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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    我是一位廚師,

  • I am a chef

    也是一位糧食政策制定者。

  • and a food policy guy,

    但是,我來自一個老師世家。

  • but I come from a whole family of teachers.

    我的姐妹在芝加哥擔任特教老師。

  • My sister is a special ed teacher in Chicago.

    我的父親剛從任教了25年的 小學退休。

  • My father just retired after 25 years teaching fifth grade.

    我的姑姑和叔叔都是教授。

  • My aunt and uncle were professors.

    我的堂(表)兄弟姊妹 也都從事教職。

  • My cousins all teach.

    基本上我的家族成員, 除了我以外,都從事教職。

  • Everybody in my family, basically, teaches except for me.

    他們教我, 想要獲得正解的方法只有一種,

  • They taught me that the only way to get the right answers

    那就是問對問題。

  • is to ask the right questions.

    那當談到改善孩童教育成果時,

  • So what are the right questions

    什麼才是對的問題呢?

  • when it comes to improving the educational outcomes for our children?

    顯然有很多舉足輕重的問題,

  • There's obviously many important questions,

    但我想以下面的提問 來切入主題:

  • but I think the following is a good place to start:

    我們認為孩童的身體成長

  • What do we think the connection is

    與心智成長

  • between a child's growing mind

    有何關連?

  • and their growing body?

    我們期望我們的孩童能學到些什麼,

  • What can we expect our kids to learn

    如果他們吃的盡是些 高糖、無營養的垃圾食物?

  • if their diets are full of sugar and empty of nutrients?

    假如他們身體因缺乏適當的營養 而處於飢餓狀態,

  • What can they possibly learn

    他們怎麼能夠專心學習呢?

  • if their bodies are literally going hungry?

    當我們傾注所有資源 到學校的同時,

  • And with all the resources that we are pouring into schools,

    我們應該停下腳步, 捫心自問:

  • we should stop and ask ourselves:

    我們這樣的做法, 真的能讓我們的孩子成功嗎?

  • Are we really setting our kids up for success?

    幾年前,

  • Now, a few years ago,

    我擔任電視節目 《廚藝大賽》的評審,

  • I was a judge on a cooking competition called "Chopped."

    4 位廚師使用神秘食材來比賽,

  • Four chefs compete with mystery ingredients

    看誰能烹煮出最棒的佳餚。

  • to see who can cook the best dishes.

    但是,這一集的節目不同── 它非常特別。

  • Except for this episode -- it was a very special one.

    有別於4位過度熱情、 想獲得大眾關注的廚師們──

  • Instead of four overzealous chefs trying to break into the limelight --

    這些是我不懂的東西──

  • something that I would know nothing about --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    他們是學校的廚師 ──

  • these chefs were school chefs;

    你知道的,就是你們說的 「營養午餐阿姨」;

  • you know, the women that you used to call "lunch ladies,"

    但我堅持要稱她們為 校廚。

  • but the ones I insist we call "school chefs."

    現在,這些女士們 ── 上帝保佑她們 ──

  • Now, these women -- God bless these women --

    為數千名的孩童

  • spend their day cooking for thousands of kids,

    做早餐與午餐, 每餐只有2.68塊美金的預算,

  • breakfast and lunch, with only $2.68 per lunch,

    而實際花在餐費的成本, 只有美金1元。

  • with only about a dollar of that actually going to the food.

    在這一集裡,

  • In this episode,

    主要的神秘食材 是藜麥。

  • the main-course mystery ingredient was quinoa.

    我知道,對在座大多數的人而言,

  • Now, I know it's been a long time

    學校的營養午餐 是很久遠以前的事了;

  • since most of you have had a school lunch,

    而我們在改善營養方面, 已有長足的進步。

  • and we've made a lot of progress on nutrition,

    但是,藜麥在多數學校的 自助餐廳裡,尚未成為主食。

  • but quinoa still is not a staple in most school cafeterias.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    所以,這是一項挑戰。

  • So this was a challenge.

    讓我難以忘懷的一道菜,

  • But the dish that I will never forget was cooked by a woman

    是由一位雪若‧芭芭拉 所烹煮的。

  • named Cheryl Barbara.

    雪若是一名任職於

  • Cheryl was the nutrition director

    康乃狄克州 社區中學的營養主管。

  • at High School in the Community in Connecticut.

    她煮的這道義大利麵非常好吃。

  • She cooked this delicious pasta.

    它好吃到爆。

  • It was amazing.

    它是義大利寬麵加上義大利香腸、

  • It was a pappardelle with Italian sausage,

    羽衣甘藍和帕瑪森起司。

  • kale, Parmesan cheese.

