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  • - Imagine being confined

    想像自己被關在一個 10x10 呎

  • to a 10-by-10-foot room in complete isolation.

    與世隔絕的小房間

  • No timekeeping devices, no phones, no books,

    沒有時鐘、手機或書籍

  • nothing to write on, no windows.

    沒有任何可以書寫的東西 也沒有窗戶

  • [dramatic music]

    心理學家指出

  • ♪ ♪

    在這樣的房間裡不到三天

  • Psychologists say that fewer than three days

    便足以令腦部損傷

  • in a room like this can lead to brain damage.

    我將待在這房間裡三天

  • I will be staying in this room

    顯然他已經瀕臨崩潰

  • for three days.

    即使在一個人滿為患的城市裡

  • ♪ ♪

    一個人仍有可能感到孤單

  • - Clearly, he is on the border of misery.

    或無聊

  • [electronic music]

    人腦就像個飢渴的海綿

  • ♪ ♪

    不斷地接收資訊

  • - Even in a city surrounded by people,

    並受外在刺激而興奮

  • it's possible to feel lonely

    透過由智慧手機、書籍

  • or bored.

    電影、朋友和家人

  • Your brain is like a hungry sponge.

    成千上萬的觀感刺激

  • It's constantly absorbing information.

    不斷進入我們腦中

  • It thrives when stimulated.

    但若將這些刺激全然斷絕會如何?

  • Between smartphones and books

    隔離

  • and movies and friends and family,

    無聊是什麼?

  • thousands of sensations

    普遍認為它是一種情緒

  • are constantly going into our heads.

    但不像厭惡那麼強烈

  • But what if it all got cut off?

    一張由羅伯特普鲁奇克發展的圖表

  • [dramatic music]

    將情緒呈現在一個輪盤上

  • ♪ ♪

    留意無聊和厭惡、噁心 都在同一個軸度上

  • What is boredom?

    他們只是不同強度的情緒觀感

  • Well, it's believed to be an emotion

    無聊促使我們離開低刺激的環境

  • that's a less intense form of disgust.

    因為多樣化與刺激

  • A visual representation of emotions

    有助於腦神經的生長

  • developed by Robert Plutchik

    我們今天在這裡做這些事

  • shows them all on a wheel.

    全因無聊將我們推向更多的挑戰

  • Notice that boredom shares a spoke

    和更大更複雜的腦

  • with disgust and loathing.

    若我們視之為理所當然

  • They are different intensities of the same emotion.

    那麼當感覺和社交活動被剝奪時

  • You see, boredom pushes us away from low-stimulus situations

    會發生什麼事?

  • because variety and stimulation

    示範一:疼痛與無聊

  • literally lead to neurogenesis--

    一項由哈佛大學與維吉尼雅大學 進行的指標性研究指出

  • brain-cell growth.

    學生寧可經歷生理上的疼痛

  • We are here today doing what we do

    也不願體驗 15 分鐘的無聊

  • because boredom has guided us

    為了顯示一個人能夠忍受多長時間的無聊

  • toward greater and greater challenges

    我們找來一位不知情的受測者

  • and bigger and more complex brains.

    讓他以為自己是參加焦點訪談

  • So what is it like to be deprived

    我們首先提供一組刺激性道具

  • of the sensations and social interactions

    其中有一個會令人相當不適

  • so many of us take for granted?

    糟糕!

  • ♪ ♪

    - 什麼? - 把我電得痛死了

  • A landmark study at Harvard and Virginia Universities

    你試試看

  • found that students prefer to experience physical pain

    - 的確電到我了 - 沒有啊

  • over 15 minutes of boredom.

    - 他真的有電到嗎? - 有,真的

  • To demonstrate the surprising lengths

    - 他不喜歡那感覺 - 真的電到我了

  • people will go to to avoid boredom,

    我們偽裝的焦點訪談持續進行

  • we brought in an unsuspecting subject

    讓我們從觸電按鈕開始

  • for what he believes to be a focus group.

    賈米森,你會選擇再碰觸一次嗎?

  • We begin by introducing a set of stimuli,

    我不想再碰它了

  • one of which is very unpleasant.

    為什麼不?

  • [device buzzes] - Oh, shit.

    因為它電到我

  • - What? - Shocked the shit out of me.

    而我現在還感覺的到它在我前臂遊走

  • Touch it.

    真正的測驗現在開始

  • [device buzzes] - [grunts]

    關於無聊的測驗

  • It did shock me. - No, it didn't.

    你會待在這房間 30 分鐘

  • Did it really? - Yeah, it did.

