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  • Late in January 1975,

    1975年1月末,

  • a 17-year-old German girl called Vera Brandes

    一位名叫薇拉·布蘭德斯的 17歲德國女孩

  • walked out onto the stage of the Cologne Opera House.

    走上了科隆歌劇院的舞台。

  • The auditorium was empty.

    觀眾席空無一人。

  • It was lit only by the dim, green glow of the emergency exit sign.

    黑暗的空間里,只有 緊急出口的綠色標誌亮著。

  • This was the most exciting day of Vera's life.

    這是薇拉生命中最激動的時刻。

  • She was the youngest concert promoter in Germany,

    她是德國最年輕的演奏會經紀人,

  • and she had persuaded the Cologne Opera House

    她說服了科隆歌劇院

  • to host a late-night concert of jazz

    舉辦美國音樂家, 凱斯·傑瑞特的

  • from the American musician, Keith Jarrett.

    晚間爵士樂演奏會。

  • 1,400 people were coming.

    1400位聽眾即將到場。

  • And in just a few hours,

    幾個小時後,

  • Jarrett would walk out on the same stage,

    傑瑞特就會走向這個舞台,

  • he'd sit down at the piano

    他坐在鋼琴邊

  • and without rehearsal or sheet music,

    無需綵排或是散頁樂譜,

  • he would begin to play.

    他會開始演奏。

  • But right now,

    但現在,

  • Vera was introducing Keith to the piano in question,

    薇拉向凱斯展示的鋼琴 出了些問題,

  • and it wasn't going well.

    事情進展不順利。

  • Jarrett looked to the instrument a little warily,

    傑瑞特謹慎地看著樂器,

  • played a few notes,

    彈奏了幾個小片段,

  • walked around it,

    繞著它轉了轉,

  • played a few more notes,

    又彈奏了幾個小片段,

  • muttered something to his producer.

    跟他的製作人嘟囔了些什麼。

  • Then the producer came over to Vera and said ...

    製作人走到薇拉跟前說到 ...

  • "If you don't get a new piano, Keith can't play."

    “如果沒有辦法送來一台新鋼琴, 凱斯會取消演奏。”

  • There'd been a mistake.

    一定發生了錯誤。

  • The opera house had provided the wrong instrument.

    歌劇院提供了錯誤的樂器。

  • This one had this harsh, tinny upper register,

    這台鋼琴的高音部 劣質而且刺耳,

  • because all the felt had worn away.

    因為鋼琴內部的毛氈磨損嚴重。

  • The black notes were sticking,

    黑鍵粘粘的,

  • the white notes were out of tune,

    白鍵走調了。

  • the pedals didn't work

    踏板無法使用

  • and the piano itself was just too small.

    鋼琴的個頭也太小了。

  • It wouldn't create the volume

    它無法發出

  • that would fill a large space such as the Cologne Opera House.

    能夠填滿科隆歌劇院這樣 寬敞空間的聲音。

  • So Keith Jarrett left.

    於是凱斯·傑瑞特離開了。

  • He went and sat outside in his car,

    他站在他的車邊,

  • leaving Vera Brandes

    留下薇拉·布蘭德斯

  • to get on the phone to try to find a replacement piano.

    撥打電話試圖尋找 一台能夠替代的鋼琴。

  • Now she got a piano tuner,

    她找到了一個鋼琴調律師,

  • but she couldn't get a new piano.

    但她無法拿到新的鋼琴。

  • And so she went outside

    她走到外面

  • and she stood there in the rain,

    站在雨中,

  • talking to Keith Jarrett,

    和凱斯·傑瑞特說話,

  • begging him not to cancel the concert.

    拜託他不要取消演奏會。

  • And he looked out of his car

    他看著車外

  • at this bedraggled, rain-drenched German teenager,

    這個被雨淋著渾身濕透的 德國年輕人,

  • took pity on her,

    有些同情,

  • and said,

    隨後說道,

  • "Never forget ... only for you."

    “永遠別忘了...只是為了你。”

  • And so a few hours later,

    幾小時后,

  • Jarrett did indeed step out onto the stage of the opera house,

    傑瑞特走上了 歌劇院的舞台,

  • he sat down at the unplayable piano

    他坐在這台 無法達到演奏標準的鋼琴面前

  • and began.

    開始了。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Within moments it became clear that something magical was happening.

    很快就發現 奇蹟正在發生。

  • Jarrett was avoiding those upper registers,

    傑瑞特避免了高音區,

  • he was sticking to the middle tones of the keyboard,

    他專注在鍵盤的中間區域,

  • which gave the piece a soothing, ambient quality.

    這給了曲子一個舒緩, 音效環繞的品質。

  • But also, because the piano was so quiet,

    但同時,因為鋼琴如此平靜,

  • he had to set up these rumbling, repetitive riffs in the bass.

