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  • One foggy morning in 1884,

    1884 年一個有霧的早晨,

  • the British steamer "Rumney" crashed into the French ship "Frigorifique."

    英國蒸汽船 Rumney 撞到了法國船 Frigorifique

  • Seeing their ship filling with water,

    法國船員看著自己的船慢慢注入海水,

  • the French crew climbed aboard the "Rumney."

    只好爬上 Rumney 求生

  • But as they sailed towards the nearest port,

    但就在他們航行到最近的港口途中,

  • a silent form suddenly emerged from the fog:

    濃霧中突然出現一艘寂靜無聲的船:

  • the abandoned "Frigorifique."

    就是被遺棄的 Frigorifique

  • It was too late to turn,

    此時已經無法轉彎避開,

  • and the impact was enough to sink the "Rumney."

    撞擊的力道導致 Rumney 沉船

  • As the sailors scrambled into the lifeboats,

    而在水手們匆忙混亂的爬上救生艇後,

  • the empty "Frigorifique" sailed back into the fog,

    無人的 Frigorifique 又開回了濃霧中,

  • having seemingly taken its revenge.

    像是成功復仇一般的離去

  • In reality, the French sailors had left the engines running,

    實際上,法國船員在逃難之餘並沒有停止船的機件與馬達運轉,

  • and the "Frigorifique" sailed in a circle

    所以 Frigorifique 一直在繞圈子打轉,

  • before striking the "Rumney" and finally sinking.

    直到遇見了 Rumney 發生撞擊後才沉船

  • But its story became one of the many tales of ghost ships,

    不過這個故事仍然成為幽靈船的傳說之一,

  • unmanned vessels that apparently sail themselves.

    因為沒有人在船上,竟然還能航行

  • And although they've influenced works like "Dracula"

    雖然這些故事衍伸出像是「德古拉」

  • and "Pirates of the Caribbean,"

    和「神鬼奇航」等電影,

  • crewless ships aren't the product of ghostly spirits,

    自動行駛的船並非由鬼怪幽靈操控

  • just physics at work.

    只是一個物理現象

  • One of the most famous ghost ships was the "Mary Celeste",

    最有名的一艘幽靈船叫做「瑪麗‧賽勒斯特號」

  • found sailing the Atlantic in 1872 with no one aboard,

    1872 年被發現在大西洋獨自航行,而船上空無一人,

  • water in its hold,

    且平穩航行,

  • and lifeboats missing.

    但救生艇都消失了

  • The discovery of its intact cargo and a captain's log that ended abruptly

    船上全新的貨物和船長匆促結尾的日記導致

  • led to wild rumors and speculation.

    各式各樣的謠傳和臆測出現

  • But the real culprits were two scientific phenomena:

    但是背後的操控者實際上是兩個科學現象:

  • buoyancy

    浮力

  • and fluid dynamics.

    還有流體動力學

  • Here's how buoyancy works.

    我們來看看浮力是怎麼運作的

  • An object placed in a liquid displaces a certain volume of fluid.

    若將物體放在液體中,沉在液面下的部分會排開相同體積的液體

  • The liquid in turn exerts an upward buoyant force

    同時,液體會對物體施加向上的浮力,

  • equal to the weight of the fluid that's been displaced.

    這個力量和被排開的液體重量相等

  • This phenomenon is called Archimedes's Principle.

    這個現象稱為阿基米德定律

  • Objects that are less dense than water,

    物體密度比水小的時候

  • such as balsa wood,

    像是輕木條

  • icebergs,

    冰山

  • and inflatable rafts always float.

    和充氣橡皮艇一定會浮起來

  • That's because the upward buoyant force

    就是因為向上的壓力 (浮力)

  • is always stronger than the downward force of gravity.

    比向下的重力還要大

  • But for objects or ships to float when they're made of materials, like steel,

    但是船或其他可以浮在海上的物品,若是用鋼鐵製成

  • that are denser than water,

    或是其他密度比水還大的材質

  • they must displace a volume of water larger than their weight.

