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  • Adam Smith is our guide to perhaps the most pressing dilemma of our time: how to make

    亞當・斯密為這時代或許最迫切的困境提供了指引:

  • a capitalist economy more humane and more meaningful.

    如何讓資本主義經濟更人性化、更有意義

  • He was born in Scotland in Kirkcaldy – a small manufacturing townnear Edinburgh

    生於蘇格蘭的寇克卡迪,愛丁堡附近的製造業小城鎮

  • in 1723.

    他出生於1723年

  • He was a hard working student and very close to his mother.

    他是個認真的學生,且與母親關係非常親近

  • He then became an academic philosopher, wrote a major book about the importance of sympathy

    而後成為學術哲學家,有許多著作談及同情心的重要、

  • and lectured on logic and aesthetics.

    以及論述邏輯和美學

  • He was also one of the greatest thinkers in the history of economicsin part because

    他也是經濟學史上最偉大的思想家之一

  • his concerns went far beyond the economic. He wanted to understand the money system because

    其中一部分的原因,是他的關懷超越了純經濟。 他想對貨幣體系有所理解,更深的關懷是出於

  • his underlying ambition was to make nations and people happier. Smith remains an invaluable

    更大的野心 -- 想讓國家、人民更快樂。亞當斯密的

  • guide to four ideas:

    四個想法,至今仍是極有價值的指引:

  • When one considers the modern world of work,

    1. 專業化。談到現代社會的工作,

  • two facts stand out: - modern economies produce unprecedented amounts

    有兩個事實特別突出:現代經濟產出了前所未有的財富

  • of wealth. - many ordinary people find work rather boring

    以及許多平凡人覺得工作是無聊的 --

  • and (a key complaint): meaning-less.

    最主要的抱怨是 -- 工作很沒意義。

  • The two phenomena are in fact intimately related, as Adam Smith was the first to understand

    這兩個現象其實高度相關 -- 亞當斯密是第一個發覺的,

  • through his theory of specialisation.

    透過他關於「專業化」的理論

  • He observed that in modern businesses, tasks formerly done by one person in a single day

    他觀察現代商業發現,過去由單一個人一整天完成的事

  • could far more profitably be split into many tasks carried out by multiple people over

    如果分成很多細項、由許多人當作職涯完成,會更有利

  • whole careers. Smith hailed this as a momentous development: he predicted that national economies

    亞當斯密認為這是個重大的進步,並預測國家經濟

  • would become hugely richer the more specialised their workforces became.

    會隨著分工專業化的程度越高、而越富有

  • One sign our world is now so rich, Smith could tell us, is that every time we meet a stranger,

    標誌了我們現代社會如此富裕的,依據亞當斯密的說法

  • were unlikely to understand what they do. The mania for incomprehensible job titles

    正是我們每次遇到陌生人都不太能理解他們的工作。 那些令人難以理解的工作職稱

  • Logistics Supply Manager, Packaging Coordinator, Communications and Learning Officerprove

    例如:物流供應經理、包裝協調員、通訊與學習專員

  • the economic logic of Smith’s insight.

    應證了亞當斯密經濟邏輯的洞見

  • But there is one huge problem with specialisation: meaning. When businesses are small and their

    但專業化帶來一個大問題:工作意義。當工作變得細微

  • processes contained, a sense of helping others is readily available.

    且僅限部分流程,幾乎無法感覺到正在幫助他人

  • But when everything is industrialised, one ends up as a tiny cog in a gigantic machine

    當一切都工業化,人變得像巨大機器裡的小螺絲釘

  • whose overall logic is liable to be absent from the minds of people lower down in the

    對在組織底層工作的人而言,整體的邏輯幾乎不存在

  • organisation. A company with 150,000 employees distributed across four continents, making

    一間有15萬名員工、遍布四大洲的公司,

  • things that take five years from conception to delivery, will struggle to maintain any

    從概念發想到運送產品需經過五年時間,很難維持任何

  • sense of purpose and cohesion. So Smith discerned that bosses of the specialised

    目的感和一致性。因此,亞當斯密指出

  • corporations of modernity therefore have an extra responsibility to their workers:

    現代專業化分工的公司,老闆對員工有個額外的責任:

  • to remind them of the purpose, role and ultimate dignity of their labour.

    提醒他們的勞動力的最終目標、角色、尊嚴

  • Smith’s age saw the development of what

    2. 在亞當斯密那個年代,就預見了

  • we’d now call consumer capitalism.

    「消費資本主義」

  • Manufacturers began turning out luxury goods for a broadening middle class.

    製造商開始將奢侈品帶給更廣大的中產階級

  • Some commentators were appalled. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau wished to banluxury

    有些評論者對此感到驚駭。哲學家盧梭,就希望

  • from his native Geneva. He was a particular fan of ancient Sparta and argued that his

    他的家鄉日內瓦能禁止奢侈品。他特別崇尚古典斯巴達

  • city should copy its austere, martial lifestyle.

    認為日內瓦應該學習斯巴達的簡樸和軍事生活

  • Disagreeing violently, Smith pointed out to the Swiss philosopher that luxury consumerism

    亞當斯密強烈反對盧梭的論點,指出奢侈品消費

  • in fact had a very serious role to play in a good societyit generated the surplus

    其實在良好的社會中扮演了重要的角色 -- 創造剩餘價值

  • wealth that allowed societies to look after their weakest members. Consumer societies,

    讓社會得以照顧弱勢者的福利。

  • despite their frivolity, didn’t let young children and the old starve, for they could

    消費社會雖然浮誇,但卻讓小孩和老人免於飢餓,

  • afford hospitals and poor relief.

