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  • As a lover of human anatomy,

    作為人體解剖學的愛好者,

  • I'm so excited that we're finally putting our bodies at the center of focus.

    我很高興我們終於把 自己的身體 作為關注重心。

  • Through practices such as preventive medicine,

    從實際行動, 比如預防藥物,

  • patient empowerment

    病人授權,

  • and self-monitoring --

    以及自我監控 -

  • down to now obsessing over every single step we take in a day.

    到現在擔心每天所做的任何事。

  • All of this works to promote

    所有的努力都是為了

  • a healthy connection between ourselves and our bodies.

    提高身體健康。

  • Despite all this focus on the healthy self,

    除了這些對於健康自身的關注,

  • general public knowledge of the anatomical self is lacking.

    普通大眾對解剖學缺少 對本身的認知。

  • Many people don't know the location of their vital organs,

    多數人不知道重要 人體器官的位置,

  • or even how they function.

    甚至不懂這些器官的功能。

  • And that's because human anatomy

    這是因為人體解剖學

  • is a difficult and time-intensive subject to learn.

    是很難且需要大量 時間投入的學科。

  • How many of you here made it through anatomy?

    在場各位,有多少人學過解剖學?

  • Wow, good --

    哇,不錯 -

  • most of you are in medicine.

    你們中的大多數是學醫的。

  • I, like you, spent countless hours memorizing hundreds of structures.

    我,和你們一樣,耗費了 大量的時間背誦上百個結構.

  • Something no student of anatomy could do without the help of visuals.

    學習解剖學的同學必須通過 視覺教具才能做到這件事。

  • Because at the end of the day,

    因為最終,

  • whether you remember every little structure or not,

    無論你是否記住 每一個細小的結構,

  • these medical illustrations are what makes studying anatomy so intriguing.

    是這些醫學插圖讓 學習解剖學變得有吸引力.

  • In looking at them,

    仔細看他們的時候,

  • we're actually viewing a manual of our very selves.

    我們事實上是在欣賞 自己的身體手冊。

  • But what happens when we're done studying?

    但是當我們完成學習後 會發生甚麼呢?

  • These beautiful illustrations are then shut back

    這些美麗的插圖

  • into the pages of a medical textbook,

    被收錄在醫學教科書裡,

  • or an app,

    或是應用程序裡,

  • referenced only when needed.

    只有需要的時候才會被查閱。

  • And for the public,

    而對於公眾,

  • medical illustrations may only be encountered passively

    醫學插圖可能僅會 被動地出現在

  • on the walls of a doctor's office.

    醫生辦公室的牆上.

  • From the beginnings of modern medicine,

    從現代醫學的開端,

  • medical illustration,

    醫學插圖,

  • and therefore anatomy,

    和伴隨而來的解剖學,

  • have existed primarily within the realm of medical education.

    它們主要存在於 醫學教育領域。

  • Yet there's something fascinating happening right now.

    然而現今,發生了一些 令人振奮的事情。

  • Artists are breaking anatomy out of the confines of the medical world

    藝術家讓解剖學走出了 醫學世界的界線,

  • and are thrusting it into the public space.

    然後把解剖學推向公眾世界。

  • For the past nine years, I have been cataloguing and sharing

    在過去的九年裡, 我一直在為公眾編錄、分享

  • this rise in anatomical art with the public --

    解剖學藝術的崛起

  • all from my perspective as a medical illustrator.

    從我醫學插圖師的角度。

  • But before I get into showing you how artists are reclaiming anatomy today,

    但是在我給各位展示現今 藝術家是如何重塑解剖學之前,

  • it's important to understand how art influenced anatomy in the past.

    我們需要了解藝術在過去 是如何影響解剖學的。

  • Now, anatomy is by its very nature a visual science,

    現在, 解剖學的本質 是視覺科學,

  • and the first anatomists to understand this lived during the Renaissance.

    而首批了解這個本質的 解剖學家出現在文藝復興時期。

  • They relied on artists

    他們通過藝術家的幫助

  • to help advertise their discoveries to their peers in the public.

    把他們的發現推廣給 社會上的同僚。

  • And this drive to not only teach but also to entertain

    這種不僅是為了教育, 還是為了娛樂的想法

  • resulted in some of the strangest anatomical illustrations.

    帶來了很多最奇妙的解剖插圖。

  • Anatomy was caught in a struggle between science, art and culture

    解剖學曾陷入一場 持續了五百多年的

  • that lasted for over 500 years.

    科學、藝術與文化的衝突中。

  • Artists rendered dissected cadavers as alive,

    藝術家把解剖後的屍體 描繪得栩栩如生,

  • posed in these humorous anatomical stripteases.