    請保持坐在位子上

  • - He doesn't like it. - That really shocked me.

    你可以自由選擇再次觸碰觸電按鈕…

  • - Our fake focus test continues.

    - 好的 - 或不

  • - So let's start with the shock button.

    真相大白的時候到了

  • Jamison, would you choose to experience this again?

    當只剩下無聊和疼痛的電觸

  • - I don't want to do that again.

    我們的受測者會如何選擇呢?

  • - Why wouldn't you?

    他連看都不看那個按鈕

  • - 'Cause it shocked me,

    連一分鐘都還不到

  • and I can still feel it going down my forearm.

    賈米森已感到焦躁不安

  • - Now it's time for Jamison's true test--

    還有將近半小時的時間

  • the test of boredom.

    而且房裡沒有其他刺激

  • - You will be in the room for 30 minutes.

    電擊按鈕是個吸引人的物件

  • Please remain in your chair.

    來轉移賈米森的思緒

  • Feel free to re-experience the electric-shock button...

    還記得幾分鐘前賈米森怎麼說的嗎?

  • - Okay. Okay. - Or not.

    我不想再碰它了

  • - All right, the moment of truth.

    但他會渴求刺激到

  • [door closes]

    去碰觸那個按鈕嗎?

  • When the only two options are boredom or painful shock,

    這無聊僅維持了 1 分 57 秒

  • which will our subject choose?

    就讓賈米森的想法從「絕不」

  • He's not even looking at the button.

    改變成「好啊,再電一次我自己」

  • Oh.

    「來緩解無聊感吧!」

  • It hasn't even been a minute yet,

    有時候刺激 任何刺激都好

  • and already Jamison is restless.

    都比毫無刺激來得好

  • [pensive music]

    這個人不喜歡無聊

  • With 29 minutes to go

    他能克制自己不再碰觸它嗎?

  • and no other stimulation in the room,

    我們是群居的動物

  • the shock button is a tempting object

    不管是另一個人

  • to occupy Jamison's mind.

    或是一個排球 或僅是一個觸電按鈕

  • ♪ ♪

    我們都試圖和那人或東西當朋友

  • Remember what Jamison said a few minutes ago.

    賈米森? 我是麥可

  • - I don't want to do that again.

    - 謝謝你今天來參加 - 沒問題

  • - But will he desire stimulation so strongly,

    可以告訴我

  • he just goes ahead and pushes that button?

    你在這房裡做了些什麼嗎?

  • ♪ ♪

    我和一個按鈕一起待在這房裡

  • [device buzzes] - [grunts]

    - 是 - 雖然我說再也不想碰觸它

  • - It took exactly one minute and 57 seconds of boredom

    但我按了兩次

  • for Jamison's mind to go from, "Never again,"

    為什麼?

  • to "Sure, I'll give myself an electric shock

    我想我只是無聊吧,所以…

  • to relieve boredom."

    - 真的嗎? - 對啊

  • Sometimes stimulation, any stimulation

    - 按它會痛嗎? - 會痛

  • is perceived as better than none at all.

    我們的假設是當一個人

  • This guy doesn't like being bored.

    和一個負面刺激獨處

  • Can he resist touching it a second time?

    人們傾向重複體驗那負面刺激

  • [dramatic music]

    只為了有事可做

  • ♪ ♪

    我也是其中一員

  • [device buzzes] - [grunts, laughing]

    我們厭惡無聊到寧可選擇生理疼痛

  • - We're social animals.

    但蓄意使自己處於極端無聊的環境下是有用的

  • Whether it's another human

    這叫做剝奪感知

  • or a volleyball or an electric-shock button,

    示範二:剝奪感知

  • you'll make friends with whatever you need to.

    心理學家們從 1930 年代

  • Jamison? I'm Michael.

    就開始進行剝奪感知的實驗

  • Thanks for coming in today. - Sure.

    冷戰期間

  • - So tell me a little bit

    軍隊們利用剝奪感知

  • about what you've been up to here in this room.

    進行訓練和審問

  • - I've been sitting in this room with a button.

    在 70 年代,這項活動成為一項休閒活動

  • - Yeah. - And despite saying

    透過隔音與無光漂浮艙

  • I didn't want to press it again, I pressed it twice.

    漂浮在和等同體溫的鹽水中

  • - Why?

    我正在前往地下漂浮實驗室

  • - I was just bored in this room, I suppose, so...

    這家公司以剝奪感知營利

  • - Really? - Yeah.