    它很美味, 具餐廳級的水準,除了 ──

  • It was delicious, like, restaurant-quality good, except --

    基本上她只是把藜麥, 幾乎是生的,

  • she basically just threw the quinoa, pretty much uncooked,

    灑在麵上。

  • into the dish.

    她選的食材很奇怪,

  • It was a strange choice,

    但是它吃起來超酥脆的。

  • and it was super crunchy.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    所以我做了身為電視節目 毒舌評審應該做的事,

  • So I took on the TV accusatory judge thing that you're supposed to do,

    我問她為什麼要灑這個上去。

  • and I asked her why she did that.

    雪若答說: 「嗯,首先, 我不知道藜麥是什麼。」

  • Cheryl responded, "Well, first, I don't know what quinoa is."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    「但是,我知道 每個禮拜一

  • "But I do know that it's a Monday,

    在我服務的社區中學,

  • and that in my school, at High School in the Community,

    我都會煮義大利麵。」

  • I always cook pasta."

    你們看,雪若說明了 大多數學童的狀況,

  • See, Cheryl explained that for many of her kids,

    周末沒有正餐吃。

  • there were no meals on the weekends.

    禮拜六沒有,

  • No meals on Saturday.

    禮拜天也沒有。

  • No meals on Sunday, either.

    雪若煮義大利麵, 因為她想要確保

  • So she cooked pasta because she wanted to make sure

    她煮的是孩童會想吃的一餐。

  • she cooked something she knew her children would eat.

    會讓他們茁壯、長肉的食物, 她說道。

  • Something that would stick to their ribs, she said.

    能夠餵飽他們的食物。

  • Something that would fill them up.

    雪若說禮拜一一到,

  • Cheryl talked about how, by the time Monday came,

    她的學童們早已飢腸轆轆,

  • her kids' hunger pangs were so intense

    餓到他們無法想到學習這件事。

  • that they couldn't even begin to think about learning.

    他們唯一惦記的就是食物。

  • Food was the only thing on their mind.

    吃飽這件事而已。

  • The only thing.

    遺憾的是,每一州 它們的情況都一樣。

  • And unfortunately, the stats -- they tell the same story.

    讓我們將孩童 套用在此情境中。

  • So, let's put this into the context of a child.

    我們將聚焦在

  • And we're going to focus on

    一天當中最重要的一餐, 早餐。

  • the most important meal of the day, breakfast.

    這位是愛莉森。

  • Meet Allison.

    今年12歲。

  • She's 12 years old,

    非常聰明靈巧。

  • she's smart as a whip

    長大後想成為物理學家。

  • and she wants to be a physicist when she grows up.

    假如愛莉森上的學校,

  • If Allison goes to a school that serves a nutritious breakfast

    提供學童們富含營養的早餐,

  • to all of their kids,

    我們可以預見接下來的事情。

  • here's what's going to follow.

    她獲得營養膳食的機會,

  • Her chances of getting a nutritious meal,

    指的是包含水果、 牛奶、低糖與低鹽的飲食,

  • one with fruit and milk, one lower in sugar and salt,

    大幅地增加了。

  • dramatically increase.

    比起一般學童來說, 愛莉森變肥胖的機率較低。

  • Allison will have a lower rate of obesity than the average kid.

    她看校護的次數也會減少。

  • She'll have to visit the nurse less.

    她的焦慮感、沮喪感會較低。

  • She'll have lower levels of anxiety and depression.

    她的行為表現較佳。

  • She'll have better behavior.

    她上課會有較佳的出席率 且更常準時上學。

  • She'll have better attendance, and she'll show up on time more often.

    為什麼?

  • Why?

    因為學校有好吃的餐點 在等著她。

  • Well, because there's a good meal waiting for her at school.

    總而言之, 比起其他的學童

  • Overall, Allison is in much better health

    愛莉森的健康狀況更好。

  • than the average school kid.

    那些沒有營養早餐

  • So what about that kid

    等著他們的學童呢?

  • who doesn't have a nutritious breakfast waiting for him?

    讓我來看看湯米。

  • Well, meet Tommy.

    他也是12歲,是個很棒的小孩。

  • He's also 12. He's a wonderful kid.

    長大後想成為一名醫生。

  • He wants to be a doctor.

    湯米上幼稚園時,

  • By the time Tommy is in kindergarten,

    他的數學已經趕不上 同年的小孩了。

  • he's already underperforming in math.

    到他三年級的時候,

  • By the time he's in third grade,

    他的數學與閱讀成績都不理想。

  • he's got lower math and reading scores.

    11歲時,

  • By the time he's 11,

    湯米很可能要留級重讀。

  • it's more likely that Tommy will have to have repeated a grade.

    研究顯示學童如果沒有持續地 攝取足夠的營養,

  • Research shows that kids who do not have consistent nourishment,

    尤其是早餐,

  • particularly at breakfast,

    總體的認知功能會較差。

  • have poor cognitive function overall.

