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  • I write about food. I write about cooking.

    我寫有關食物、寫有關烹飪的文章 I write about food. I write about cooking.

  • I take it quite seriously,

    我很認真對待這份工作 I take it quite seriously,

  • but I'm here to talk about something

    但我在這裡要向大家講及有關 but I'm here to talk about something

  • that's become very important to me in the last year or two.

    一些在最近一兩年前開始對我很重要的事情 that's become very important to me in the last year or two.

  • It is about food, but it's not about cooking per se.

    那是有關食物,但不是有關烹飪的本質 It is about food, but it's not about cooking per se.

  • I'm going to start with this picture of a beautiful cow.

    讓我用一幅美麗的母牛照片作開始 I'm going to start with this picture of a beautiful cow.

  • I'm not a vegetarian -- this is the old Nixon line, right?

    我不是一位素食主義者 -- 這聽起來好像是尼克森的用語吧! I'm not a vegetarian -- this is the old Nixon line, right?

  • But I still think that this --

    但我仍然認為這 -- But I still think that this --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑) (Laughter)

  • -- may be this year's version of this.

    =-- 可能是現在的情況 -- may be this year's version of this.

  • Now that is only a little bit hyperbolic.

    只不過有一點誇張罷了 Now that is only a little bit hyperbolic.

  • And why do I say it?

    我為什麼說這些呢? And why do I say it?

  • Because only once before has the fate of individual people

    因為以前曾經有一次,個人的命運 Because only once before has the fate of individual people

  • and the fate of all of humanity

    和全人類的命運是 and the fate of all of humanity

  • been so intertwined.

    緊緊連在一起的 been so intertwined.

  • There was the bomb, and there's now.

    過去是原子彈,而這個是現在 There was the bomb, and there's now.

  • And where we go from here is going to determine

    我們現在的決定 And where we go from here is going to determine

  • not only the quality and the length of our individual lives,

    不單影響到個人生活的質素和長短 not only the quality and the length of our individual lives,

  • but whether, if we could see the earth a century from now,

    還影響我們是否在一個世紀後 but whether, if we could see the earth a century from now,

  • we'd recognize it.

    仍能認出我們的地球 we'd recognize it.

  • It's a holocaust of a different kind,

    這是另類的大屠殺 It's a holocaust of a different kind,

  • and hiding under our desks isn't going to help.

    而逃避於事無補 and hiding under our desks isn't going to help.

  • Start with the notion that global warming

    由全球暖化的概念開始 Start with the notion that global warming

  • is not only real, but dangerous.

    我們知道這不僅是真實的而且是非常危險 is not only real, but dangerous.

  • Since every scientist in the world now believes this,

    自此,每一位科學家都對此表示認同 Since every scientist in the world now believes this,

  • and even President Bush has seen the light, or pretends to,

    連總統布希亦領悟此事實,縱然他可能只是假裝領悟 and even President Bush has seen the light, or pretends to,

  • we can take this is a given.

    我們可拿此作假設 we can take this is a given.

  • Then hear this, please.

    請各位聽我說 Then hear this, please.

  • After energy production, livestock is the second-highest contributor

    家畜是繼能源生產之後 After energy production, livestock is the second-highest contributor

  • to atmosphere-altering gases.

    產生最多改變氣候氣體的元兇 to atmosphere-altering gases.

  • Nearly one-fifth of all greenhouse gas

    近五分之一的溫室氣體 Nearly one-fifth of all greenhouse gas

  • is generated by livestock production --

    是由畜牧業產生 -- is generated by livestock production --

  • more than transportation.

    這比運輸業還要多 more than transportation.

  • Now, you can make all the jokes you want about cow farts,

    現在,你可盡情地開有關牛屁的笑話 Now, you can make all the jokes you want about cow farts,

  • but methane is 20 times more poisonous than CO2,

    因為,甲烷的有害程度是二氧化碳的20倍 but methane is 20 times more poisonous than CO2,

  • and it's not just methane.

    而這不止於甲烷 and it's not just methane.

