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  • Two hundred years of modern science.

    現代科學兩百年。

  • We have to admit

    我們不得不承認

  • that our performance is not great.

    我們的表現不怎麼好。

  • The machines we build continue to suffer from mechanical failures.

    我們建造的機器老是故障。

  • The houses we build do not survive severe earthquakes.

    我們蓋的房子無法承受強烈地震。

  • But we shouldn't be so critical of our scientists for a simple reason:

    但我們不應苛責科學家,原因很簡單:

  • they didn't have much time.

    他們的時間有限。

  • Two hundred years is not a lot of time,

    兩百年並不長;

  • while nature had three billion years

    大自然花了三十多億年

  • to perfect some of the most amazing materials,

    使若干材料臻於完美,

  • that we wish we had in our possession.

    完美到我們希望擁有。

  • Remember, these materials carry a quality assurance

    切記,

  • of three billion years.

    這些材料有著三十億年的品質保證。

  • Take, for example, sequoia trees.

    以紅杉為例:

  • They carry hundreds of tons for hundreds of years

    它們幾百年來載重數百噸,

  • in cold weather, in warm climates,

    不論是天冷、天暖,

  • UV light.

    或被紫外線照射。

  • Yet, if you look at the structure by high-resolution electron microscopy,

    若你用高倍率電子顯微鏡 觀察它的結構,

  • and you ask yourself, what is it made of,

    納悶它是什麼東西做成的?

  • surprisingly, it's made of sugar.

    結果出人意表,它的成分是糖。

  • Well, not exactly as we drink in our tea.

    但不完全等同我們飲料裡的糖。

  • It's actually a nanofiber called nanocrystalline cellulose.

    而實際上是一種被稱為 「奈米纖維素」的奈米纖維。

  • And this nanocrystalline cellulose is so strong, on a weight basis,

    這種奈米纖維素的不凡強度,

  • it's about 10 times stronger than steel.

    是同等重量鋼材強度的十倍。

  • Yet it's made of sugar.

    然而,它的組成是糖。

  • So scientists all over the world believe that nanocellulose

    因此,全世界的科學家咸信

  • is going to be one of the most important materials for the entire industry.

    奈米纖維素將會成為 整個工業最重要的材料之一。

  • But here's the problem:

    但有個問題:

  • say you want to buy a half a ton of nanocellulose

    假設你要買半噸的奈米纖維素,

  • to build a boat or an airplane.

    用來造船或飛機。

  • Well, you can Google, you can eBay, you can even Alibaba.

    你可以上Google、eBay, 甚至阿里巴巴的網站搜尋。

  • You won't find it.

    (笑聲)

  • Of course, you're going to find thousands of scientific papers --

    你找不到的。

  • great papers, where scientists are going to say this is a great material,

    當然你會找到數以千計的科學論文,

  • there are lots of things we can do with it.

    很棒的論文,

  • But no commercial source.

    科學家在文中描述這種美好的物質,

  • So we at the Hebrew University, together with our partners in Sweden,

    以及它們的眾多用途。

  • decided to focus on the development of an industrial-scale process

    但是,沒有用於商業的材料來源。

  • to produce this nanocellulose.

    因此,我們希伯來大學 與瑞典的夥伴合作,

  • And, of course, we didn't want to cut trees.

    決定專注於開發能以工業規模

  • So we were looking for another source

    大量生產這種奈米纖維素的製程。

  • of raw material,

    而且當然不要砍伐樹木,

  • and we found one -- in fact, the sludge of the paper industry.

    而是從其他源頭尋找原料。

  • The reason: there is a lot of it.

    我們找到了,

  • Europe alone produces 11 million tons

    找到的是造紙業的廢渣。

  • of that material annually.

    原因是:它的量很充足。

  • It's the equivalent of a mountain three kilometers high,

    僅歐洲一地,每年就產生 一千一百噸的廢渣。

  • sitting on a soccer field.

