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  • We are used to thinking very highly of democracyand by extension, of Ancient Athens, the

    哲學

  • civilisation that gave rise to it. The Parthenon has become almost a byword for democratic

    為何蘇格拉底憎恨民主制度

  • values, which is why so many leaders of democracies like to be photographed there.

    我們經常視民主制度為神聖的東西

  • It’s therefore very striking to discover that one of Ancient Greece’s great achievements,

    而透過古代雅典文明的拓展

  • Philosophy, was highly suspicious of its other achievement, Democracy.

    帕台農神廟已成為了民主價值的象征

  • The founding father of Greek PhilosophySocratesis portrayed, in the dialogues of Plato, as hugely pessimistic

    這是為何眾多支持民主的領袖也喜歡來到這裹拍照

  • about the whole business of democracy. In Book Six of The Republic, Plato describes

    正當如此,這也是非常驚人地發現..

  • Socrates falling into conversation with a character called Adeimantus and trying to

    其中一個最成功的古希臘哲學家曾經非常質疑他自己國家的其中一項成就: 民主制度

  • get him to see the flaws of democracy by comparing a society to a ship. If you were heading out

    古希臘哲學創始人蘇格拉底..

  • on a journey by sea, asks Socrates, who would you ideally want deciding who was in charge

    在<<柏拉圖對話錄>>中被描述為對民主制度感到極度悲觀

  • of the vessel? Just anyone or people educated in the rules and demands of seafaring? The

    在第六本<< the republic>>中,柏拉圖描寫一次蘇格拉底與一位名為卡埃烏斯的人物之間的對話

  • latter of course, says Adeimantus, so why then, responds Socrates, do we keep thinking

    為了令卡埃烏斯看到民主制度的缺陷, 他以社會比喻一艘船

  • that any old person should be fit to judge who should be a ruler of a country? Socrates’s

    蘇格拉底問: "想想你正在乘坐一艘船出海"

  • point is that voting in an election is a skill, not a random intuition. And like any skill,

    "你認為誰是最理想的船長?"

  • it needs to be taught systematically to people. Letting the citizenry vote without an education

    "是任何人都可以?還是一個受過教育, 懂得很多航海知識的人?"

  • is as irresponsible as putting them in charge of a trireme sailing to Samos in a storm.

    卡埃烏斯說: "當然是後者啦!"

  • Socrates was to have first hand, catastrophic experience of the foolishness of voters. In

    那為何蘇格拉底會認為任何年長的人應該是可以作決定的人和成為一個國家的統治者?

  • 399 BC, the philosopher was put on trial on trumped up charges of corrupting the youth

    蘇格拉底的論點是 " 投票和選舉是一種技巧, 而不是一種隨意的直覺"

  • of Athens. A jury of 500 Athenians was invited to weigh up the case and decided by a narrow

    就像其他技巧, 它需要被有系統地教導人們

  • margin that the philosopher was guilty. He was put to death by hemlock in a process which

    任由沒有受過教育的市民去投票是不負責任的

  • is, for thinking people, every bit as tragic as Jesus’s condemnation has been for Christians.

    就像將一艘在風暴中航行的三列槳座戰船交給他們控制一樣

  • Crucially, Socrates was not elitist in the normal sense. He didn’t believe that a narrow

    蘇格拉底曾經有著慘重的親身經驗見證選民們的愚蠢

  • few should only ever vote. He did, however, insist that only those who had thought about

    在399 BC, 蘇格拉底被控告一項莫須有的罪名 (腐蝕雅典青年思想之罪名)

  • issues rationally and deeply should be let near a vote. We have forgotten this distinction

    總共500位雅典人的陪審團被邀請去作出判決

  • between an intellectual democracy and a democracy by birthright. We have given the vote to all

    最終結果以很窄的差距判決蘇格拉底為有罪

  • without connecting it to wisdom. And Socrates knew exactly where that would lead:

    他被判以飲毒參的死刑

  • to a system the Greeks feared above all, demagoguery.

    這是一種對思考者的懲罰, 就像耶穌對他門徒的懲罰一樣悲慘

  • Ancient Athens had painful experience of demagogues, for example, the louche figure of Alcibiades,

    重要的是, 蘇格拉底並不是一個精英主義者

  • a rich, charismatic, smooth-talking wealthy man who eroded basic freedoms and helped to

    他並不贊同應該只有一少群人擁有投票權

  • push Athens to its disastrous military adventures in Sicily. Socrates knew how easily people

    但他卻堅持只有那些擁有理性和深層思考的人才值得有投票的機會

  • seeking election could exploit our desire for easy answers. He asked us to imagine an

    我們已經忘記"知識分子民主"和出生權民主(即在那國家出生便有投票權)"之間的分別

  • election debate between two candidates, one who was like a doctor and the other who was

    我們給與了所有人投票權, 卻沒有給他們投票的智慧

  • like a sweet shop owner. The sweet shop owner would say of his rival: Look, this person

    而蘇格拉底知道這樣的後果會導致什麼

  • here has worked many evils on you. He hurts you, gives you bitter potions and tells you

    就是一個令希臘人一開始驚怕的制度

  • not to eat and drink whatever you like. Hell never serve you feasts of many and varied

    (demagoguery) 群眾煽動,煽動行為,散佈謠言

  • pleasant things like I will. Socrates asks us to consider the audience response: Do you

    古雅典有著痛苦的煽動者(demagogu)經驗

  • think the doctor would be able to reply effectively? The true answer – ‘I cause you trouble,

    例如一個失控的人物阿爾西比亞德斯

  • and go against you desires in order to help youwould cause an uproar among the voters,

    一位富有,有魅力,善言詞的有錢人

  • don’t you think? We have forgotten all about Socrates’s salient warnings against democracy.

    為了個人意願踐踏基本自由, 從而推行一場在西西里的慘重戰爭

  • We have preferred to think of democracy as an unambiguous goodrather than as something

    蘇格拉底知道一場選舉, 會多容易被人們追求簡單解決方法的心態而所破壞

  • that is only ever as effective as the education system that surrounds it. As a result, we

    想像一下在一場有兩位候選人中的選舉辦論中,

  • have elected many sweet shop owners, and very few doctors.

    一位是醫生,另一位是一個糖果店老闆

We are used to thinking very highly of democracyand by extension, of Ancient Athens, the

哲學

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 蘇格拉底 民主 制度 投票權 雅典 煽動

蘇格拉底為什麼討厭民主? (Why Socrates Hated Democracy)

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    c_hoimantik 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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