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  • Mastering any physical skill, be it performing a pirouette, playing an instrument, or throwing a baseball, takes practice.

    想要精通任何動作技藝,無論是芭蕾足尖旋轉、表演一項樂器,或是棒球投球,都需要練習。

  • Practice is the repetition of an action with the goal of improvement, and it helps us perform with more ease, speed, and confidence.

    練習,是以進步為目標,不斷反覆該具備的動作,練習幫助我們能以更輕鬆的心態、速度與自信上台表演。

  • So what does practice do in our brains to make us better at things?

    所以「練習」到底是如何在腦中運作,幫助我們更加精進自身技藝呢?

  • Our brains have two kinds of neural tissue: grey matter and white matter.

    我們的大腦由兩種神經組織所構成,分別是 : 灰質與白質。

  • The grey matter processes information in the brain, directing signals and sensory stimuli to nerve cells, while white matter is mostly made up of fatty tissue and nerve fibers.

    灰質負責處理大腦中的資訊,引導信息與感官刺激運送至神經細胞,而白質多數由脂肪組織與神經纖維構成。

  • In order for our bodies to move, information needs to travel from the brain's grey matter, down the spinal cord, through a chain of nerve fibers called axons to our muscles.

    為了讓我們的身體能夠移動,訊息必須從大腦的灰質運達脊髓,經歷一串名為「神經元」的神經纖維,直到我們的肌肉。

  • So how does practice or repetition affect the inner workings of our brains?

    所以練習或反覆效應又是如何影響大腦內部運作呢?

  • The axons that exist in the white matter are wrapped with a fatty substance called myelin.

    位在白質的神經元受到名為「髓鞘」的脂質所包覆。

  • And it's this myelin covering, or sheath, that seems to change with practice.

    而正是這覆蓋著的髓鞘或稱「鞘」,促使練習得以改變原來狀態。

  • Myelin is similar to insulation on electrical cables.

    髓鞘與電纜上的絕緣構造有異曲同工之妙。

  • It prevents energy loss from electrical signals that the brain uses, moving them more efficiently along neural pathways.

    髓鞘能在大腦使用電信號時,以更有效率的方式移到神經通道上,防止能量損失。

  • Some recent studies in mice suggest that the repetition of a physical motion increases the layers of myelin sheath that insulates the axons.

    近期有些研究以老鼠為實驗對象,發現若不斷重複一動作技藝,就能夠增加包覆神經元外層的髓鞘 (或稱「鞘」) 厚度。

  • And the more layers, the greater the insulation around the axon chains, forming a sort of superhighway for information connecting your brain to your muscles.

    包裹層越厚,神經元鏈的絕緣效果就越好,形成某種像是資訊的「超強高速公路」,從大腦一路連到肌肉。

  • So while many athletes and performers attribute their successes to muscle memory, muscles themselves don't really have memory.

    所以許多運動員或表演者在獲得成功後,都歸功給自己經過努力後的肌肉記憶,然而事實上,肌肉本身並沒有記憶的能力。

  • Rather, it may be the myelination of neural pathways that gives these athletes and performers their edge with faster and more efficient neural pathways.

    真正擁有記憶能力的反倒是自己神經通道上的髓鞘形成,給予這些運動員與表演者過人優勢,皆是由更快速與更有效率的神經通道所致。

  • There are many theories that attempt to quantify the number of hours, days, and even years of practice that it takes to master a skill.

    有許多理論企圖藉由量化練習的時數、天數甚至年數,推測多久才能精通一項技能。

  • While we don't yet have a magic number, we do know that mastery isn't simply about the amount of hours of practice.

    雖然我們還沒得到那個神奇數字,但我們的確知道,要成為一位達人,絕對不只由練習的小時數所造就。

  • It's also the quality and effectiveness of that practice.

    也包括練習品質與練習效率。

  • Effective practice is consistent, intensely focused, and targets content or weaknesses that lie at the edge of one's current abilities.

