th century.

    這與該地區的族群,與二十世紀的變遷有關

  • First of all, the country is divided into 22 official provinces,

    第一,整個國家被劃分成22個省

  • but THEN we get to the subdivisions!

    現在我們再看其他類型的行政區

  • China also has five autonomous regions, four municipalities,

    中國還有五個自治區,四個直轄市

  • and two special administrative regions that mostly self-govern themselves.

    兩個類似自治區的特別行政區

  • First, let's talk about the autonomous regions.

    現在來談談自治區

  • They are:

    他們分別是

  • Guangxi, Tibet, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia.

    廣西,西藏,新疆,寧夏,內蒙古

  • The strange thing is that each of these regions has incredibly distinct and contrasting cultural traits

    這些地區的共同點是,他們與其他中國大部分的漢民族

  • that differ from the rest of Han-dominated Chinese culture.

    有著文化上的差異

  • Because of the minority prevalency in these areas,

    因為少數民族在這些地區佔多數

  • they have kind of like a weird legislative membrane in which they are still under full sovereignty of China,

    他們就有一些法律上的保護,但是主權仍在中國

  • but have extra special rights that don't apply to the rest of the provinces.

    他們就有一些特權,是其他省所沒有的

  • Then we hit the municipalities!

    現在來看看直轄市

  • These are like the complete opposite of autonomous regions,

    他們就像是自治區的相反

  • because they hold pretty much the highest governmental administrative classification in the country.

    因為他們受到政府當局高度控制

  • And even though they are cities, they hold provincial status.

    雖然只是城市,但是與省是同級別

  • In short, these guys are like the big shots of China!

    簡言之,就好像是中國行政區的顯貴

  • And they are: the capital Beijing,

    他們是

  • the capital Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing.

    北京,天津,上海,重慶

  • Yeah, try saying that in five times fast.

    試著快速念這5個名字

  • (Tries saying it five times fast, like a tongue twister)

    像是繞口令

  • Furthermore, we have 2 special administrative regions that kinda self-govern themselves,

    此外,有兩個特別行政區,有點像自治區

  • but they all kind of fall under Chinese sovereignty.

    但也仍是在中國主權下

  • They are: Hong Kong and Macau.

    他們是,香港,澳門

  • CGP Grey does an amazing video explaining the whole scenario on this,

    CGP Grey 有個 出色的影片 ,介紹兩者的情況

  • but I'll try to summarise it in the quickest way I can.

    但我還是試著做了簡單的結論

  • These places used to be operated by the British and Portuguese,

    這兩地區原本分別由英國,葡萄牙掌控

  • until they were ceded back to China back in 1997 and 1999 respectively,

    直到1997,1999才分別歸還中國

  • and have a weird "one country, two systems" policy,

    實施「一國兩制」的政策

  • even though it should be 3 systems... but hey.

    應該說是"三 "制

  • Each of these areas has their own passports, currency language and even government.

    這些地區有各自的護照,貨幣,語言,甚至政府

  • Then you have the strange 6 economic zones,

    另外,還有六個特殊的經濟特區

  • which, even though they do not have their own autonomy,

    雖說沒有自治權

  • they have flexible government regulation and free market policies

    但是有著更寬鬆的法規,與自由市場的政策

  • that allow them to manage business transactions in a more liberal manner.

    能讓這些經濟特區的交易更自由化

  • These zones are cities along the coast and the entire island region of Hainan,

    這些特區都是一些沿海城市,還有整個海南島

  • otherwise known as the "Hawaii of China".

    也被稱做"中國的夏威夷"

  • Ha! Thought that was heavy?

    覺得這些太沉重?

  • Now things are gonna get reeally ugly.

    現在才開始變嚴重呢

  • Now, if there's one thing China knows how to do, it's getting people's attention and not in a ..

    如果要說中國擅長的事,就是很會吸引人們注意力,但不是...

  • "Hey guys, look at me."