    把屍體擺放得好似 解剖過的脫衣舞者.

  • Imagine seeing that in your textbooks today.

    想像一下你現在在教科書中 看到這些圖片。

  • They also showed them as very much dead --

    藝術家也會把屍體 死亡的特徵展示出來 -

  • unwillingly stripped of their skin.

    不情願地被剝落皮膚。

  • Disembodied limbs were often posed in literal still lives.

    空洞僵硬的四肢通常 被擺成仍然活著的姿態。

  • And some illustrations even included pop culture references.

    有些插圖甚至引用流行文化。

  • This is Clara,

    這位是克萊拉,

  • a famous rhinoceros that was traveling Europe in the mid-1700s,

    一只有名的犀牛, 在18世紀中期遊遍歐洲,

  • at a time when seeing a rhino was an exciting rarity.

    在那時,看到犀牛是一件 激動人心的罕見事.

  • Including her in this illustration was akin to celebrity sponsorship today.

    把它加在這張插圖上好像 如今邀請名人贊助商一樣。

  • The introduction of color

    然後色彩的使用

  • then brought a whole new depth and clarity to anatomy

    讓解剖學的深度與 清晰度更上一層樓,

  • that made it stunning.

    讓人嘆為觀止。

  • By the early 20th century,

    直到20世紀早期,

  • the perfect balance of science and art had finally been struck

    伴隨著醫學插圖 畫家的出現,

  • with the emergence of medical illustrators.

    科學與藝術間的完美 平衡終於達成了。

  • They created a universal representation of anatomy --

    他們創造了通用的 解剖學定義 -

  • something that was neither alive nor dead,

    一種非生非死的事物,

  • that was free from those influences of artistic culture.

    完全脫離藝術文化. 的影響。

  • And this focus on no-frills accuracy

    著重強調毫無修飾的準確性

  • was precisely for the benefit of medical education.

    恰恰是完全服務於醫學教育。

  • And this is what we get to study from today.

    這正是我們現在要學的東西。

  • But why is it that medical illustration --

    但是為甚麼醫學插圖 -

  • both past and present --

    包括過去的與現在的 -

  • captures our imaginations?

    可以讓我們浮想聯翩呢?

  • Now, we are innately tuned into the beauty of the human body.

    現在,我們與生俱來地 被身體的魅力所吸引。

  • And medical illustration is still art.

    而醫學插圖仍然是藝術。

  • Nothing can elicit an emotional response --

    沒有甚麼能比人體

  • from joy to complete disgust --

    更能激發情感反應,

  • more than the human body.

    從喜悅到完全厭惡.

  • And today,

    如今,

  • artists armed with that emotion,

    藝術家用這種情感做武器,

  • are grasping anatomy from the medical world,

    把解剖學從醫學的世界裡剝離,

  • and are reinvigorating it through art in the most imaginative ways.

    然後通過藝術,用最有想像力的 方式重塑解剖學。

  • A perfect example of this is Spanish contemporary artist Fernando Vicente.

    一個最有代表性的例子是 西班牙現代藝術家費南多·維森特。

  • He takes 19th century anatomical illustrations of the male body

    他借助19世紀解剖 插畫中男性的身體,

  • and envelops them in a female sensuality.

    把它們應藏在女性的情慾中。

  • The women in his paintings taunt us to view beyond their surface anatomy,

    他畫作中的女性嘲諷我們去 關注她們身體表象以外的部分,

  • thereby introducing a strong femininity

    以此展示曾在解剖作品 歷史上一度被忽略的

  • that was previously lacking in the history of anatomical representation.

    強烈的女性氣質。

  • Artistry can also be seen in the repair and recovery of the human body.

    藝術才能在人體修補 和復原中同樣可見。

  • This is an X-ray of a woman who fractured and dislocated her ankle

    這個X光片展示了一位 在滑板事故中

  • in a roller-skating accident.

    腳踝斷裂脫臼的女性。

  • As a tribute to her trauma,

    作為對她痛苦的悼念,

  • she commissioned Montreal-based architect Federico Carbajal

    她委託來自蒙特利爾的 建築師費德裡科·卡瓦哈爾

  • to construct a wire sculpture of her damaged lower leg.

    為她受傷的小腿製作線雕。

  • Now, notice those bright red screws magnified in the sculpture.

    來看看這些安插在雕像中 明亮的紅色螺絲。

  • These are the actual surgical screws used in reconstructing her ankle.

    它們正是當時在她腳踝裡 用作復健的螺絲.