    相當於聳立在足球場中高三公里的山。

  • And we produce this mountain every year.

    並且每年產出一座高山。

  • So for everybody, it's an environmental problem,

    對每個人而言,它是個環境問題;

  • and for us, it's a gold mine.

    對我們而言,卻是個金礦。

  • So now, we are actually producing, on an industrial scale in Israel,

    現在,我們已在以色列 以工業的規模生產奈米纖維素,

  • nanocellulose, and very soon, in Sweden.

    也即將在瑞典大量生產。

  • We can do a lot of things with the material.

    這材料有許多用途。

  • For example,

    例如,

  • we have shown that by adding only a small percent of nanocellulose

    我們已展示過,

  • into cotton fibers, the same as my shirt is made of,

    在我們穿的襯衫棉纖維裡, 添加少許奈米纖維素,

  • it increases its strength dramatically.

    它的強度就會大大地增加。

  • So this can be used for making amazing things,

    因此,它可被很奇妙地應用在

  • like super-fabrics for industrial and medical applications.

    像工業或醫療之類的超級纖維。

  • But this is not the only thing.

    不僅這樣,

  • For example, self-standing, self-supporting structures,

    例如,能支撐自己、靠自身挺立的結構,

  • like the shelters that you can see now,

    如同你現在看到的避難所,

  • actually are now showcasing in the Venice Biennale for Architecture.

    正在威尼斯建築雙年展中展示。

  • Nature actually didn't stop its wonders

    大自然的奇蹟不僅止在植物王國,

  • in the plant kingdom.

    舉個昆蟲的例子:

  • Think about insects.

    貓蚤

  • Cat fleas, for example,

    能夠跳至數百倍於它身長的高度。

  • have the ability to jump about a hundred times their height.

    太棒了。

  • That's amazing.

    等同於一個人

  • It's the equivalent of a person

    站在紐約的自由島中間,

  • standing in the middle of Liberty Island in New York,

    一跳就跳至自由女神像的最高點。

  • and in a single jump,

    相信每個人都願擁有這能力。

  • going to the top of the Statue of Liberty.

    所以,問題是:

  • I'm sure everybody would like to do that.

    貓蚤是如何辦到的呢?

  • So the question is:

    原來它自身產出這種奇妙的材料,

  • How do cat fleas do it?

    名為「節肢彈性蛋白」。

  • It turns out, they make this wonderful material,

    簡單地說,節肢彈性蛋白 是一種蛋白質,

  • which is called resilin.

    是地球上最有彈性的橡膠。

  • In simple words, resilin, which is a protein,

    你可以伸展它,

  • is the most elastic rubber on Earth.

    可以壓擠它,

  • You can stretch it,

    而它幾乎不會流失任何的能量。

  • you can squish it,

    一旦你放手,驟然間,

  • and it doesn't lose almost any energy to the environment.

    它所有的能量全回來了。

  • When you release it -- snap!

    相信每個人都希望擁有它。

  • It brings back all the energy.

    但有個問題:

  • So I'm sure everybody would like to have that material.

    很難捉得到貓蚤。

  • But here's the problem:

    (笑聲)

  • to catch cat fleas is difficult.

    為何呢?

  • (Laughter)

    因為它們很會跳、神經過敏。

  • Why? Because they are jumpy.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    實際上,抓住一隻就夠了。

  • But now, it's actually enough to catch one.

    今日我們已可提取它的DNA,

  • Now we can extract its DNA

    解讀出貓蚤如何產生節肢彈性蛋白,

  • and read how cat fleas make the resilin,

    然後複製於不怎麼會跳的生物體,

  • and clone it into a less-jumpy organism like a plant.

    例如植物。

  • So that's exactly what we did.

    這正是我們的做法。

  • Now we have the ability to produce lots of resilin.

    我們現有能力製造出 大量的節肢彈性蛋白。

  • Well, my team decided to do something really cool at the university.