    朋友們 看我

  • ...type of way but more of like a ...

    不是那樣,但更像這樣

  • "Hey guys, look at me!"

    朋友們 看我

  • ...kind of way.

    類似這樣

  • And one way to get attention is by making territory disputes.

    其中一種獲得關注的方式就是領土爭議

  • Let's just get the biggest one off of our chests -Taiwan.

    現在我們就大聲說出來---台灣

  • [Punches]

  • Hey hey hey!... It's called Chinese Taipei.

    嘿 是中華台北!

  • Taiwan... is in a weird jurisdiction limbo with China,

    台灣在中國看來有其灌的法律地位

  • because both sides kind of technically claim sovereignty over the other.

    因為雙方都聲稱擁有對方統治權

  • As in mainland China claims they own Taiwan,

    如同中國大陸聲稱擁有台灣

  • yet Taiwan believes, ultimately, that they are the sole proprietor of the entire mainland as well.

    但是台灣認為他們才是代表中國的唯一合法政權

  • It all had to do with the Chinese civil war and the opposing political parties, yaddi yaddi yadda...

    這些都與兩個對立政黨在中國內戰有關

  • The communist party took over the mainland and the nationalist party took over Taiwan.

    共產黨占領大陸,國民黨占有台灣

  • Now we go inland.

    現在往內陸走

  • As we already mentioned in the Bhutan video,

    如同先前在不丹影片所提到

  • China has two disputed regions with them.

    中國與不丹有兩處爭議領土

  • Then we get to India.

    現在看印度

  • "Yess!"

    “是!”

  • Sometimes China and India are like two monstrous titans slamming into each other at high velocity.

    有時中國和印度像是兩位巨人,互相衝撞

  • It's very difficult to really approach this topic without somebody getting angry or upset,

    在談論這議題時,很難有人保持理性

  • so I'm just gonna report the plain and simple claims as they stand,

    所以在這我就平白地陳述個方意見

  • and you make the decisions, okay?

    然後你們自己做判斷 好嗎

  • That way, the worst that you can do is say:

    這樣的話,最糟你也只能說,

  • "Geography Now, although not directly advocating,

    「Geography Now提到我不喜歡的論點」

  • mentioned claims to one side of an argument that I do not agree with."

    但至少沒偏頗任一方

  • In the east we reach Arunachal Pradesh,

    在東邊的阿魯納恰爾邦

  • which is to this day pretty much a state of India,

    現在此地大多屬於印度

  • however, China still believes it is part of south Tibet.

    然而,中國認為這是藏南的一部分

  • In the Uttarakhand area by Tibet,

    還有西藏旁的阿坎德邦

  • you have the Niti Pass by Chamoli and the Valley of Jadh Ganga.

    還有傑莫利,甲扎崗噶河谷

  • In Pradesh, you have the Reo Purgyil mountains and the Spiti River valley,

    在北方邦有列俄帕爾格阿勒峰,Spiti河谷

  • and finally we reach Jammu and Kashmir,

    最後談到查謨-克什米爾

  • a.k.a. the most messed up no man's land in the entire planet.

    幾乎是地球上狀況最複雜的無人區

  • Here, China lays claim to the Shaksgam Valley,

    中國聲稱有

  • the Fukche valley, the mouth of the river by Chumar,

    沙克思干谷地(楚馬河河口處)

  • and the largest chunk of highlands - the Aksai Chin region,

    還有阿克賽欽高地

  • which Chinese national highway 2-19 passes through.

    中國國道219經過此區地

  • In addition, further up north, pretty much all of Tajikistan's southeast border with China is disputed.

    往北,在塔吉克東南也有領土爭議

  • *sigh*

    嘆!

  • and then we reach the Spratly Islands.

    現在轉向南沙群島

  • *singing* Spratly Islands, Islands,

    *唱歌*南沙群島,群島,

  • *singing* who you will own you now?