  • It's medical hardware that's been repurposed as art.

    這是被變換成藝術的 醫療工具。

  • People often ask me how I choose the art that I showcase online

    人們經常問我怎麼選出 在網路展示的藝術

  • or feature in gallery shows.

    或是畫廊展示的特寫。

  • And for me it's a balance between the technique

    於我來說, 這是一種界於技术

  • and a concept that pushes the boundaries of anatomy as a way to know thyself,

    與概念間的平衡, 用來打破解剖學 的界線, 以便更好的了解自身。

  • which is why the work of Michael Reedy struck me.

    這是麥可·里迪的作品 感染我的原因。

  • His serious figure drawings are often layered in elements of humor.

    他繪畫中嚴肅的線條經常 與幽默的元素相互穿插。

  • For instance, take a look at her face.

    比如說, 看看她的臉。

  • Notice those red marks.

    注意那些紅色的印記。

  • Michael manifests the consuming insecurity of a skin condition

    麥可用背景中這些瘋狂的、

  • as these maniacal cartoon monsters

    惱怒的、無法掌控的 卡通怪物

  • annoying and out of control in the background.

    描繪出皮膚強烈的不安全感。

  • On the mirrored figure,

    在鏡像的圖畫中,

  • he renders the full anatomy

    他完全用解剖學渲染,

  • and covers it in glitter,

    然後塗抹以閃耀的粉末,

  • making it look like candy.

    讓整體看起來像糖果。

  • By doing this,

    通過這種做法,

  • Michael downplays the common perception of anatomy

    麥可淡化了將解剖學與 疾病和死亡

  • so closely tied to just disease and death.

    緊密聯繫在一起的 傳統觀念。

  • Now, this next concept might not make much sense,

    下一個概念也許 有點說不通,

  • but human anatomy is no longer limited to humans.

    但是人類解剖學 不再侷限於人類。

  • When you were a child,

    當你還是孩童時,

  • did you ever wish that your toys could come to life?

    你是否希望你的玩具會有生命?

  • Well, Jason Freeny makes those dreams come true

    傑森·福瑞利用他魔幻的 玩具解剖研究

  • with his magical toy dissections.

    實現了這些夢想。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • One might think that this would bring a morbid edge

    有人認為這種行為 會給童年純真的卡通玩偶

  • to one's innocent childhood characters,

    帶來病態扭曲的一面,

  • but Jason says of his dissections,

    但是傑森談及他的 解剖研究時說道:

  • "One thing I've never seen in a child's reaction to my work is fear."

    "我從未看到任何一個孩子 對我的成果表現出恐懼。"

  • It's always wonder,

    反應通常是好奇,

  • amazement

    驚嘆

  • and wanting to explore.

    想要探索。

  • Fear of anatomy and guts is a learned reaction.

    對解剖學的恐懼與勇氣 是一種學來的反應。

  • This anatomization also extends to politically and socially charged objects.

    這種解剖學式的分析也會 擴展到政治和社會對象。

  • In Noah Scalin's "Anatomy of War,"

    在諾·斯凱林的"解剖戰爭"中,

  • we see a gun dissected to reveal human organs.

    我們看到一隻槍被分解 來展示人類的器官。

  • But if you look closely,

    但當你湊近來看,

  • you'll notice that it lacks a brain.

    你會發現槍沒有大腦。

  • And if you keep looking, you might also notice

    如果你繼續研究, 你可能也會發現

  • that Noah has so thoughtfully placed the rectum

    諾非常有想法的把直腸

  • at the business end of that gun barrel.

    設置在槍口。

  • Now, this next artist I've been following for many years,

    這是我多年關注的 另一位藝術家

  • watching him excite the public about anatomy.

    看看他是怎樣讓公眾 喜愛解剖學的。

  • Danny Quirk is a young artist

    丹尼·夸克是一位年輕的藝術家

  • who paints his subjects in the process of self-dissection.

    他以自我解剖為創作過程 勾畫他的主題。

  • He bends the rules of medical illustration

    他打破醫學插圖的條框法則,

  • by inserting a very dramatic light and shadow.

    通過加入非常戲劇化的 光線與陰影。

  • And this creates a 3-D illusion

    這種手法打造出3-D的效果

  • that lends itself very well to painting directly on the human skin.

    使得作品本身好比 直接在人體皮膚上作畫。

  • Danny makes it look as if a person's skin has actually been removed.

    丹尼使作品看起來好像 人的皮膚真的被撕開。

  • And this effect --

    這種效果 -

  • also cool and tattoo-like --

    很酷,像是紋身一樣 -

  • easily transitions into a medical illustration.