  • Livestock is also one of the biggest culprits in land degradation,

    畜牧業是土地退化、空氣食水污染、 Livestock is also one of the biggest culprits in land degradation,

  • air and water pollution, water shortages and loss of biodiversity.

    食水短缺和喪失生物多樣化的最大元兇之一 air and water pollution, water shortages and loss of biodiversity.

  • There's more.

    還有更多 There's more.

  • Like half the antibiotics in this country

    這個國家有一半的抗生素 Like half the antibiotics in this country

  • are not administered to people, but to animals.

    不是用在人類上而是用在動物上 are not administered to people, but to animals.

  • But lists like this become kind of numbing, so let me just say this,

    列舉這些會變得有點麻木,因此容許我這樣說 But lists like this become kind of numbing, so let me just say this,

  • if you're a progressive,

    倘若你是一位革新主義者 if you're a progressive,

  • if you're driving a Prius, or you're shopping green,

    倘若你駕駛著Prius混合動力電動汽車,或你支持綠色消費 if you're driving a Prius, or you're shopping green,

  • or you're looking for organic,

    或你尋找有機食物 or you're looking for organic,

  • you should probably be a semi-vegetarian.

    你大概是一位半素食主義者 you should probably be a semi-vegetarian.

  • Now, I'm no more anti-cow than I am anti-atom,

    我反對進食牛肉有如反對原子彈一樣 Now, I'm no more anti-cow than I am anti-atom,

  • but it's all in the way we use these things.

    但這視乎我們怎樣利用這些東西 but it's all in the way we use these things.

  • There's another piece of the puzzle

    昨天安古柏(Ann Cooper)的演講很精彩地講到 There's another piece of the puzzle

  • which Ann Cooper talked about beautifully yesterday,

    構成這現象的另一實情 which Ann Cooper talked about beautifully yesterday,

  • and one you already know.

    你已經知曉 and one you already know.

  • There's no question -- none --that so-called lifestyle diseases --

    無可否認地,那些所謂的都市病 -- There's no question -- none --that so-called lifestyle diseases --

  • diabetes, heart disease, stroke, some cancers --

    如糖尿病、心臟病、中風、幾種癌症 -- diabetes, heart disease, stroke, some cancers --

  • are diseases that are far more prevalent here

    這些疾病在這個國家裡 are diseases that are far more prevalent here

  • than anywhere in the rest of the world.

    比其他國家來得普遍 than anywhere in the rest of the world.

  • And that's the direct result of eating a Western diet.

    這就是西方飲食方式所導致的直接結果 And that's the direct result of eating a Western diet.

  • Our demand for meat, dairy and refined carbohydrates --

    我們對肉類、奶類產品、和精煉碳水化合物的需求 - Our demand for meat, dairy and refined carbohydrates --

  • the world consumes one billion cans or bottles of Coke a day --

    全球每一天消耗十萬罐或十萬樽可樂 - the world consumes one billion cans or bottles of Coke a day --

  • our demand for these things, not our need, our want --

    我們對這些東西的需求不是我們所需要的,而是我們的慾望 our demand for these things, not our need, our want --

  • drives us to consume way more calories than are good for us.

    驅使我們吃比我們最佳攝取量更多的卡路里 drives us to consume way more calories than are good for us.

  • And those calories are in foods that cause, not prevent, disease.

    而在食物中的卡路里導致了疾病的產生,而非防止 And those calories are in foods that cause, not prevent, disease.

  • Now global warming was unforeseen.

    現在全球氣候暖化是預料之外的 Now global warming was unforeseen.

  • We didn't know that pollution did more than cause bad visibility.

    以前我們不知道污染除了降低能見度外還有什麼其他影響 We didn't know that pollution did more than cause bad visibility.

  • Maybe a few lung diseases here and there,

    可能在這裡或那裡造成肺癌 Maybe a few lung diseases here and there,

  • but you know, that's not such a big deal.

    但你知道這些都沒大不了 but you know, that's not such a big deal.

  • The current health crisis, however,

    但是現在的健康危機 The current health crisis, however,

  • is a little more the work of the evil empire.

    比一個邪惡帝國的危害還要嚴重 is a little more the work of the evil empire.