    這將是個前置訓練

  • - Did that hurt? - Yes.

    為我三天的隔離做準備

  • - The hypothesis is that when left alone

    我同時得到專家的協助

  • with a very negative stimulus,

    多明尼克,你好嗎?

  • people will go ahead an re-experience it

    你好,麥可

  • just because it's something to do.

    多明尼克莫納漢

  • - I'm one of them. - [laughs]

    演過電影魔戒和電視劇 LOST檔案

  • We dislike being bored so much,

    這是你的第一次,對嗎?

  • sometimes physical pain is preferable.

    是的,這是我的初體驗

  • But intentionally putting yourself

    我有點緊張

  • into what would seem to be

    我從沒在毫無他物的情況下獨處

  • the most boring environment possible

    我喜歡漂浮的其中一個原因

  • can be useful.

    是不會有任何其他事干擾

  • It's called sensory deprivation.

    - 是 - 你看不到任何東西

  • ♪ ♪

    聽不到任何聲音 不能做任何事情

  • Psychologists have conducted experiments

    你只能專注在自己身上

  • in sensory deprivation since the 1930s.

    對於某些人來說,這是很可怕的

  • During the Cold War,

    像是面對一面鏡子幾個小時

  • the military used sensory deprivation

    漂浮艙是他與世隔絕前很好的練習

  • for both training and interrogation.

    但我認為他應該要了解

  • In the 1970s, the activity became recreational,

    這將使他踏出舒適圈

  • with soundproof, lightproof flotation tanks

    偶爾放空自己是件好事

  • that keep you buoyant with salt water

    好吧,讓我偷看一下

  • that is the same temperature as your body.

    這就是那個房間

  • ♪ ♪

    我接下來一小時將在這裡獨自漂浮

  • All right, so I'm on my way to a subterranean float lab.

    除了聆聽自己外 什麼也不能做

  • This company sells sensory deprivation.

    我們等會見

  • This will be sort of a training session

    偶爾放空是件好事

  • for my three days in isolation,

    你應該要提醒恐懼 讓它知道誰才是老大

  • and I'm getting guidance from an expert.

    - 嘿,多明尼克 - 感覺如何?

  • Hey, Dominic. How are you?

    非常好

  • - Hey. What's up, Michael?

    - 我們可以坐一下嗎? - 好啊

  • - You know Dominic Monaghan

    我躺下來時的第一個感覺是

  • from "Lord of the Rings" and the TV series "Lost."

    這真是輕飄飄

  • - Now, this is your first time, right?

    然後我就開始...想些雜事

  • - This is my first time.

    但是到了一個階段後 感覺像在作夢

  • I'm a little nervous.

    但我眼睛是張開的

  • I've never been alone without any stimulation.

    有點像那種快睡著和快醒來前 的半夢半醒狀態

  • - One of my favorite things about floating is,

    有趣的就在這個時候

  • there's nothing else going on.

    你讓腦袋完全放空

  • - Okay. - You can't see anything.

    你飄在太空中 你就好像浮在池子上的原子,飄在外太空

  • You can't hear anything. You can't do anything.

    接下來你將與世隔絕

  • You just have to look at you.

    你認為這個練習對你有什麼幫助

  • And for some people, that's scary.

    或造成什麼阻礙嗎?

  • It's like looking in a mirror for hours.

    這讓我更擔心接下來將發生的事情

  • This flotation tank is a really good way

    三天和一小時差蠻多的

  • of getting him prepped for the isolation chamber,

    有些人選擇與世隔絕

  • but I also think he needs to be okay with the fact

    來學習與世隔絕

  • that it's gonna put him outside of his comfort zone.

    當我們準備好探索其他星球

  • The mind is a good thing to lose every so often.

    我們面臨一個小問題

  • - All right, let's take a peek.

    外太空的物體

  • ♪ ♪

    彼此距離相當遙遠

  • Oh. So this is the room.

    即使在太陽系

  • This is where I will be floating for the next hour,

    飛到火星都需耗時數月

  • alone with nothing to do but listen to my thoughts.

    往返都是

  • ♪ ♪

    這會與人類隔離一段很長的時間

  • I'll see you on the other side.

    並困在一個小太空艙內

  • ♪ ♪

    為了準備好這種旅程

  • - The mind is a good thing to lose every so often.

    我們找了幾位受測者在地球上 進行這種極端測驗

  • You have to remind fear that you're in the driver's seat."

    1989 年

  • - Hey. - Hey, Dominic.

    一名年輕義大利室內設計師史蒂芬妮佛理尼

  • - How was it? - It was really good.