    很容易過渡到 醫學插圖中。

  • Now Danny is currently traveling the world,

    現在, 丹尼在周遊世界,

  • teaching anatomy to the public via his body paintings,

    用他的人體繪畫 為公眾講解解剖學,

  • which is why it was so shocking to find out

    所以當我們的得知 他被醫學插圖項目拒絕,

  • that he was rejected from medical illustration programs.

    我們都很震驚。

  • But he's doing just fine.

    不過他現在生活也不錯。

  • Then there are artists

    接下來,有一些藝術家

  • who are extracting anatomy from both the medical world and the art world

    把解剖學從醫學和 藝術的世界脫離,

  • and are placing it directly on the streets.

    然後直接把它在街頭 展示出來。

  • London-based SHOK-1 paints giant X-rays of pop culture icons.

    來自倫敦的SHOK-1繪畫出 流行文化標誌的大型X光.

  • His X-rays show how culture can come to have an anatomy of its own,

    他的X光表達了文化 本身可以如何被解剖,

  • and conversely how culture can become part of the anatomy of a person.

    而且相反地,文化如何可以 成為人體解剖的一部分。

  • You come to admire his work

    你一定會欣賞他的作品

  • because reproducing X-rays by hand, let alone with spray paint,

    因為手工重塑X光, 更不用說使用噴霧顏料,

  • is extremely difficult.

    是極其困難的。

  • But then again this is a street artist,

    同樣地,這也是一位 街頭藝術家,

  • who also happens to hold a degree in applied chemistry.

    但他同時擁有 應用化學的學歷。

  • Nychos, an Austrian street artist,

    耐可斯, 奧地利街頭藝術家,

  • takes the term "exploded view" to a whole new level,

    把"分解圖"的概念 帶入新的層面,

  • splattering human and animal dissections on walls all over the world.

    把人類與動物的解剖圖 揮灑在世界各地的牆壁上。

  • Influenced by comics and heavy metal,

    受動漫與重金屬音樂影響,

  • Nychos inserts a very youthful and enticing energy into anatomy

    耐可斯把非常青春迷人的 能量注入到解剖學中,

  • that I just love.

    這是我所愛的地方。

  • Street artists believe that art belongs to the public.

    街頭藝術家相信藝術 屬於大眾。

  • And this street anatomy is so captivating

    這種街頭解剖如此有魅力

  • because it is the furthest removed from the medical world.

    是因為它離醫學世界的 解剖學最遠。

  • It forces you to look at it,

    它迫使你注視它,

  • and confront your own perceptions about anatomy,

    挑戰你對解剖學的 個人觀點,

  • whether you find it beautiful,

    不論是你覺得 它是美麗的,

  • gross,

    難以接受的,

  • morbid

    病態的,

  • or awe-inspiring, like I do.

    或是,像我一樣,覺得嘆為觀止的。

  • That it elicits these responses at all

    它所引起的各種反應

  • is due to our intimate and often changing relationship with it.

    是因為我們和它之間 熟悉卻又偶爾變換的關係。

  • All of the artists that I showed you here today

    今天我展示給 你們的所有藝術家

  • referenced medical illustrations for their art.

    都應用醫學插圖創作藝術。

  • But for them,

    但是對於他們,

  • anatomy isn't just something to memorize,

    解剖學不是需要背誦的,

  • but a base from which to understand the human body on a meaningful level;

    而是在有意義層面 來理解人體的基礎;

  • to depict it in ways that we can relate,

    用與我們相關的 方式來描畫它,

  • whether it be through cartoons,

    無論是通過卡通,

  • body painting

    人體繪畫

  • or street art.

    或是街頭藝術。

  • Anatomical art has the power

    解剖藝術擁有

  • to reach far beyond the pages of a medical textbook,

    能超越醫學課本力量,

  • to ignite an excitement in the public,

    點燃公眾的熱情的力量,

  • and reinvigorate an enthusiasm in the medical world,

    振作醫學世界的 激情的力量,

  • ultimately connecting our innermost selves with our bodies through art.

    最終通過藝術,把我們最深層次 的自我與我們的身體相連。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

As a lover of human anatomy,

作為人體解剖學的愛好者,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 解剖學 醫學 藝術 藝術家 人體

TED】Vanessa Ruiz:迷人的人體解剖藝術 (The spellbinding art of human anatomy | Vanessa Ruiz) (【TED】Vanessa Ruiz: The spellbinding art of human anatomy (The spellbinding art of human anatomy | Vanessa Ruiz))

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    yucyan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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