    我的大學團隊決定做更酷的事。

  • They decided to combine

    他們決定合併

  • the strongest material produced by the plant kingdom

    植物王國中最強韌的物質

  • with the most elastic material produced by the insect kingdom --

    與昆蟲王國中最具彈性的材料,

  • nanocellulose with resilin.

    也就是合併奈米纖維素與節肢彈性蛋白。

  • And the result is amazing.

    結果非常驚人。

  • This material, in fact, is tough, elastic and transparent.

    製成的材料堅韌、具彈性且透明。

  • So there are lots of things that can be done with this material.

    因此,這種材料的用途極廣。

  • For example, next-generation sport shoes,

    例如,下一代的運動鞋

  • so we can jump higher, run faster.

    可以跳得更高、跑得更快。

  • And even touch screens for computers and smartphones,

    或者用於電腦和 智慧型手機的觸控螢幕,

  • that won't break.

    摔不破。

  • Well, the problem is, we continue to implant

    有個醫療的問題,

  • synthetic implants in our body,

    是我們一向把合成物植入身體裡面,

  • which we glue and screw into our body.

    用膠水黏,或用螺絲鎖住。

  • And I'm going to say that this is not a good idea.

    我認為這不是好主意。

  • Why? Because they fail.

    為什麼?因為這樣做不成功。

  • This synthetic material fails,

    有的合成材料失敗,

  • just like this plastic fork,

    就像這只塑料叉子,

  • that is not strong enough for its performance.

    性能不夠強。

  • But sometimes they are too strong,

    但有的合成材料力道太強,

  • and therefore their mechanical properties do not really fit

    它們的機械性能和周圍組織不相配。

  • their surrounding tissues.

    但事實上有更根本的原因。

  • But in fact, the reason is much more fundamental.

    原因是,在本質上,

  • The reason is that in nature,

    沒有人的頭

  • there is no one there

    是用螺絲釘鎖在脖子上,

  • that actually takes my head and screws it onto my neck,

    或者皮膚是以膠水黏著於身體。

  • or takes my skin and glues it onto my body.

    自然界中,一切自組、渾然天成。

  • In nature, everything is self-assembled.

    每一個活細胞,

  • So every living cell,

    無論是植物、昆蟲或人類的,

  • whether coming from a plant, insect or human being,

    其 DNA 具有奈米級的 微小生物基礎架構。

  • has a DNA that encodes for nanobio building blocks.

    基礎架構通常是蛋白質,

  • Many times they are proteins.

    其他時候則是酶,

  • Other times, they are enzymes that make other materials,

    組成像多醣、脂肪酸等其他材料。

  • like polysaccharides, fatty acids.

    這些材料的和共同特性是:

  • And the common feature about all these materials

    它們無需其他材料或助力。

  • is that they need no one.

    它們彼此認識,

  • They recognize each other and self-assemble

    能自行組裝、疊架、增生擴散

  • into structures -- scaffolds on which cells are proliferating

    成為細胞組織。

  • to give tissues.

    它們發育成器官,共同帶來生命。

  • They develop into organs, and together bring life.

    因此大約十年前,我們希伯來大學

  • So we at the Hebrew University, about 10 years ago, decided to focus

    決定重點開發「膠原蛋白」

  • on probably the most important biomaterial for humans,

    這種可能是人類最重要的生物材料。

  • which is collagen.

    為什麼開發膠原蛋白?

  • Why collagen?

    因為人體去掉水分之外的體重, 膠原蛋白約佔25%。

  • Because collagen accounts for about 25 percent of our dry weight.

    在我們的身體裡, 只有水的重量超過膠原蛋白。

  • We have nothing more than collagen, other than water, in our body.

    所以我常說,

  • So I always like to say,

    任何更換的人體部位

  • anyone who is in the replacement parts of human beings

    都要用到膠原蛋白。

  • would like to have collagen.