    他必須在低音區製造 重複出現的隆隆聲。

  • And he stood up twisting, pounding down on the keys,

    他站起身旋轉,重擊琴鍵,

  • desperately trying to create enough volume to reach the people in the back row.

    拼命地想製造足夠的音量 讓後排的觀眾也能聽到。

  • It's an electrifying performance.

    這是個令人興奮地演出。

  • It somehow has this peaceful quality,

    卻有著這樣平靜的質感,

  • and at the same time it's full of energy,

    同時又飽含能量,

  • it's dynamic.

    富有活力,

  • And the audience loved it.

    聽眾太愛這場演出了。

  • Audiences continue to love it

    聽眾持續保有熱情

  • because the recording of theln Concert

    因為科隆演奏會的錄音

  • is the best-selling piano album in history

    是歷史上最暢銷的鋼琴專輯

  • and the best-selling solo jazz album in history.

    也是歷史上最暢銷的個人爵士專輯。

  • Keith Jarrett had been handed a mess.

    凱斯·傑瑞特遇到了一個麻煩。

  • He had embraced that mess, and it soared.

    他包容了這個麻煩, 讓麻煩變成了崛起的創意。

  • But let's think for a moment about Jarrett's initial instinct.

    但是,讓我們想一想 傑瑞特最初的反應。

  • He didn't want to play.

    他不想演出了。

  • Of course,

    當然,

  • I think any of us, in any remotely similar situation,

    我想我們中的每個人, 在任何相似的情況下,

  • would feel the same way, we'd have the same instinct.

    會有同樣的感受, 我們會有同樣的反應。

  • We don't want to be asked to do good work with bad tools.

    我們不想被要求 用糟糕的工具做好工作。

  • We don't want to have to overcome unnecessary hurdles.

    我們不想克服不必要的麻煩。

  • But Jarrett's instinct was wrong,

    但是傑瑞特的直覺錯了,

  • and thank goodness he changed his mind.

    感謝上帝他改變了主意。

  • And I think our instinct is also wrong.

    我想我們的直覺也是錯的。

  • I think we need to gain a bit more appreciation

    我想我們需要更多的感激

  • for the unexpected advantages of having to cope with a little mess.

    那些需要面對小麻煩的 出人意料的優勢。

  • So let me give you some examples

    讓我給你們提供一些例子

  • from cognitive psychology,

    來自認知心理學

  • from complexity science,

    來自複雜性科學,

  • from social psychology,

    來自社會心理學,

  • and of course, rock 'n' roll.

    以及當然,搖滾樂。

  • So cognitive psychology first.

    首先,認知心理學。

  • We've actually known for a while

    長久以來我們知道

  • that certain kinds of difficulty,

    某些困難,

  • certain kinds of obstacle,

    某些障礙,

  • can actually improve our performance.

    能夠促使我們提高表現力。

  • For example,

    比如,

  • the psychologist Daniel Oppenheimer,

    心理學家丹尼爾·奧本海默,

  • a few years ago,

    數年前,

  • teamed up with high school teachers.

    與高中老師合作。

  • And he asked them to reformat the handouts

    他請他們革新

  • that they were giving to some of their classes.

    正在上課的一些講義。

  • So the regular handout would be formatted in something straightforward,

    普通的教案已一種 很直接的方式,

  • such as Helvetica or Times New Roman.

    像是赫維提卡字體 或是新羅馬體。

  • But half these classes were getting handouts that were formatted

    但是超半數的學生會拿到 標準的講義

  • in something sort of intense, like Haettenschweiler,

    用一種加深顏色的嚴肅字體, 像是Haettenschweiler,

  • or something with a zesty bounce, like Comic Sans italicized.

    或者是增添興趣的字體, 像是斜體的Comic Sans。

  • Now, these are really ugly fonts,

    現在,這些事很醜的字體,

  • and they're difficult fonts to read.

    也很難閱讀。

  • But at the end of the semester,

    但在學期末,

  • students were given exams,

    學生們進行了測試,

  • and the students who'd been asked to read the more difficult fonts,

    那些被要求閱讀 更加難懂的字體的學生,

  • had actually done better on their exams,

    事實上在考試中表現更好,

  • in a variety of subjects.

    很多學科都是這樣。

  • And the reason is,

    原因是,

  • the difficult font had slowed them down,

    難懂的字體拖慢了他們的速度,

  • forced them to work a bit harder,

    逼迫他們更加努力學習,

  • to think a bit more about what they were reading,

    更審慎思考他們所讀的內容,

  • to interpret it ...

    來解讀它 ...

  • and so they learned more.

    因此他們學到了更多。

  • Another example.

    另一個例子。

  • The psychologist Shelley Carson has been testing Harvard undergraduates

    心理學家謝麗·卡森 給哈佛大學的大學生做測試

  • for the quality of their attentional filters.