    自願為美國太空總署 NASA 測試

  • - Yeah? - Can we sit down?

    在太空旅行期間

  • - Yeah, let's do it.

    與世隔絕造成的影響

  • - My initial thought when I laid down was,

    她獨自待在一玻璃小艙內 130 天

  • "Wow, this is buoyant."

    這小艙位在新墨西哥地底 30 呎的洞穴中

  • And then I just...

    在沒有任何計時工具

  • started thinking about errands and tasks,

    和無法分別白天與黑夜的情況下

  • but at some point...

    佛理尼的身體原完全失序了

  • well, it was like dreams.

    她的月經停止

  • - Uh-huh.

    睡眠週期劇烈變化

  • - But my eyes were open.

    她每一次醒著的狀態維持 20 至 25 小時

  • Like, it was sort of like half-dreams you have

    然後睡眠大約 10 小時

  • either when you're about to fall asleep

    當她離開艙體時

  • or when you're waking up.

    她誤判自己在地下的時間只有實際的一半

  • - That's when it gets interesting.

    即使史蒂芬妮的環境很艱難

  • You're allowing your brain to be free.

    至少她還有書可以閱讀

  • You're just floating in space.

    而在我的隔離房間內

  • You're just atoms that are on the top of this pool,

    只有白牆可以看

  • floating in space.

    獨處的時間

  • So now you've done this,

    多麼愜意

  • and you're doing this isolation booth.

    遠離塵囂

  • Do you think that that was in some way helpful

    放鬆

  • or a hindrance?

    被社會流放

  • - It made me more...

    沉默治療

  • unhappy about what's coming up.

    單獨監禁

  • 72 hours is quite a bit different than one hour.

    孤獨未必這麼好

  • ♪ ♪

    當隔離並非自願時會如何呢?

  • Some people choose isolation

    威廉布朗就有單獨監禁的切身體悟

  • to learn about isolation.

    威廉,這輩子你待在監獄多久了?

  • As we prepare to explore other planets,

    差不多 16 年

  • we're faced with a little issue.

    將近是你一半的人生

  • Stuff in outer space is really,

    基本上是

  • really far apart.

    因為我在 18 歲時

  • Within our own solar system,

    因搶劫銀行入監服刑

  • even a trip to Mars would take months

    就在這裡

  • in each direction.

    有前後兩年的時間

  • That's a long time to spend cut off from the rest of humanity,

    這裡就是我家

  • stuck in a tiny spaceship.

    這個洞穴

  • To get ready for those journeys, we have subjected some people

    你最長連續在這待了多久?

  • to extreme conditions here on Earth.

    一共大約五個月

  • In 1989, a young Italian interior designer

    最令我意外的是

  • named Stefania Follini

    這感覺比一般牢房糟多了

  • volunteered for a NASA experiment

    這沒有空隙讓外面光線透入

  • to help study the effects of isolation

    完全沒有

  • associated with space travel.

    你至少會有個床墊吧

  • She spent 130 days alone

    那是唯一的東西

  • in a plexiglass cell

    床墊是這隔間裡唯一的東西

  • in a cave 30 feet underground in New Mexico.

    你只有一張床墊

  • In the absence of timepieces and any sign of day or night,

    其他什麼都沒有

  • Ms. Follini's body was thrown out of wack.

    這盞燈會一直亮著

  • Her menstrual cycle stopped,

    所以…

  • and her sleep-wake cycle changed radically.

    - 這燈會一直亮著? - 一直…

  • She tended to stay away for 20 to 25 hours at a time,

    即使在夜晚?

  • sleeping about 10 hours.

    即使在夜晚這燈也一直亮著

  • When she finally emerged,

    你只能和你的思緒獨處於此

  • she mistakenly believed

    沒有其他東西

  • she'd only been underground about half as long

    我會坐在這個角落

  • as she actually had.

    面對角落還是面向外面?

  • As difficult as Stefania's experience was,

    面向外面

  • at least she had books to read.

    我會坐著

  • In my isolation chamber,

    然後專注在呼吸上

  • I will only have white walls to stare at.

    你不明白,這就像被打入冷宮

  • ♪ ♪

    你永遠不知道他們何時會開門

  • Alone time-- what a pleasure.

    我知道有人被關在這好幾年

  • Checking out, getting away from it all,

    在這小房間裡

  • relaxing...

    這對他們有什麼影響?

  • banishment from society,

    對他們造成永久的心理創傷

  • the silent treatment,

    - 真的? - 真的