    誠然,在開始我們的計劃之前,

  • Admittedly, before we started our project,

    已有超過一千種醫用植入物

  • there were already more than 1,000 medical implants

    是由膠原做成的。

  • made of collagen.

    簡單的像是減少皺紋的皮膚填充物、

  • You know, simple things like dermal fillers to reduce wrinkles,

    厚唇填充物等等;

  • augment lips,

    複雜的像是心臟瓣膜 之類的醫療植入物。

  • and other, more sophisticated medical implants, like heart valves.

    那麼問題出在哪兒呢?

  • So where is the problem?

    問題是來源。

  • Well, the problem is the source.

    目前所有的膠原蛋白來源

  • The source of all that collagen

    實際上取自屍體,例如:

  • is actually coming from dead bodies:

    死豬、死牛,

  • dead pigs, dead cows

    甚至人類的大體。

  • and even human cadavers.

    因此,安全是個大問題,

  • So safety is a big issue.

    但不是唯一的問題,

  • But it's not the only one.

    質量也是問題。

  • Also, the quality.

    我有切身的興趣和需求。

  • Now here, I have a personal interest.

    這是家父茲維,背景是 我們在以色列的釀酒廠。

  • This is my father, Zvi, in our winery in Israel.

    一片像我稍早展示的心臟瓣膜,

  • A heart valve, very similar to the one that I showed you before,

    在七年前植入他的身體。

  • seven years ago, was implanted in his body.

    科學文獻載明:

  • Now, the scientific literature says that these heart valves start to fail

    這些心臟瓣膜在手術後 十年就會漸漸損壞。

  • 10 years after the operation.

    也難怪,

  • No wonder:

    它們是用老舊的組織製成的,

  • they are made from old, used tissues,

    如同這片舊磚牆的磚塊分崩離析。

  • just like this wall made of bricks that is falling apart.

    雖然我能用這些磚塊重新砌牆,

  • Yeah, of course, I can take those bricks and build a new wall.

    但它無法復原成原狀。

  • But it's not going to be the same.

    所以美國食品和藥物管理局

  • So the US Food and Drug Administration

    已在2007年通知那些公司

  • made a notice already in 2007,

    務必開始尋找更好的替代品。

  • asking the companies to start to look for better alternatives.

    我們正是在尋找替代品。

  • So that's exactly what we did.

    我們複製了全部五種

  • We decided to clone all the five human genes responsible

    人體負責製造第一型膠原的基因,

  • for making type I collagen in humans

    將它們移植於煙草植栽中。

  • into a transgenic tobacco plant.

    如今這些植物

  • So now, the plant has the ability to make human collagen brand new,

    已能產生全新、 未被碰過的人體膠原蛋白。

  • untouched.

    這件了不起的事

  • This is amazing.

    正在實際發生中。

  • Actually, it's happening now.

    今天以色列全國

  • Today in Israel, we grow it in 25,000 square meters of greenhouses

    有二萬五千平方公尺的 溫室種植這種菸草。

  • all over the country.

    農民領取煙草幼苗,

  • The farmers receive small plantlets of tobacco.

    幼苗看起來與一般菸草無異,

  • It looks exactly like regular tobacco,

    所不同的只是 它們含有五種人類的基因,

  • except that they have five human genes.

    負責製作第一型膠原的基因。

  • They're responsible for making type I collagen.

    植株大約生長50至70天,

  • We grow them for about 50 to 70 days,

    然後我們採收葉子,

  • we harvest the leaves,

    將葉子用冷藏卡車運送至工廠,

  • and then the leaves are transported by cooling trucks to the factory.

    在那裡提取膠原蛋白。

  • There, the process of extracting the collagen starts.

    基本上與製作蘿勒青醬的過程相同。

  • Now, if you ever made a pesto -- essentially, the same thing.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    搗碎葉子,取得含膠原蛋白的汁液;

  • You crush the leaves, you get the juice that contains the collagen.