    來研究他們的專注力的過濾能力。

  • What do I mean by that?

    那是什麼意思呢?

  • What I mean is, imagine you're in a restaurant,

    我是說, 想像你在一間餐廳裡,

  • you're having a conversation,

    你正在進行一場對話,

  • there are all kinds of other conversations going on in the restaurant,

    餐廳裡還有很多別的 正在進行中的對話,

  • you want to filter them out,

    你會過濾它們,

  • you want to focus on what's important to you.

    你想要專注於對你來說重要的對話。

  • Can you do that?

    你能做到嗎?

  • If you can, you have good, strong attentional filters.

    如果你能,那說明你有 很好地很強的注意力過濾能力。

  • But some people really struggle with that.

    但是很多人真的在 為這樣的能力奮鬥著。

  • Some of Carson's undergraduate subjects struggled with that.

    卡森測試的一部分大學生 就為這樣的能力掙扎。

  • They had weak filters, they had porous filters --

    他們有較弱的過濾能力, 他們的過濾機制有漏洞﹣﹣

  • let a lot of external information in.

    讓很多外部的資訊進入。

  • And so what that meant is they were constantly being interrupted

    那就意味著, 他們時常被干擾

  • by the sights and the sounds of the world around them.

    被周圍的畫面和聲音干擾。

  • If there was a television on while they were doing their essays,

    如果他們在寫作的時候 旁邊有一台正在播放的電視機,

  • they couldn't screen it out.

    他們無法把電視機的干擾過濾出去。

  • Now, you would think that that was a disadvantage ...

    現在,你會想 這是個劣勢 ...

  • but no.

    但不是這樣的。

  • When Carson looked at what these students had achieved,

    當卡森查看這些學生的表現時,

  • the ones with the weak filters

    那些過濾能力弱的

  • were vastly more likely

    極大程度上更可能

  • to have some real creative milestone in their lives,

    在他們的人生中 創作出真正的里程碑,

  • to have published their first novel,

    出版他們的第一本小說,

  • to have released their first album.

    發第一張唱片,

  • These distractions were actually grists to their creative mill.

    這些外部的干擾真正 引發了他們的創意工廠。

  • They were able to think outside the box because their box was full of holes.

    他們因此能夠跳出盒子思考問題 因為他們的盒子上全是小洞。

  • Let's talk about complexity science.

    讓我們來說說複雜性科學。

  • So how do you solve a really complex --

    你是如何解決一個真正複雜問題的--

  • the world's full of complicated problems --

    這個世界充滿了複雜的問題 --

  • how do you solve a really complicated problem?

    你要如何解決一個真正複雜的問題?

  • For example, you try to make a jet engine.

    比如,你要試圖製造飛機引擎,

  • There are lots and lots of different variables,

    面對很多很多不同的變量、

  • the operating temperature, the materials,

    運作溫度、材料、

  • all the different dimensions, the shape.

    所有不同的維度、形狀。

  • You can't solve that kind of problem all in one go,

    你無法一次性解決所有的問題,

  • it's too hard.

    這太艱難了。

  • So what do you do?

    你要怎麼做呢?

  • Well, one thing you can do is try to solve it step-by-step.

    你能做的 是試圖一步步解決它。

  • So you have some kind of prototype

    你有了初樣

  • and you tweak it, you test it, you improve it.

    然後你改進它, 實驗,然後提高它的質量。

  • You tweak it, you test it, you improve it.

    再改進,實驗,提高質量。

  • Now, this idea of marginal gains will eventually get you a good jet engine.

    這樣的邊際增益的概念最終能 讓你完成一個性能優良的飛機引擎,

  • And it's been quite widely implemented in the world.

    這樣的做事方式在世界上很常見。

  • So you'll hear about it, for example, in high performance cycling,

    你會在比如說,高強度自行車 運動練習中見到這樣的過程,

  • web designers will talk about trying to optimize their web pages,

    網頁設計師會討論 試圖優化他們的網站,

  • they're looking for these step-by-step gains.

    他們都在尋找著 這樣一步步的收穫。

  • That's a good way to solve a complicated problem.

    這是一個解決複雜問題的好方法。

  • But you know what would make it a better way?

    但你知道有什麼 能夠讓它更好嗎?

  • A dash of mess.

    一些雜亂。

  • You add randomness,

    你在過程開始的時候,

  • early on in the process,

    加入不確定性,

  • you make crazy moves,

    你做出瘋狂的舉動,

  • you try stupid things that shouldn't work,

    你做本不可能成功地蠢事,

  • and that will tend to make the problem-solving work better.

    這都會使問題解決方法效果更好,

  • And the reason for that is

    原因是

  • the trouble with the step-by-step process,

    一步一步的過程的問題在於,

  • the marginal gains,

    邊際增益,

  • is they can walk you gradually down a dead end.

