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  • That splendid music, the coming-in music,

    這美妙的音樂﹐剛剛的進場音樂 -

  • "The Elephant March" from "Aida," is the music I've chosen for my funeral.

    那是歌劇《阿依達》中的“The Elephant March", 是我為自己的葬禮準備的音樂。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And you can see why. It's triumphal.

    不難理解,它充滿了勝利感。

  • I won't feel anything, but if I could,

    我覺得 - 當然到時候我什麼也感覺不到,但如果我能的話

  • I would feel triumphal at having lived at all,

    我會覺得活過本身就是勝利,

  • and at having lived on this splendid planet,

    在這麼一個美妙的星球活過,

  • and having been given the opportunity to understand

    有這個機會能去了解

  • something about why I was here in the first place, before not being here.

    為什麼我會在這裡﹐在我出現在這裡之前

  • Can you understand my quaint English accent?

    大家都能聽懂我古雅的英文口音嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    和大家一樣,我為昨天有關動物的那一段而著迷。

  • Like everybody else, I was entranced yesterday by the animal session.

    Robert Full, Frans Lanting, 和其他演講人,

  • Robert Full and Frans Lanting and others;

    都展示了優美的東西。

  • the beauty of the things that they showed.

    唯一稍微有點不和諧的是當Jeffery Katzenberg說到野馬的時候,

  • The only slight jarring note was when Jeffrey Katzenberg said of the mustang,

    「上帝在地球上創造的最優美的生物。」

  • "the most splendid creatures that God put on this earth."

    當然,我們知道他不是真的要表達這個意思,

  • Now of course, we know that he didn't really mean that,

    但是在這個國家這個時候,你不得不非常小心。

  • but in this country at the moment, you can't be too careful.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    我是一個生物學家,而我們學科的中心主題是:設計的理論,

  • I'm a biologist, and the central theorem of our subject: the theory of design,

    達爾文的物競天擇的演化論,

  • Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.

    在任何地方的專業圈裡,都被廣為接受

  • In professional circles everywhere, it's of course universally accepted.

    在美國以外的非專業圈裡則是基本上沒人理睬的

  • In non-professional circles outside America, it's largely ignored.

    但是在美國的非專業圈裡呢,

  • But in non-professional circles within America,

    它卻引來了那麼多的敵意 --

  • it arouses so much hostility --

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    可以說美國的生物學家們在進行著一場戰爭。

  • it's fair to say that American biologists are in a state of war.

    而這場戰爭現在是那麼的讓人擔心,

  • The war is so worrying at present,

    法庭訴訟案件在一個又一個的州出現,

  • with court cases coming up in one state after another,

    我覺得我必須說點什麼

  • that I felt I had to say something about it.

    如果你想知道我對達爾文主義的看法,

  • If you want to know what I have to say about Darwinism itself,

    恐怕你必須看我的書,

  • I'm afraid you're going to have to look at my books,

    那本你無法在外面書店找到的書

  • which you won't find in the bookstore outside.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    現在法庭訴訟案件,

  • Contemporary court cases

    經常是關於一種所謂的新版本的創世說,

  • often concern an allegedly new version of creationism,

    叫智能設計或者ID

  • called "Intelligent Design," or ID.

    不要被矇騙了,ID不是什麼新觀念

  • Don't be fooled. There's nothing new about ID.

    它只是創世說換了個名堂而已。

  • It's just creationism under another name,

    重新洗禮命名--我特意的這麼說--

  • rechristened -- I choose the word advisedly --

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    --因為策略上和政治上的原因。

  • for tactical, political reasons.

    所謂的ID論者的論據

  • The arguments of so-called ID theorists

    和那些被一次又一次的否定過的論據是一模一樣的,

  • are the same old arguments that had been refuted again and again,

    從達爾文的時代到今天。

  • since Darwin down to the present day.

    有一個有效的演化論遊說團體,

  • There is an effective evolution lobby

    代表著科學組織著戰鬥,

  • coordinating the fight on behalf of science,

    而我則盡我所能地幫助他們,

  • and I try to do all I can to help them,

    當像我這樣的人膽敢提到我是演化論者

  • but they get quite upset when people like me dare to mention

    同時也是無神論者時,他們會很不愉快

  • that we happen to be atheists as well as evolutionists.

    他們覺得我們在製造不必要的麻煩,你們都明白為什麼原因。

  • They see us as rocking the boat, and you can understand why.

    創世論者們在沒有任何有效論據的情況下,

  • Creationists, lacking any coherent scientific argument for their case,

    只能夠利用大眾對無神論的恐懼心理。

  • fall back on the popular phobia against atheism:

    如果你在生物課裡教你的孩子演化論,

  • Teach your children evolution in biology class,

    那他們很快就會變成癮君子、慣竊、和性變態。

  • and they'll soon move on to drugs, grand larceny and sexual "pre-version."