    濃縮其蛋白質;

  • We concentrate the protein,

    轉移到無塵室, 進行最終的純化步驟;

  • transfer the protein to clean rooms for the final purification,

    最後製成和我們體內 完全相同的膠原蛋白,

  • and the end result is a collagen identical to what we have in our body --

    全新未被碰過、用過的膠原蛋白

  • untouched, brand new

    被用來做成各式各樣的醫療植入物,

  • and from which we make different medical implants:

    例如:骨填充物,

  • bone void fillers, for example,

    用於治療嚴重骨折或脊椎融合手術。

  • for severe bone fractures, spinal fusion.

    最近,

  • And more recently, even,

    我們已在歐洲市場推出

  • we've been able to launch into the market here in Europe

    治療糖尿病足潰瘍的流動性凝膠

  • a flowable gel that is used for diabetic foot ulcers,

    已被批准臨床使用。

  • that is now approved for use in the clinic.

    這不是科幻故事,

  • This is not science fiction.

    而是現在的實況。

  • This is happening now.

    我們正利用植物來製造

  • We are using plants to make medical implants

    用於人體的醫療植入物及替代品。

  • for replacement parts for human beings.

    事實上,最近我們已能做出

  • In fact, more recently, we've been able to make collagen fibers

    強度是阿基里斯腱六倍的膠原纖維。

  • which are six times stronger than the Achilles tendon.

    太美妙了!

  • That's amazing.

    我們和愛爾蘭的合作夥伴

  • Together with our partners from Ireland,

    一起想出接下來要做的事:

  • we thought about the next thing:

    把節肢彈性蛋白加到那些纖維中。

  • adding resilin to those fibers.

    這樣做,

  • By doing that,

    我們能做超級纖維,

  • we've been able to make a superfiber

    增加三點八倍的韌性

  • which is about 380 percent tougher,

    和三倍的彈性。

  • and 300 percent more elastic.

    所以在未來會很不尋常,

  • So oddly enough, in the future,

    在患者移植了

  • when a patient is transplanted with artificial tendons or ligaments

    這些纖維製成的人工肌腱或韌帶後,

  • made from these fibers,

    手術後的表現會比受傷之前更好。

  • we'll have better performance after the surgery

    那麼,未來會怎樣?

  • than we had before the injury.

    我們相信在未來能夠

  • So what's for the future?

    做出許多大自然提供的 奈米級的生物結構:

  • In the future, we believe we'll be able to make

    膠原蛋白、奈米纖維素、 節肢彈性蛋白等等。

  • many nanobio building blocks that nature provided for us --

    將使我們能做出表現更好的機器,

  • collagen, nanocellulose, resilin and many more.

    甚至心臟。

  • And that will enable us to make better machines perform better,

    這樣的心臟與來自器捐者的不同,

  • even the heart.

    而是更好;

  • Now, this heart is not going to be the same

    會表現得更好,

  • as we can get from a donor.

    持續更久。

  • It will be better.

    我的朋友錫安·蘇里曼曾告訴我

  • It actually will perform better

    很聰明的一句話:

  • and will last longer.

    「如果你想有新的想法,

  • My friend Zion Suliman once told me

    就應該翻開一本舊書。」

  • a smart sentence.

    而我要說的是, 這本書早已被寫好,

  • He said, "If you want a new idea,

    是超過三十多億年的 進化所寫成的,

  • you should open an old book."

    內容是生命的 DNA 。

  • And I'm going to say that the book was written.

    我們只要讀這書,

  • It was written over three billion years

    擁抱大自然給我們的禮物,

  • of evolution.

    開始我們的進步里程。

  • And the text is the DNA of life.

    謝謝。

  • All we have to do

    (掌聲)

  • is read this text,

  • embrace nature's gift to us

  • and start our progress from here.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Two hundred years of modern science.

現代科學兩百年。