    他們就必須排開比自身重量還要大體積的水量

  • Normally, the water filling a ship's hull would increase its weight and cause it to sink -

    一般來說,當水注入船身時,船的重量就會增加而導致沉船

  • just what the "Mary Celeste's" crew feared when they abandoned ship.

    這也是為什麼水手們會逃離瑪麗‧賽勒斯特號

  • But the sailors didn't account for fluid dynamics.

    但是水手並沒有想到流體動力學

  • The water stopped flowing at the point of equilibrium,

    當不斷注入船身的水和破洞等高時

  • when it reached the same level as the hole.

    就會停止

  • As it turned out, the weight of the water wasn't enough to sink the ship

    最後結果,注入船身的水之重量並不足以讓船沉到海底

  • and the "Mary Celeste" was found a few days later

    幾天後瑪麗‧賽勒斯特號被人發現

  • while the unfortunate crew never made it to shore.

    但逃離它的水手卻沒有成功上岸

  • Far stranger is the tale of "A. Ernest Mills,"

    更離奇的是另一艘船 A. Ernest Mills

  • a schooner transporting salt,

    這是一艘專門運輸鹽巴的船

  • whose crew watched it sink to the sea floor following a collision.

    船員眼睜睜看著它在碰撞後沉到海底

  • Yet four days later, it was spotted floating on the surface.

    但是四天後,卻被發現好好地在海上

  • The key to the mystery lay in the ship's heavy cargo of salt.

    真正的原因其實和船上載的大量鹽巴有關

  • The added weight of the water in the hull made the vessel sink,

    一開始沉船的原因的確是因為注入的海水讓船身變重

  • but as the salt dissolved in the water,

    但是船身的鹽巴融於海水後

  • the weight decreased enough

    重量大幅減輕

  • that the force of gravity became less than the buoyant force

    重力小於浮力

  • and the ship floated back to the surface.

    所以船又浮出海面

  • But how do we explain the most enduring aspect of ghost ship legends:

    但是我們究竟該如何解讀幽靈船傳說最詭異的一點:

  • multiple sightings of the same ships hundreds of miles and several years apart?

    目擊者會在距離沉船地點很遠的地方再次看見同一艘船

  • The answer lies in ocean currents,

    秘密就藏在洋流裡

  • which are like invisible rivers flowing through the ocean.

    洋流就像是藏在海底,看不見的河流

  • Factors, like temperature,

    生成的原因包含溫度

  • salinity,

    鹽度

  • wind,

    風向

  • gravity,

    重力

  • and the Coriolis effect from the Earth's rotation

    還有來自於地球自轉的科氏力

  • create a complex system of water movement.

    讓水流系統變得複雜

  • That applies both at the ocean's surface and deep below.

    不僅會影響海平面,也會影響深層的海底流動

  • Sailors have always known about currents,

    水手都知道洋流

  • but their patterns weren't well known until recently.

    但是最近才更加了解洋流的運作及影響

  • In fact, tracking abandoned ships was how scientists determined the shape

    事實上,追蹤這些棄船在早期是科學家找出

  • and speed of the Atlantic Gyre,

    大西洋環流的規模和速度

  • the Gulf Stream,

    墨西哥灣流

  • and related currents in the first place.

    還有其他相關的洋流的重要方法

  • Beginning in 1883, the U.S. Hydrographic Office

    1883 年開始,美國的水道測量局

  • began collecting monthly data that included navigation hazards,

    開始每個月都蒐集一些數據,包含航行的風險

  • like derelict ships, whose locations were reported by passing vessels.

    像是無人船的位置通常由經過的船隻回報

  • So abandoned ships may not be moved by ghost crews or supernatural curses,

    無人船會移動其實和幽靈或是其他超自然詛咒無關

  • but they are a real and fascinating phenomenon

    不過它們的確是真實且令人感興趣的現象

  • born through the ocean

    誕生於海上的秘密

  • and kept afloat by powerful, invisible, scientifically studied forces.

    持續由有力、看不見的科學力量航行

One foggy morning in 1884,

1884 年一個有霧的早晨,

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 船身 沉船 洋流 水手 重量

【TED-Ed】真的有幽靈船嗎? (Are ghost ships real? - Peter B. Campbell)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2017 年 05 月 20 日
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