    是它們引導你走到死胡同。

  • And if you start with the randomness, that becomes less likely,

    如果你開始就很隨意, 那就不大會這樣,

  • and your problem-solving becomes more robust.

    你的問題解決過程會更加高效。

  • Let's talk about social psychology.

    讓我們從社會心理學角度分析。

  • So the psychologist Katherine Phillips, with some colleagues,

    心理學家凱瑟琳.飛利浦 和她的同事們,

  • recently gave murder mystery problems to some students,

    近期向學生們 提出了怪誕的的謀殺問題,

  • and these students were collected in groups of four

    這些學生編成四人一組

  • and they were given dossiers with information about a crime --

    學生們拿到關於謀殺的檔案﹣﹣

  • alibis and evidence, witness statements and three suspects.

    不在場證明和證據、 證人的證詞和三個疑犯。

  • And the groups of four students were asked to figure out who did it,

    他們需要找出真兇是誰,

  • who committed the crime.

    誰為這場謀殺負責。

  • And there were two treatments in this experiment.

    這項實驗有兩個項目。

  • In some cases these were four friends,

    在一些案例中,有四個友人,

  • they all knew each other well.

    他們都非常了解對方。

  • In other cases,

    在另一些案例中,

  • three friends and a stranger.

    是三個友人和一個陌生人。

  • And you can see where I'm going with this.

    一會兒你就會了解到 我這麼做的意義。

  • Obviously I'm going to say

    很明顯,我要說的是

  • that the groups with the stranger solved the problem more effectively,

    那些由三個友人一個陌生人組成的小組 更高效地解決了問題,

  • which is true, they did.

    這是真的,他們確實做到了。

  • Actually, they solved the problem quite a lot more effectively.

    事實上,他們解決問題的效率 非常高。

  • So the groups of four friends,

    那些由四個友人組成的小組,

  • they only had a 50-50 chance of getting the answer right.

    他們只有50﹣50的幾率 來得出正確答案。

  • Which is actually not that great --

    這聽起來確實不那麼好﹣﹣

  • in multiple choice, for three answers? 50-50's not good.

    在多項選擇中,有三個答案? 50﹣50的幾率不那麼好。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The three friends and the stranger,

    三個友人和一個陌生人,

  • even though the stranger didn't have any extra information,

    即使陌生人沒有獲得額外的資訊,

  • even though it was just a case

    即使是在

  • of how that changed the conversation to accommodate that awkwardness,

    如何對話以防止尷尬,

  • the three friends and the stranger,

    三個友人和一個陌生人的組合,

  • they had a 75 percent chance of finding the right answer.

    有 75% 的機會能夠找到正確的答案。

  • That's quite a big leap in performance.

    那是一個很大的飛越。

  • But I think what's really interesting

    但我覺得真正有趣的

  • is not just that the three friends and the stranger did a better job,

    不是三個友人和一個陌生人的組合 完成得更好,

  • but how they felt about it.

    而是他們對這次活動的感受。

  • So when Katherine Phillips interviewed the groups of four friends,

    當凱瑟琳.飛利浦詢問 四個友人組合的感受時,

  • they had a nice time,

    他們相處很愉悅,

  • they also thought they'd done a good job.

    他們也認為自己做得很好。

  • They were complacent.

    他們很滿足。

  • When she spoke to the three friends and the stranger,

    當她詢問 三個友人一個陌生人組合時

  • they had not had a nice time --

    他們並沒有很愉快﹣﹣

  • it's actually rather difficult, it's rather awkward ...

    有點兒困難, 有些尷尬 ...

  • and they were full of doubt.

    他們充滿了疑慮。

  • They didn't think they'd done a good job even though they had.

    他們不認為自己完成得很好 即使他們確實完成得很好。

  • And I think that really exemplifies

    我想這個例子很適合

  • the challenge that we're dealing with here.

    拿來討論今天我們面對的難題。

  • Because, yeah --

    因為,是的﹣﹣

  • the ugly font,

    難看的字體,

  • the awkward stranger,

    尷尬的陌生人,

  • the random move ...

    那些不確定性 ...

  • these disruptions help us solve problems,

    這些打擾我們的事情 幫助我們解決問題,

  • they help us become more creative.

    它們讓我們更加有創意。

  • But we don't feel that they're helping us.

    但我們感受不到它們的幫助。

  • We feel that they're getting in the way ...

    我們認為它們是 路上的障礙 ...

  • and so we resist.

    所以我們反抗。

  • And that's why the last example is really important.

    這就是為什麼最後一個例子 非常重要。

  • So I want to talk about somebody

    我想要談到某個人

  • from the background of the world of rock 'n' roll.

    他的背景是搖滾樂。

  • And you may know him, he's actually a TED-ster.

    你也許知道他是誰, 他是一個 TED 迷。

  • His name is Brian Eno