  • We were told, we were assured,

    我們被告知並確信 We were told, we were assured,

  • that the more meat and dairy and poultry we ate,

    越是多吃肉類、奶類、或家禽 that the more meat and dairy and poultry we ate,

  • the healthier we'd be.

    我們就越健康 the healthier we'd be.

  • No. Overconsumption of animals, and of course, junk food,

    不是。過度進食動物,當然也包括垃圾食物, No. Overconsumption of animals, and of course, junk food,

  • is the problem, along with our paltry consumption of plants.

    是一個問題,還有對植物攝取不足。 is the problem, along with our paltry consumption of plants.

  • Now, there's no time to get into the benefits of eating plants here,

    我們現在這裡沒有時間說明進食蔬菜的好處 Now, there's no time to get into the benefits of eating plants here,

  • but the evidence is that plants -- and I want to make this clear --

    但有證據證明植物 -- 我重申 -- but the evidence is that plants -- and I want to make this clear --

  • it's not the ingredients in plants, it's the plants.

    不是植物的組成部分,而是植物本身 it's not the ingredients in plants, it's the plants.

  • It's not the beta-carotene, it's the carrot.

    不是胡蘿蔔素,而是胡蘿蔔本身 It's not the beta-carotene, it's the carrot.

  • The evidence is very clear that plants promote health.

    證據清楚顯示植物有助健康 The evidence is very clear that plants promote health.

  • This evidence is overwhelming at this point.

    這證據在這點上更加充分 This evidence is overwhelming at this point.

  • You eat more plants, you eat less other stuff, you live longer.

    我們多吃蔬菜,我們少吃其他物質,我們會更長壽 You eat more plants, you eat less other stuff, you live longer.

  • Not bad.

    不錯吧 Not bad.

  • But back to animals and junk food.

    讓我們回去動物和垃圾食物這個問題上 But back to animals and junk food.

  • What do they have in common?

    兩者有什麼共通點呢? What do they have in common?

  • One: we don't need either of them for health.

    一:我們不需要它們任何一個來維持健康 One: we don't need either of them for health.

  • We don't need animal products,

    我們不需要動物產品 We don't need animal products,

  • and we certainly don't need white bread or Coke.

    我們當然更加不需要白麵包或可樂 and we certainly don't need white bread or Coke.

  • Two: both have been marketed heavily,

    二:它們兩者都過份廣泛推銷 Two: both have been marketed heavily,

  • creating unnatural demand.

    這形成不自然的需求 creating unnatural demand.

  • We're not born craving Whoppers or Skittles.

    我們不是天生渴望得到 Whoppes 或 Skittles 彩虹糖 We're not born craving Whoppers or Skittles.

  • Three: their production has been supported by government agencies

    三:它們的生產是由政府機構所支持 Three: their production has been supported by government agencies

  • at the expense of a more health and earth-friendly diet.

    犧牲了食用更健康和更天然食物的選擇 at the expense of a more health and earth-friendly diet.

  • Now let's imagine a parallel.

    讓我們想像一個平行面 Now let's imagine a parallel.

  • Let's pretend that our government supported an oil-based economy

    我們假設政府支持以石油主導的經濟 Let's pretend that our government supported an oil-based economy

  • while discouraging more sustainable forms of energy,

    同時亦阻止更加可持續發展的能源 while discouraging more sustainable forms of energy,

  • knowing all the while that the result would be

    亦知道這些都只會帶來 knowing all the while that the result would be

  • pollution, war and rising costs.

    污染、戰爭和更高的成本 pollution, war and rising costs.

  • Incredible, isn't it?

    不可思議吧! Incredible, isn't it?

  • Yet they do that.

    但這就是他們的所為 Yet they do that.

  • And they do this here. It's the same deal.

    他們對食物也是如此。如出一轍。 And they do this here. It's the same deal.

  • The sad thing is, when it comes to diet,

    可悲的是,當飲食這個問題 The sad thing is, when it comes to diet,

  • is that even when well-intentioned Feds

    就算聯邦政府那麼用心地 is that even when well-intentioned Feds

  • try to do right by us, they fail.

