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  • Are you afraid of black cats?

    你會怕黑貓嗎?

  • Would you open an umbrella indoors?

    你會在室內撐傘嗎?

  • And how do you feel about the number thirteen?

    你對 13 這個數字有什麼感覺?

  • Whether or not you believe in them, you're probably familiar with a few of these superstitions.

    不管你相不相信,你可能對某些迷信還滿熟悉的。

  • So how did it happen that people all over the world knock on wood, or avoid stepping on sidewalk cracks?

    那麼為什麼全世界的人們都會敲敲木頭,或是避免採到人行道的裂縫呢?

  • Well, although they have no basis in science, many of these weirdly specific beliefs and practices do have equally weird and specific origins.

    雖然他們沒有任何科學根據,但很多這些異常特定的信仰和習俗的確都有其異常特定的源頭。

  • Because they involve supernatural causes, it's no surprise that many superstitions are based in religion.

    因為他們都與超自然原因有關,所以很多迷信都建立在宗教上面也並不奇怪。

  • For example, the number thirteen was associated with the biblical Last Supper, where Jesus Christ dined with his twelve disciples just before being arrested and crucified.

    例如,數字 13 跟聖經「最後的晚餐」有關,也就是耶穌被逮捕並被釘在十字架上之前,與他的十二門徒共進晚餐的故事。

  • The resulting idea that having thirteen people at a table was bad luck eventually expanded into thirteen being an unlucky number in general.

    本來十三個人圍著桌子代表壞運,最後延伸成一般認 13 為厄運數字。

  • Now, this fear of the number thirteen, called triskaidekaphobia, is so common that many buildings around the world skip the thirteenth floor, with the numbers going straight from twelve to fourteen.

    現在,這種對 13 的恐懼,也就是「十三恐懼症」屢見不鮮到世界各地的許多建築都跳過十三樓,直接從十二跳到十四。

  • Of course, many people consider the story of the Last Supper to be true, but other superstitions come from religious traditions that few people believe in or even remember.

    很多人當然認為最後的晚餐這個故事是真的,但是也有迷信是來自很少人信仰甚至記得的宗教傳統。

  • Knocking on wood is thought to come from the folklore of the ancient Indo-Europeans, or possibly people who predated them who believed that trees were home to various spirits.

    「敲木頭」被認為源於古代印歐語系的民間傳說,又或者是比他們更早存在,並相信樹是各種靈體源頭的人。

  • Touching a tree would invoke the protection or blessing of the spirit within.

    觸碰樹木會喚起其中靈體的保護以及祝福

  • And somehow, this tradition survived long after belief in these spirits had faded away.

    不知道為什麼,這種傳統在靈體信仰漸漸消逝時還保留下來。

  • Many superstitions common today in countries from Russia to Ireland are thought to be remnants of the pagan religions that Christianity replaced.

    從俄羅斯到愛爾蘭,許多國家至今仍然盛行的迷信,被視為遭基督教取代的異教所遺留下來的。

  • But not all superstitions are religious.

    但並不是所有的迷信都與宗教有關

  • Some are just based on unfortunate coincidences and associations.

    有些只是基於不幸的巧合以及關聯。

  • For example, many Italians fear the number 17 because the Roman numeral XVII can be rearranged to form the word vixi, meaning my life had ended.

    例如,很多義大利人怕數字 17,因為羅馬數字 XVII 可以再被排列成 vixi 這個字,意思是「我已死」,

  • Similarly, the word for the number four sounds almost identical to the word for death in Cantonese, as well as languages like Japanese and Korean that have borrowed Chinese numerals.

    同樣地,在廣東話,還有像日文、韓文等這些數詞由中文借來的語言中,4 的發音跟「死」幾乎一樣。

  • And since the number one also sounds like the word for must, the number fourteen sounds like the phrase must die.

    還有因為數字 1 聽起來跟「一定」很像,所以數字 14 聽起來像是「一定要死」。

  • That's a lot of numbers for elevators and international hotels to avoid.

    所以很多數字是電梯還有國際旅館會避免的。

  • And believe it or not, some superstitions actually make sense, or at least they did until we forgot their original purpose.

    還有,信不信由你,有些迷信其實挺合理的,或至少到我們忘了它們的來源前,它們都很有道理。

  • For example, theater scenery used to consist of large painted backdrops, raised and lowered by stagehands who would whistle to signal each other.

    例如,劇院的舞台布景過去由巨大的插畫背景幕組成,舞台工作人員以口哨示意彼此,來使布景升降。

  • Absent-minded whistles from other people could cause an accident.

    其他人心不在焉的口哨可能會造成意外。

  • But the taboo against whistling backstage still exists today, long after the stagehands started using radio headsets.

    可是現在在後台禁止吹口哨的禁忌依然存在,即使工作人員早就在用無線電耳機了。

  • Along the same lines, lighting three cigarettes from the same match really could cause bad luck if you were a soldier in a foxhole where keeping a match lit too long could draw attention from an enemy sniper.

    類似的例子也有,如果你是散兵坑的軍人的話,用同一根火柴點三根菸真的會帶來壞運,因為讓火柴的光線維持太久會引起敵軍狙擊手的注意。

  • Most smokers no longer have to worry about snipers, but the superstition lives on.

    大部分抽菸的人已經不用再擔心狙擊手了,但這個迷信還是存在。

  • So why do people cling to these bits of forgotten religions, coincidences, and outdated advice?

    那為什麼人們如此堅信於這些被遺忘的宗教、巧合、跟過時的意見呢?

  • Aren't they being totally irrational?

    他們不是完全不合理嗎?

  • Well, yes, but for many people, superstitions are based more on cultural habit than conscious belief.

    沒錯,但對很多人來說,跟思想比起來,迷信跟文化習慣更有關係。

  • After all, no one is born knowing to avoid walking under ladders or whistling indoors.

    畢竟,沒有人生下來就知道要避免走在梯子下面,或是不行在室內吹口哨

  • But if you grow up being told by your family to avoid these things, chances are they'll make you uncomfortable, even after you logically understand that nothing bad will happen.

    但如果你在長大過程中,家人都告訴你不能做這些事,即使理智上你知道什麼壞事都不會發生,但你有可能就會對這些禁忌感到不舒服。

  • And since doing something like knocking on wood doesn't require much effort, following the superstition is often easier than consciously resisting it.

    而且因為像敲木頭之類的習慣並不麻煩,所以遵照迷信會比有意識地拒絕它還簡單。

  • Besides, superstitions often do seem to work.

    除此之外,迷信看起來似乎是有用的。

  • Maybe you remember hitting a home run while wearing your lucky socks.

    可能你記得你敲了一支全壘打的時候,你穿了你的幸運襪子。

  • This is just our psychological bias at work.

    這只是我們心理偏見在作祟。

  • You're far less likely to remember all the times you struck out while wearing the same socks.

    你不太可能記住當你每次穿同一雙襪子時,被三振出局的次數。

  • But believing that they work could actually make you play better by giving you the illusion of having greater control over events.

    但是相信它會作用確實會讓你打得更好,因為這會讓你有可以控制全場的幻覺。

  • So in situations where that confidence can make a difference, like sports, those crazy superstitions might not be so crazy after all.

    所以在像是運動這種結果會受信心影響的情況下,那些瘋狂的迷信似乎也就沒那麼瘋狂了。

Are you afraid of black cats?

你會怕黑貓嗎?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 數字 壞運 宗教 木頭 口哨 靈體

【TED-Ed】迷信從何而來 (Where do superstitions come from? - Stuart Vyse)

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    Darya kao   發佈於 2020 年 10 月 26 日
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