    南沙群島 ,誰擁有你?

  • I don't know! *almost crying*

    我不知道

  • In the South China Sea, things get really messy.

    在南中國海,情勢也很複雜

  • Imagine, if you will, a bunch of people walking towards each other,

    想像有一群人

  • each one on their phones looking at pictures of Bob Saget,

    低頭看著手機上的鮑勃·薩格,一面走向對方

  • and then suddenly they all bump into each other, and notice a pile of money on the ground right at their feet.

    突然大家撞在一起,此時赫然發現腳邊有一疊鈔票

  • They drop their phones and immediately lunge for the pile,

    丟下手機,馬上去搶錢

  • disagreeing on whose money is whose, and how much belongs to which person.

    根本不管錢是誰的,每人應得多少

  • That's the Spratly Islands!

    這就是南沙群島

  • Essentially, these islands are claimed by 5 separate countries in area,

    基本上,有五個國家聲稱有群島主權

  • 6, if you consider Taiwan sovereign,

    六個,算進台灣的話

  • and the whole deal is just an enormous mess of convoluted claim squabbling.

    反正整件事就是大亂鬥

  • This is what the Philippines' claims.

    這是菲律賓聲稱的範圍

  • This is Vietnam's, Brunei's, Malaysia's,

    這是越南,汶萊,馬來西亞

  • and then China just kinda does this.

    這是中國

  • Basically the Spratlys are an international battle royale,

    其實南沙群島就像是各國間的大逃殺

  • and when one side doesn't really pay attention to one island that they claim,

    一不注意,島就被其他國占走

  • another side sweeps in and builds a military station.

    並在上建立軍事基地

  • It gets ugly sometimes.

    非常險惡

  • Oh, yeah, and there's a cluster of rocks called the Diaoyu or the Senkaku islands

    喔對了,還有釣魚島或稱尖閣諸島

  • that both China and Japan both think is theirs.

    中國日本各自認為擁有

  • Alright! That's it!

    是了!

  • Kind of. I mean, we didn't really talk about the whole North Korea thing,

    我們都沒啥提到北韓

  • and how the entire country operates under one time zone,

    在同一時區下,國家事怎麼運作的

  • but we'll just have to save that for a social media comment war.

    但這些我們留在社群媒體上論戰就好

  • In the meantime, we gotta get this gravy train rolling.

    現在,繼續講些容易的事吧

  • China is a big big country, so naturally you're gonna get deep geographic divisions all over,

    中國地大,自然地會包含很多不同地貌

  • but in general, if you look at China from space,

    但是大致上看起來,你會發現,東邊明顯較綠

  • you'll notice that the east is significantly greener than that of the arid, rocky north and west.

    西北邊地勢較高

  • Situated right on the eastern third of the Eurasian landmass,

    佔了歐亞大陸三分之一面積

  • China's inner and coastal domain is kind of shielded by this arid, sparsely populated highlands

    中國內陸與海岸都被周圍的高山環繞

  • in the south-west, west and north, encapsulating the fertile lowlands inside.

    西南,西邊,北邊的高山包圍著內部肥沃平原

  • I like to call this "the Chinese shield".

    我稱之"中國屏障"

  • "Nobody's gonna touch my plants!"

    "沒人能碰到我的植物"

  • This is partially why it took Europeans so long to develop solid ties and interactions with the east.

    這就是為何歐洲人需要花這麼久,才能與東方建立互動

  • I mean, sure, the Silk Road had existed for centuries prior,

    當然,絲路在幾世紀前有出現了

  • but crossing all the mountains and deserts and rocky pass[es] was less favorable to sea exploration for them.

    比起大老遠穿越高山,沙漠,人們較偏好海路

  • And by the way, no,

    順道一提

  • Marco Polo did not bring the concept of pasta to Italy by bringing back Chinese noodles from his travels.