    嘗試規範我們,他們亦失敗 try to do right by us, they fail.

  • Either they're outvoted by puppets of agribusiness,

    他們若不是被農產業的傀儡以票數擊敗 Either they're outvoted by puppets of agribusiness,

  • or they are puppets of agribusiness.

    或者他們本身就是農產業的傀儡 or they are puppets of agribusiness.

  • So when the USDA finally acknowledged

    所以,當美國食品安全管理局終於承認 So when the USDA finally acknowledged

  • that it was plants, rather than animals, that made people healthy,

    是植物而不是動物能令人類更健康 that it was plants, rather than animals, that made people healthy,

  • they encouraged us, via their overly-simplistic food pyramid,

    它們用過於簡化的食物金字塔來鼓勵我們 they encouraged us, via their overly-simplistic food pyramid,

  • to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables a day,

    每天吃5份水果蔬菜 to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables a day,

  • along with more carbs.

    以及大量的碳水化合物 along with more carbs.

  • What they didn't tell us is that some carbs are better than others,

    但他們沒有告訴我們某些碳水化合物比較好 What they didn't tell us is that some carbs are better than others,

  • and that plants and whole grains

    亦沒有告訴我們植物和全穀類食物 and that plants and whole grains

  • should be supplanting eating junk food.

    應取代垃圾食物 should be supplanting eating junk food.

  • But industry lobbyists would never let that happen.

    而業界的遊說者不容許這樣發生 But industry lobbyists would never let that happen.

  • And guess what?

    你知嗎? And guess what?

  • Half the people who developed the food pyramid

    發明食物金字塔的人 Half the people who developed the food pyramid

  • have ties to agribusiness.

    有一半與農產業有關聯 have ties to agribusiness.

  • So instead of substituting plants for animals,

    因此,與其以植物取代動物 So instead of substituting plants for animals,

  • our swollen appetites simply became larger,

    他們簡單地把人的食量變大 our swollen appetites simply became larger,

  • and the most dangerous aspects of them remained unchanged.

    而最危險的部份卻維持不變 and the most dangerous aspects of them remained unchanged.

  • So-called low-fat diets, so-called low-carb diets --

    所謂的低脂食物或低碳水化合物的食物 So-called low-fat diets, so-called low-carb diets --

  • these are not solutions.

    都不是解決的方法 these are not solutions.

  • But with lots of intelligent people

    但很多有知識的人士 But with lots of intelligent people

  • focusing on whether food is organic or local,

    只著眼於食物是否有機種植或是否出自原居地 focusing on whether food is organic or local,

  • or whether we're being nice to animals,

    或"是否善待動物" or whether we're being nice to animals,

  • the most important issues just aren't being addressed.

    最重要的一環卻沒有涉及 the most important issues just aren't being addressed.

  • Now, don't get me wrong.

    不要誤會我 Now, don't get me wrong.

  • I like animals,

    我很喜歡動物 I like animals,

  • and I don't think it's just fine to industrialize their production

    但我不認為應該把牠們工業化地生產 and I don't think it's just fine to industrialize their production

  • and to churn them out like they were wrenches.

    和大量生產牠們猶如牠們是機器一般 and to churn them out like they were wrenches.

  • But there's no way to treat animals well

    當你們每年殺死一百億的動物時 But there's no way to treat animals well

  • when you're killing 10 billion of them a year.

    無一種方法你可以說是友善的 when you're killing 10 billion of them a year.

  • That's our number. 10 billion.

    這是我們的數字,一百億 That's our number. 10 billion.

  • If you strung all of them --

    如果你把牠們綁在一起 -- If you strung all of them --

  • chickens, cows, pigs and lambs -- to the moon,

    雞、牛、豬、羊 -- chickens, cows, pigs and lambs -- to the moon,

  • they'd go there and back five times -- there and back.

    牠們可以來回地球和月球五次 -- 是來回 they'd go there and back five times -- there and back.

  • Now, my math's a little shaky, but this is pretty good,

    我的數學有灰色地帶,但也很不錯的 Now, my math's a little shaky, but this is pretty good,

  • and it depends whether a pig is four feet long or five feet long,

    當然你要視乎那頭豬是四呎長還是五呎長 and it depends whether a pig is four feet long or five feet long,

  • but you get the idea.