    有效率地練習,建築在堅持、高度專注與目標內容和弱點的基石上,是突破個人目前能力的要素。

  • So if effective practice is the key, how can we get the most out of our practice time?

    所以,假如有效率的練習是關鍵,我們該如何在練習時間內獲得最大的效益?

  • Try these tips.

    可以試試看以下方法 :

  • Focus on the task at hand.

    只專注在目前手邊的任務。

  • Minimize potential distractions by turning off the computer or TV and putting your cell phone on airplane mode.

    將潛在的分心事物降到最低,像是電腦關機或關上電視,將手機轉到飛航模式。

  • In one study, researchers observed 260 students studying.

    一份報告指出,研究者觀察 260 位學生的學習。

  • On average, those students were able to stay on task for only six minutes at a time.

    平均而言,這些學生一次能專注在一項任務的時間只有 6 分鐘。

  • Laptops, smartphones, and particularly Facebook were the root of most distractions.

    筆記型電腦、智慧型手機,特別是臉書,都是引起分心的成因。

  • Start out slowly or in slow-motion.

    放慢腳步或慢動作練習。

  • Coordination is built with repetitions, whether correct or incorrect.

    協調能力建築在重複動作之上,無論這些動作是否正確。

  • If you gradually increase the speed of the quality repetitons, you have a better chance of doing them correctly.

    假如你漸漸增加有品質重複動作的練習速度,你就會有更高的機會可以把這些動作做對。

  • Next, frequent repetitions with allotted breaks are common practice habits of elite performers.

    接下來,頻繁的反覆練習伴著適當的休息時間,是在頂尖表演者群中常見的練習習慣。

  • Studies have shown that many top athletes, musicians, and dancers spend 50-60 hours per week on activities related to their craft.

    研究指出,許多頂尖的運動員、音樂家與舞者每週花 50 到 60 小時在練習個人領域的技藝。

  • Many divide their time used for effective practice into multiple daily practice sessions of limited duration.

    許多人將效率練習的時間分成每天限定時間的練習時段。

  • And finally, practice in your brain in vivid detail.

    最後,在腦海中生動模擬,練習一些細節處。

  • It's a bit surprising, but a number of studies suggest that once a physical motion has been established, it can be reinforced just by imagining it.

    這有點令人驚訝,但有些研究指出,一個肢體練習而成的動作一旦建立起來,這個動作可以只藉由想像就能獲得強化。

  • In one study, 144 basketball players were divided into two groups.

    有份研究顯示,將 144 位籃球選手分成兩組。

  • Group A physically practiced one-handed free throws while Group B only mentally practiced them.

    第一組只練習單手罰球,第二組則僅透過想像來練習。

  • When they were tested at the end of the two week experiment, the intermediate and experienced players in both groups had improved by nearly the same amount.

    經過兩個禮拜實驗後,兩組進行能力測試,兩組中處於中階與高階的籃球選手進球數的進步程度非常接近。

  • As scientists get closer to unraveling the secrets of our brains, our understanding of effective practice will only improve.

    當科學家離揭開大腦秘密又更近一步時,我們對有效練習的了解就會更上一層樓。

  • In the meantime, effective practice is the best way we have of pushing our individual limits, achieving new heights, and maximizing our potential.

    同時,有效率地練習是超越自身極限的最佳方法,達到更高的目標,將潛能發揮到極致。

Mastering any physical skill, be it performing a pirouette, playing an instrument, or throwing a baseball, takes practice.

想要精通任何動作技藝,無論是芭蕾足尖旋轉、表演一項樂器,或是棒球投球,都需要練習。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 練習 髓鞘 動作 技藝 效率 大腦

【TED-Ed】有效率地學習任何事物 (How to practice effectively...for just about anything - Annie Bosler and Don Greene)

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    LTC   發佈於 2019 年 02 月 03 日
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