    所以,這個問題 有多廣泛、多嚴重呢?

  • So how widespread is this problem?

    不幸的是, 全國都面臨著這個問題。

  • Well, unfortunately, it's pervasive.

    讓我給各位舉兩個例子,

  • Let me give you two stats

    他們看起來截然不同,

  • that seem like they're on opposite ends of the issue,

    但其實他們是一體的兩面。

  • but are actually two sides of the same coin.

    從一方面來看,

  • On the one hand,

    1/6 的美國人處在糧食危機中,

  • one in six Americans are food insecure,

    包含一千六百萬孩童 ── 將近20%的比例,

  • including 16 million children -- almost 20 percent --

    處於糧食危機中。

  • are food insecure.

    單就這個城市 紐約而言,

  • In this city alone, in New York City,

    474,000名18歲以下的孩童 每年都面臨飢餓的危機。

  • 474,000 kids under the age of 18 face hunger every year.

    這令人難以置信。

  • It's crazy.

    另一方面,

  • On the other hand,

    飲食和營養是目前 本國可預防死亡與疾病的

  • diet and nutrition is the number one cause of preventable death and disease

    首要因素。

  • in this country, by far.

    而我們今晚談論的孩童中,

  • And fully a third of the kids that we've been talking about tonight

    有1/3的人可能終其一生 都會受糖尿病之苦。

  • are on track to have diabetes in their lifetime.

    很難兜在一起,但卻是事實,

  • Now, what's hard to put together but is true

    遭受飢餓之苦與糖尿病之苦的小孩, 常是同一群小孩。

  • is that, many times, these are the same children.

    他們攝取生活中垂手可得、 家庭負擔得起的

  • So they fill up on the unhealthy and cheap calories

    不健康、廉價的卡路里食品。

  • that surround them in their communities and that their families can afford.

    到了月底時,

  • But then by the end of the month,

    當伙食費花完或 家長時薪工作的時數被刪減,

  • food stamps run out or hours get cut at work,

    他們就沒有足夠的錢來支付 基本的伙食所需。

  • and they don't have the money to cover the basic cost of food.

    但是,我們應該可以 解決這個問題,對吧?

  • But we should be able to solve this problem, right?

    我們知道問題的答案是什麼。

  • We know what the answers are.

    我在白宮的工作項目中, 有個我們針對

  • As part of my work at the White House, we instituted a program

    全校超過40%低收入家庭的 全美學校,所設立的一個計畫。

  • that for all schools that had 40 percent more low-income kids,

    我們提供免費的早餐和午餐

  • we could serve breakfast and lunch to every kid in that school.

    給全校的孩童。

  • For free.

    這個計畫獲得卓越的成效,

  • This program has been incredibly successful,

    因它幫助我們克服了 一個在提供營養早餐給孩童時,

  • because it helped us overcome a very difficult barrier

    極為棘手的障礙。

  • when it came to getting kids a nutritious breakfast.

    那個障礙就是污名。

  • And that was the barrier of stigma.

    學校在每天上課前提供早餐,

  • See, schools serve breakfast before school,

    而且只提供給貧窮的學童。

  • and it was only available for the poor kids.

    這時大家就都知道誰家很窮, 誰需要政府的補助了。

  • So everybody knew who was poor and who needed government help.

    現在,所有的孩童 不論貧富,

  • Now, all kids, no matter how much or how little their parents make,

    都能保有自尊。

  • have a lot of pride.

    結果如何呢?

  • So what happened?

    有執行這個計畫的學校,

  • Well, the schools that have implemented this program

    他們學生的數學與閱讀成績, 提升了17.5%。

  • saw an increase in math and reading scores by 17.5 percent.

    17.5%。

  • 17.5 percent.

    而研究顯示,當孩童持續地 攝取營養早餐,

  • And research shows that when kids have a consistent, nutritious breakfast,

    他們順利畢業的機率提高20%。

  • their chances of graduating increase by 20 percent.

    20%。

  • 20 percent.

    當我們提供孩童所需的營養,

  • When we give our kids the nourishment they need,

    我們就提供了他們茁壯成長的機會,

  • we give them the chance to thrive,

    不論在校內或校外。

  • both in the classroom and beyond.

    你們可以不買我的帳,

  • Now, you don't have to trust me on this,

    但是你們得和唐娜‧瑪汀談談。

  • but you should talk to Donna Martin.

    我愛唐娜‧瑪汀。

  • I love Donna Martin.

    唐娜‧瑪汀在喬治亞州

  • Donna Martin is the school nutrition director at Burke County

    韋恩斯伯勒的伯克郡 擔任學校的營養主管。

  • in Waynesboro, Georgia.