    但你應該可以得到一些概念 but you get the idea.

  • That's just the United States.

    這只是在美國 That's just the United States.

  • And with our hyper-consumption of those animals

    我們過度食用動物 And with our hyper-consumption of those animals

  • producing greenhouse gases and heart disease,

    產生溫室氣體、引致心臟病 producing greenhouse gases and heart disease,

  • kindness might just be a bit of a red herring.

    善待動物只是為了轉移視線罷了 kindness might just be a bit of a red herring.

  • Let's get the numbers of the animals we're killing for eating down,

    只有減少那些因我們食用而被殺害的動物 Let's get the numbers of the animals we're killing for eating down,

  • and then we'll worry about being nice to the ones that are left.

    我們才能想如何善待那些剩下來的 and then we'll worry about being nice to the ones that are left.

  • Another red herring might be exemplified by the word "locavore,"

    另一個轉移焦點的典型代表是"土食主義" (locavore) Another red herring might be exemplified by the word "locavore,"

  • which was just named Word of the Year by the New Oxford American Dictionary.

    這個字剛被新牛津美國詞典列為年度單詞 which was just named Word of the Year by the New Oxford American Dictionary.

  • Seriously.

    很嚴肅的 Seriously.

  • And locavore, for those of you who don't know,

    而"土食主義", 若你們不知, And locavore, for those of you who don't know,

  • is someone who eats only locally-grown food.

    是指那些只吃本地種植食物的人 is someone who eats only locally-grown food.

  • Which is fine if you live in California,

    如你住在美國加州當然不成問題 Which is fine if you live in California,

  • but for the rest of us it's a bit of a sad joke.

    但對於其他人,這只是一個可悲的笑話 but for the rest of us it's a bit of a sad joke.

  • Between the official story -- the food pyramid --

    在官方的故事 -- 食物金字塔 -- Between the official story -- the food pyramid --

  • and the hip locavore vision,

    和時興的土食主義的觀念中 and the hip locavore vision,

  • you have two versions of how to improve our eating.

    你有兩個改善飲食的方式 you have two versions of how to improve our eating.

  • (Laughter).

    (笑) (Laughter).

  • They both get it wrong, though.

    但兩個方式都是錯誤的 They both get it wrong, though.

  • The first, at least is populist, and the second is elitist.

    第一個方式至少是大眾化,而第二個方式就只是精英論調 The first, at least is populist, and the second is elitist.

  • How we got to this place is the history of food in the United States.

    我們如何弄到如斯田地正是美國飲食文化的發展史 How we got to this place is the history of food in the United States.

  • And I'm going to go through that,

    我很快地為大家講解 And I'm going to go through that,

  • at least the last hundred years or so, very quickly right now.

    距今大約至少一百年的演變 at least the last hundred years or so, very quickly right now.

  • A hundred years ago, guess what?

    你知在一百年前是怎樣的? A hundred years ago, guess what?

  • Everyone was a locavore, even New York had pig farms nearby

    所有人都奉行土食主義。連紐約也有畜豬場在附近 Everyone was a locavore, even New York had pig farms nearby

  • and shipping food all over the place was a ridiculous notion.

    把食物運到全世界各地是天方夜譚的事情 and shipping food all over the place was a ridiculous notion.

  • Every family had a cook, usually a mom.

    每個家庭都有一位廚師,通常都是媽媽 Every family had a cook, usually a mom.

  • And those moms bought and prepared food.

    而那些媽媽會買和準備食物 And those moms bought and prepared food.

  • It was like your romantic vision of Europe.

    這好像歐洲浪漫的景象 It was like your romantic vision of Europe.

  • Margarine didn't exist.

    麥淇淋(人造奶油)並不存在 Margarine didn't exist.

  • In fact, when margarine was invented,

    而實情是當麥淇淋發明時 In fact, when margarine was invented,

  • several states passed laws declaring that it had to be dyed pink

    有數個州通過法律要求麥淇淋必須染成粉紅色 several states passed laws declaring that it had to be dyed pink

  • so we'd all know that it was a fake.