    因為能夠負擔醫療、救助窮困

  • So Smith defended consumer capitalism on the basis that it did more good for the poor than

    因此亞當斯密認為,消費資本主義對窮人更有好處,

  • societies devoted to high ideals. That said, Smith held out some fascinating hopes for

    相較於一個崇尚理想的社會。 換言之,亞當斯密對資本主義的未來寄予厚望

  • the future of capitalism. He didn’t want it to stay stuck at the frivolous level forever.

    他並不希望資本主義永遠停留在浮誇的層次

  • He observed that humans have manyhigherneeds that currently lie outside of capitalist

    他觀察到人類有許多在現今資本主義之外更高級的需求

  • enterprise: among these, our need for education, for self-understanding, for beautiful cities

    其中,我們渴望情感教育、認識自我、美麗的城市、

  • and for rewarding social lives.

    有回報的社群生活

  • The hope for the future is that well learn to generate sizeable profits from helping

    資本主義社會的願景,是我們能學著以真正重要、

  • people in truly important, ambitious ways. Properly developed, capitalism shoudln’t just

    有野心的方式幫助人們,並由此獲得不錯的利潤。 若能良好發展,資本主義不應該只是

  • service our basic material needs while exciting us to buy frivolous things. It should make

    透過購買浮誇的東西來滿足我們的基本物質需求

  • money from goods and services that deliver true fulfiflment.

    而應該透過真正有意義的產品和服務來賺錢

  • Then as now, the great question was how to

    3. 如今,這是個重要的問題:

  • get the rich to behave well towards the rest of society. The Christian answer to this was:

    如何讓富人恰當地對待社會上其他人? 基督教式的回答是

  • make them feel guilty.

    讓他們有罪惡感

  • Meanwhile, the radical, left-wing answer was then and is now: raise taxes. But Smith disagreed

    而激進左翼的答案是:增稅。但亞當斯密兩者都不認同

  • with both approaches: the hearts of the rich were likely to remain cold and high taxes

    因為即使這麼做,富人的內心依然冷漠,

  • would simply lead the rich to flee the country.

    而增稅只會讓富人搬離這個國家

  • He proposed that, contrary to what one might expect, it isn’t money the rich really care

    他認為 -- 與一般觀念相反 -- 富人真正在意的不是金錢,

  • about. It is honour and respect. The rich accumulate money not because they are materially

    而是榮譽和尊重。富人不是因為貪於物質而累積財富,

  • greedy, but primarily in order to be liked and approved of.

    而主要是因為想得到喜愛和認同

  • So rather than taxing the rich, governments should understand the vanity at the heart

    因此,與其增加富人稅,政府應該理解富人內心的虛榮

  • of the rich and their motivations.

    以及動機

  • They should therefore give the rich plenty of honour and statusin return for doing

    政府應該頒發榮譽和地位給富人,以此獎勵

  • all the good things that these narcissists wouldn’t normally bother with, like funding

    那些自戀者通常不太在意的善行,例如

  • schools and hospitals and paying their workers well. As Smith put it,

    資助學校和醫院、給員工較好的薪資。如亞當斯密所說

  • The great secret of education is to direct vanity to proper objects.”

    「教育最大的秘密,是把虛榮心導向正確的事物。」

  • Big corporations feel very evil to us now, the natural targets of blame for low-paying

    4. 教導消費者。如今我們總感覺大企業很邪惡, 我們指責他們給予低薪、

  • jobs, environmental abuse and sickening ingredients.

    破壞環境、汙染原物料

  • But Adam Smith knew there was an unexpected, and more important, element responsible for

    但亞當斯密認知到,有個出人預料、更需要為這些惡行

  • these ills: our taste. It’s not companies that primarily degrade the world. It is our

    負起責任的元素:我們的品味。 讓這世界格調降低的主要不是企業,

  • appetites, which they merely serve.

    而是我們的品味 -- 企業僅是依循這個標準。

  • As a result, the reform of capitalism hinges on an odd-sounding, but critical task: the

    因此若要重整資本主義,有個聽來奇怪但重要的關鍵:

  • education of the consumer. We need to be taught to want better quality things and pay a proper

    教導消費者。我們需要被教導去渴望更有品質的物品、

  • price for them, one that reflects the true burden on workers and the environment.

    並為此付出適當的價錢 -- 以反映勞工和環境的真實成本

  • A good capitalist society doesn’t just offer customers choice, it also teaches people to

    良好的資本主義社會不只提供消費者許多選擇,還應該

  • exercise this choice in judicious ways. Capitalism can, Smith suggests, be saved by elevating

    教導人們如何明智地運用選擇權。亞當斯密認為,

  • the quality of consumer demand.

    提升消費者需求的品質,能夠拯救資本主義

  • The economic state of the world can seem at

    這世界的經濟狀態一度看似非常糟、

  • once so wrong and yet so complicated, we end up collapsing into despair and passivity.

    而且非常複雜,讓我們陷入絕望和被動

  • Adam Smith is on hand to lend us confidence and hope. His work is full of ideas about

    而亞當斯密為我們提供了信心和希望,他的核心關懷是

  • how human values can be reconciled with the needs of businesses. He deserves our ongoing

    重新調和人性價值與商業需求。他值得被持續關注,

  • attention because he was interested in an issue that has become a leading priority of

    因為他有興趣的議題,如今已是這時代最主要的問題:

  • our own times: how to create an economy that is at once profitable and civilised.

    如何建立一個既能營利、又文明的經濟體。

Adam Smith is our guide to perhaps the most pressing dilemma of our time: how to make

亞當・斯密為這時代或許最迫切的困境提供了指引:

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政治理論--亞當-斯密 (POLITICAL THEORY - Adam Smith)

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    k2466812 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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