    馬可波羅才沒有從中國之行帶回義大利麵

  • Pasta had already existed in the Mediterranean for centuries prior to the excursion.

    在他到中國之前,義大利麵早就出現在地中海了

  • THE LESS YOU KNEW

    學得越多,發現知道得越少

  • China has a vast domain of biodiversity and climate;

    中國在生物與氣候方面也存在多樣性

  • the west and north will be radically different from the coast and south.

    西北與東南沿海有很大的不同

  • So let's start with the inland and coast.

    現在還看看內陸與海岸

  • On the east side of China and the coasts, you have the heavily populated alluvial plains that are generally flat,

    在中國東邊與沿岸,是人口稠密的沖積平原

  • with numerous spots for shipping and harbours and beaches with the cool looking ones,

    很多漁港,港口,還有很酷的海灘

  • like Panjin Red Beach that blossoms every autumn.

    像是紅沙灘,每年都人滿為患

  • Head a little bit north, up to the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang, and half of Inner Mongolia

    往北走是,吉林,黑龍江,與部分內蒙古

  • along the borders of Russia and North Korea, and you hit the coldest spot in all of China.

    旁邊是俄羅與北韓領土,這裡是中國最冷的地方

  • In fact, every year the city of Harbin, named the "ice city",

    事實上,被稱做"冰城"的哈爾濱

  • has a huge ice sculpting festival that draws in millions of tourists in the winter months.

    每年冬季都有大型的冰雕節,吸引數以萬計的遊客

  • Fun fact: this general area of China was commonly referred to as "Manchuria" in the past,

    有趣事實,這邊以前被稱做"滿州"

  • named after the Manchu people, which is where the Fu Manchu moustache gets its name from,

    因為這裡住著滿州人,電影人物"傅滿州"取名於此

  • which is where I get back to the video.

    這就是我做這影片

  • Head a little east, and you reach the rest of the Inner Mongolian autonomous region,

    再往東走,會到達另一部分的內蒙古自治區

  • which is dominated by the Mongolian plateau, which is a highland consisting of dry steppes, hills,

    地形主體是蒙古高原,一連串陡峭的山所組成

  • and yes, the Gobi desert, which, fun side note: is where all those beautiful caravan raiding and

    還有戈壁沙漠

  • "gimme back my comb or I will kill you" chasing scenes from Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon were filmed.

    "還我梳子,要不殺死你",電影臥虎藏龍中的追逐場景就是在此拍攝

  • Head a little west, and things get a little more intense.

    往西邊走,地勢變得險峻

  • Congratulations, you've reached the largest subdivision in China - the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region.

    恭喜,你到了中國最大的行政區,新疆維吾爾自治區

  • This is basically the wild west of China.

    這就像中國的西部荒野

  • At over 1 and a half million square kilometers, only about 5% of the area is fit for human habitation.

    超過150萬平方公里,但是指有5%適合人居

  • This area is strange, rocky, rugged, mountainous, and loaded with oil,

    這地區充斥高山,岩石,地形崎嶇,且蘊含石油

  • making it China's largest gas producing region.

    是中國最大的天然氣生產區

  • Then you head a little south, and you reach the strange Taklamakan desert or the "cold desert".

    往南走,到達塔克拉瑪干沙漠,或稱為"冷沙漠"

  • This huge basin of shifting sand dunes is almost completely surrounded by the snow-capped mountains

    在這盆地中,有許多移動沙丘,盆地周圍是被白雪覆蓋的高山

  • trapping in the frigid winds, however, it still lies in the rain shadow zone,

    這些高山阻擋北方寒風,使得盆地仍處於雨影區

  • so it rarely receives any precipitation.

    所以還是偶而下雨

  • However, the funny thing is: if you look closely, you can see the ice melt from the Tian Shan

    有趣的是,看仔細點的話,融化雪水從北側的天山,與南側的崑崙山

  • and Kunlun Mountains in the north and south feeding into the valleys below by the desert,

    流進沙漠中的谷地

  • until they create a dry riverbed that looks like a strange Angeline Jolie forehead vein in the desert.