    使我們知道它是人造的 so we'd all know that it was a fake.

  • There was no snack food, and until the '20s,

    那時沒有零食小吃。直至二十年代 There was no snack food, and until the '20s,

  • until Clarence Birdseye came along, there was no frozen food.

    伯宰(Birdseye)的出現才有冷凍食物 until Clarence Birdseye came along, there was no frozen food.

  • There were no restaurant chains.

    那時沒有餐廳連鎖店 There were no restaurant chains.

  • There were neighborhood restaurants run by local people,

    只有由本地人經營的鄰居小店 There were neighborhood restaurants run by local people,

  • but none of them would think to open another one.

    沒有人會想開分店 but none of them would think to open another one.

  • Eating ethnic was unheard of unless you were ethnic.

    民族食品是聞所未聞,除非你是其他種族的人 Eating ethnic was unheard of unless you were ethnic.

  • And fancy food was entirely French.

    特級的食物全是法國菜 And fancy food was entirely French.

  • As an aside, those of you who remember

    順便一提,如果你們記得 As an aside, those of you who remember

  • Dan Aykroyd in the 1970s doing Julia Child imitations

    丹‧艾克洛德 (Dan Aykroyd) 在 20 世紀 70年代模仿朱麗亞 (Julia Child) Dan Aykroyd in the 1970s doing Julia Child imitations

  • can see where he got the idea of stabbing himself from this fabulous slide.

    可以看到他用難以置信的滑行刺傷自己的想法 can see where he got the idea of stabbing himself from this fabulous slide.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑) (Laughter)

  • Back in those days, before even Julia,

    那時,比朱麗亞更早的時代 Back in those days, before even Julia,

  • back in those days there was no philosophy of food.

    是沒有食物理論 back in those days there was no philosophy of food.

  • You just ate.

    只有食 You just ate.

  • You didn't claim to be anything.

    你不會要求什麼 You didn't claim to be anything.

  • There was no marketing. There were no national brands.

    那時沒有市場行銷,亦沒有全國品牌 There was no marketing. There were no national brands.

  • Vitamins had not been invented.

    維他命還沒發明 Vitamins had not been invented.

  • There were no health claims, at least not federally sanctioned ones.

    那時沒有醫療索賠,至少沒有聯邦政府認可那種 There were no health claims, at least not federally sanctioned ones.

  • Fats, carbs, proteins -- they weren't bad or good, they were food.

    脂肪、碳水化合物、蛋白質 -- 沒有好壞之分,它們只是食物 Fats, carbs, proteins -- they weren't bad or good, they were food.

  • You ate food.

    你們吃食物 You ate food.

  • Hardly anything contained more than one ingredient,

    幾乎所有東西不會含多過一種的原料 Hardly anything contained more than one ingredient,

  • because it was an ingredient.

    因為它們本身即為一種原料 because it was an ingredient.

  • The cornflake hadn't been invented.

    玉米片還沒發明 The cornflake hadn't been invented.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑) (Laughter)

  • The Pop-Tart, the Pringle, Cheez Whiz, none of that stuff.

    Pop-Tart 、Pringle 薯片、Cheez Whiz,這些都沒有 The Pop-Tart, the Pringle, Cheez Whiz, none of that stuff.

  • Goldfish swam.

    金魚是在游泳(沒有金魚餅乾) Goldfish swam.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑) (Laughter)

  • It's hard to imagine. People grew food, and they ate food.

    很難相信吧。所有人在種他們的食物,食他們的食物 It's hard to imagine. People grew food, and they ate food.

  • And again, everyone ate local.

    再次,每一個人都食本地食物 And again, everyone ate local.

  • In New York, an orange was a common Christmas present,

    在紐約,橘子是一個常見的聖誕禮物 In New York, an orange was a common Christmas present,

  • because it came all the way from Florida.

    因為它們從佛羅里達州遠道而來 because it came all the way from Florida.