    伯克郡是全美赤貧區的

  • Burke County is one of the poorest districts

    前五名之一。

  • in the fifth-poorest state in the country,

    唐娜所有的學生都是 生活在貧窮指標以下。

  • and about 100 percent of Donna's students live at or below the poverty line.

    幾年前,

  • A few years ago,

    唐娜決定帶頭迎接新標準的來臨,

  • Donna decided to get out ahead of the new standards that were coming,

    重新仔細檢視它的營養標準。

  • and overhaul her nutrition standards.

    她增加了蔬菜、水果與全麥食品。

  • She improved and added fruit and vegetables and whole grains.

    她提供所有孩童營養早餐。

  • She served breakfast in the classroom to all of her kids.

    她也置入了晚餐計畫。

  • And she implemented a dinner program.

    為什麼?

  • Why?

    許多她的學生回家後, 沒有晚餐可吃。

  • Well, many of her kids didn't have dinner when they went home.

    這些孩童覺得如何呢?

  • So how did they respond?

    他們愛這些食物。

  • Well, the kids loved the food.

    他們喜愛較營養的餐點,

  • They loved the better nutrition,

    當然也欣喜不用再餓肚子了。

  • and they loved not being hungry.

    但是,唐娜的最大贊助者 來自一個出乎意料的人。

  • But Donna's biggest supporter came from an unexpected place.

    他的名字是艾力克‧帕爾克。

  • His name from Eric Parker,

    他是伯克郡熊隊的足球首席教練。

  • and he was the head football coach for the Burke County Bears.

    現在,帕爾克教練 在一般球隊任教多年。

  • Now, Coach Parker had coached mediocre teams for years.

    熊隊通常沒能晉級比賽 ──

  • The Bears often ended in the middle of the pack --

    以一個對足球充滿狂熱的州來說,

  • a big disappointment in one of the most passionate football states

    是一件憾事。

  • in the Union.

    但當唐娜改變菜單的那年,

  • But the year Donna changed the menus,

    熊隊不僅贏得了區賽,

  • the Bears not only won their division,

    更贏得了州際盃的冠軍賽,

  • they went on to win the state championship,

    以28比14大勝橘郡的

  • beating the Peach County Trojans

    特洛伊人隊。

  • 28-14.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    而帕爾克教練,

  • And Coach Parker,

    他把獲勝的功勞歸於唐娜‧瑪汀。

  • he credited that championship to Donna Martin.

    當我們供給孩子們 基本的營養所需,

  • When we give our kids the basic nourishment,

    他們就會茁壯與成長。

  • they're going to thrive.

    這並非只靠雪若‧芭芭拉

  • And it's not just up to the Cheryl Barbaras

    和唐娜‧瑪汀。

  • and the Donna Martins of the world.

    而是有賴大家一起來完成。

  • It's on all of us.

    讓我們的孩童攝取基本的營養品, 只是個開端。

  • And feeding our kids the basic nutrition is just the starting point.

    我所提出來的是一個

  • What I've laid out is really a model

    大家所面臨眾多急迫性 議題中的例子。

  • for so many of the most pressing issues that we face.

    假如我們能純粹聚焦在 適當地滋養我們自身,

  • If we focus on the simple goal of properly nourishing ourselves,

    我們就能看到一個更穩定與 更安全的世界;

  • we could see a world that is more stable and secure;

    我們能大幅地提升經濟生產力;

  • we could dramatically improve our economic productivity;

    我們能改善醫療保健,

  • we could transform our health care

    並確保地球能夠永續地供應

  • and we could go a long way

    我們世代子孫所需。

  • in ensuring that the Earth can provide for generations to come.

    食物就是我們集眾人之力,

  • Food is that place where our collective efforts

    就能產生巨大成效的項目 。

  • can have the greatest impact.

    所以,我們捫心自問: 什麼是對的問題?

  • So we have to ask ourselves: What is the right question?

    如果我們攝取更多的營養、 增加更多的永續綠色飲食,

  • What would happen

    會如何呢 ?

  • if we fed ourselves more nutritious, more sustainably grown food?

    會帶來什麼樣的影響呢 ?

  • What would be the impact?

    雪若‧芭芭拉、

  • Cheryl Barbara,

    唐娜‧瑪汀、

  • Donna Martin,

    帕爾克教練與伯克郡的熊隊 ──

  • Coach Parker and the Burke County Bears --

    我想他們知道答案。

  • I think they know the answer.

    非常謝謝大家。

  • Thank you guys so very much.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

我是一位廚師,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 營養 孩童 唐娜 早餐 學校

【TED】山姆-卡斯。想讓孩子們好好學習嗎?想讓孩子們學得好嗎? 喂他們好嗎? (【TED】Sam Kass: Want kids to learn well? Feed them well (Want kids to learn well? Feed them well | Sam Kass))

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    yucyan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字