    在露出河床前,好像安婕麗娜裘莉的動脈

  • Head south, and then we reach the most notable autonomous region - the Tibetan plateau.

    再往南,到達最有名的自治區,西藏高原

  • As the highest region on earth, with an average elevation of nearly 5,000 meters / 16,000 feet,

    平均海拔5000公尺,是世界上最高的區域

  • this area is situated on the Himalayan Mountains, the tallest mountain range on the planet,

    這區域就在世界最高喜馬拉雅山脈附近

  • and the tallest mountain in the world - Mount Everest - straddles the border with Nepal.

    也緊鄰珠穆朗瑪峰,橫跨中國與尼泊爾

  • The funny thing is, the Tibetan plateau, and to some extent, the Qinghai province,

    西藏高原與部分青海省因為地勢太高了

  • is so high that the snow melt runoff doesn't really have much to go in the arid north,

    所以融化雪水無法順利流到較乾旱的北邊

  • so it just kind of flows into the empty crevices,

    所以只能流入內陸低窪區域

  • creating China's largest network of freshwater lakes speckled throughout the entire area,

    形成了中國分布最大的淡水湖群

  • including the largest lake in China - Qinghai Lake.

    其中包含了中國最大的湖泊,青海湖

  • Many speculate that these are actually the sources of many of the major rivers in China,

    這些湖泊之中,也有許多被認為是中國主要河流的發源地

  • including the Yellow and Yangtze [rivers].

    包括黃河,揚子江

  • Then we get to the southeast, by the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guandong

    往西南,是雲南,廣西,廣東

  • as the warmest regions in the country.

    是整個國家最溫暖的區域

  • These areas are home to some of the most picturesque rock forest and eroded mountain landscapes

    有名的石林山水,鐘乳石洞就在此區域

  • with the terraced rice paddies that have literally usurped the entire surface area of hills and mountains.

    還有數量龐大的梯田,幾乎覆蓋所有的丘陵,山地

  • This is also the only place where you can find the creepy Snub-nosed monkey.

    同時也是恐怖的金絲猴的活動區域

  • When you head inland, you reach the rural areas,

    往內陸走,到達農村區域

  • and you can encounter the vast network of rivers and creeks that

    會看到交錯的河流

  • irrigate the endless endless crop fields, with the occasional pine and bamboo forest.

    灌溉著無數的稻田,偶而還有松木林與竹林

  • Here's where we have to address a little bit of reality.

    這裡解釋一下

  • Yes, China is loaded with beautiful scenery unmatched anywhere else in the world.

    中國有許多人煙罕至的風景

  • I mean, the setting for 'Avatar' was inspired by the Zhangjiajie National Park,

    "阿凡達"的故事背景,就是參考張家界風景區而設計的

  • however, just like any other major state, they do have their land controversies.

    然而,如同國家,有很多土地問題

  • China has been trying really hard to crack down on its poaching,

    中國一直以來,都嚴厲取締非法狩獵

  • and especially against the endangered species,

    特別是那些瀕臨絕種的動物

  • like the black-necked crane, the golden monkey, and of course,

    像是黑頸鶴,金尾長猴

  • the iconic mascot of the nation - the giant panda bear.

    當然還有中國的吉祥物,熊貓

  • On top of that, China has quite a pollution problem;

    除此之外,中國有嚴重的空汙問題

  • the Chinese Ministry of Health has stated that

    中國衛生部表示

  • industrial pollution has made cancer China's leading cause of death.

    工業廢氣,使得肺癌明列首要死因

  • This is both attributed to the air and land pollution.

    這些事土地汙染與空氣汙染所造成的

  • They've tried their best to combat the issue with instituting strict regulations, and fines and bans,

    他們很盡力想改善問題,志定政策,立法,罰款