  • From the '30s on, road systems expanded,

    自從三十年代,道路系統不斷擴展 From the '30s on, road systems expanded,

  • trucks took the place of railroads,

    貨車取代鐵路 trucks took the place of railroads,

  • fresh food began to travel more.

    新鮮的食物開始往來頻繁 fresh food began to travel more.

  • Oranges became common in New York.

    橘子在紐約變得更加普遍 Oranges became common in New York.

  • The South and West became agricultural hubs,

    南部和西部地區變成農業中心 The South and West became agricultural hubs,

  • and in other parts of the country suburbs took over farmland.

    在其他地方,村鎮取代了農田 and in other parts of the country suburbs took over farmland.

  • The effects of this are well known, they are everywhere.

    它的影響很深遠,而且隨處可見 The effects of this are well known, they are everywhere.

  • And the death of family farms is part of this puzzle,

    而家庭式農場的末落只是其中的一部分 And the death of family farms is part of this puzzle,

  • as is almost everything

    因為幾乎所有 as is almost everything

  • from the demise of the real community

    從實際消亡的社區 from the demise of the real community

  • to the challenge of finding a good tomato, even in summer.

    到夏天為找尋美好的番茄而遇到的困難 to the challenge of finding a good tomato, even in summer.

  • Eventually California produced too much food to ship fresh,

    到最後,加州生產的食物過剩 Eventually California produced too much food to ship fresh,

  • so it became critical to market canned and frozen foods.

    於是市場必須把食物裝成罐頭和冷藏 so it became critical to market canned and frozen foods.

  • Thus arrived convenience.

    從而更加方便運輸 Thus arrived convenience.

  • It was sold to protofeminist housewives

    它們如售賣給支持女權主義的家庭主婦 It was sold to protofeminist housewives

  • as a way to cut down on housework.

    來減少家務 as a way to cut down on housework.

  • Now, I know everybody over the age of, like 45 --

    我知道現在若然你們的年齡超過45歲 Now, I know everybody over the age of, like 45 --

  • their mouths are watering at this point.

    你們在此刻應該垂涎三尺 their mouths are watering at this point.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑) (Laughter)

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌) (Applause)

  • If we had a slide of Salisbury steak, even more so, right?

    倘若我們有一張Salisbury牛排的幻燈片,你們應該更甚,對嗎? If we had a slide of Salisbury steak, even more so, right?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑) (Laughter)

  • But this may have cut down on housework,

    雖然這可能減少了家務 But this may have cut down on housework,

  • but it cut down on the variety of food we ate as well.

    但同時亦減少我們吃食物的種類 but it cut down on the variety of food we ate as well.

  • Many of us grew up never eating a fresh vegetable

    很多人長大時從未吃過新鮮蔬菜 Many of us grew up never eating a fresh vegetable

  • except the occasional raw carrot or maybe an odd lettuce salad.

    除了偶然吃過生蘿蔔或古怪的椰菜沙拉 except the occasional raw carrot or maybe an odd lettuce salad.

  • I, for one -- and I'm not kidding --

    我就是其中一位 -- 我不是說笑 -- I, for one -- and I'm not kidding --

  • didn't eat real spinach or broccoli till I was 19.

    我未曾吃過一個真正的菠菜或西蘭花(花椰菜)直至我十九歲 didn't eat real spinach or broccoli till I was 19.

  • Who needed it though? Meat was everywhere.

    誰要這些呢?肉類到處都有 Who needed it though? Meat was everywhere.

  • What could be easier, more filling or healthier for your family

    有什麼東西比煎一塊牛排能供給你家人更加的 What could be easier, more filling or healthier for your family

  • than broiling a steak?

    簡單、飽足和健康呢? than broiling a steak?

  • But by then cattle were already raised unnaturally.

    但自此,牛隻就開始不自然地飼養 But by then cattle were already raised unnaturally.

  • Rather than spending their lives eating grass,

    牠們不再吃草 Rather than spending their lives eating grass,

  • for which their stomachs were designed,

    就好像牠們的胃所設計的那樣 for which their stomachs were designed,

  • they were forced to eat soy and corn.

    牠們被強迫吃著黃豆和玉米 they were forced to eat soy and corn.