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    事實上,當然,自教皇以下有教養的神學家

  • In fact, of course, educated theologians from the Pope down

    都是堅決地支持演化論的。

  • are firm in their support of evolution.

    這本書,Kenneth Miller 的“尋找達爾文的上帝”,

  • This book, "Finding Darwin's God," by Kenneth Miller,

    是對智能設計最有效的攻擊之一

  • is one of the most effective attacks on Intelligent Design that I know

    據我所知,而讓它更有效的地方是

  • and it's all the more effective because it's written by a devout Christian.

    它是有一個虔誠的基督徒寫的。

  • People like Kenneth Miller could be called a "godsend" to the evolution lobby,

    像Kenneth Miller這樣的人可以說是上帝賜給演化論遊說團體的禮物--

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • because they expose the lie that evolutionism is, as a matter of fact,

    -- 因為他們揭露了演化論就是

  • tantamount to atheism.

    等同於無神論的謊言。

  • People like me, on the other hand, rock the boat.

    而像我這樣的人呢,在製造麻煩。

  • But here, I want to say something nice about creationists.

    不過在這裡,我要為創世論者說點好話。

  • It's not a thing I often do, so listen carefully.

    這可不是我常幹的事,所以請細心聽好。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • I think they're right about one thing.

    我覺得他們在一件事上是對的。

  • I think they're right that evolution

    他們正確地認識到

  • is fundamentally hostile to religion.

    演化論跟宗教是根本上勢不兩立的。

  • I've already said that many individual evolutionists, like the Pope,

    我已經說過了很多演化論者,像教宗一樣

  • are also religious, but I think they're deluding themselves.

    同時信奉宗教,但我覺得他們在自欺欺人。

  • I believe a true understanding of Darwinism

    我相信達爾文主義的真正含義

  • is deeply corrosive to religious faith.

    是對宗教信仰有很大的腐蝕性的。

  • Now, it may sound as though I'm about to preach atheism,

    也許我現在聽起來像是在為無神論講道,

  • and I want to reassure you that that's not what I'm going to do.

    但我保證這不是我要做的事情。

  • In an audience as sophisticated as this one,

    在一群這麼有智慧的聽眾面前

  • that would be preaching to the choir.

    那就像向唱詩班講道。

  • No, what I want to urge upon you --

    不,我所要想你們敦促的是--

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Instead, what I want to urge upon you is militant atheism.

    我所要向你們敦促的是成為無神論的鬥士。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • But that's putting it too negatively.

    但這又把它說得太消極了。

  • If I was a person who were interested in preserving religious faith,

    如果我要--如果我是一個要維護宗教信仰的人,

  • I would be very afraid of the positive power of evolutionary science,

    我會非常害怕演化論科學會帶來的

  • and indeed science generally, but evolution in particular,

    任何科學,但特別是演化論,

  • to inspire and enthrall, precisely because it is atheistic.

    去激勵和吸引人心的積極作用,正因為它是無神的。

  • Now, the difficult problem for any theory of biological design

    現在,一個在所有生物設計論都難解決的問題

  • is to explain the massive statistical improbability of living things.

    是怎樣去解析物種生存的極高的統計上的不可能性。

  • Statistical improbability in the direction of good design --

    向好的設計發展的統計上的不可能性--

  • "complexity" is another word for this.

    換個說法就是複雜性。

  • The standard creationist argument --

    標準的神創論的論據-- 只有一個, 它們歸根到底就只有這個--

  • there is only one; they're all reduced to this one --

    除去所有統計上的不可能性。

  • takes off from a statistical improbability.

    生物的複雜性不可能只是偶然

  • Living creatures are too complex to have come about by chance;

    所以它們一定有一個設計者。

  • therefore, they must have had a designer.

    這個論據當然,是自相矛盾的。

  • This argument of course, shoots itself in the foot.

    任何可以設計複雜事物的設計者

  • Any designer capable of designing something really complex

    一定要比他所涉及的東西更複雜,這還不包括

  • has to be even more complex himself,

    我們期望他做的其他事情,

  • and that's before we even start on the other things he's expected to do,

    譬如說寬恕罪過,保佑婚姻,聆聽祈禱--

  • like forgive sins, bless marriages, listen to prayers --

    -- 和在打仗的時候站到我們這邊 --

  • favor our side in a war --

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    -- 干涉我們的性生活,和別的。

  • disapprove of our sex lives, and so on.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    複雜性是所有生物理論都要解決的問題,

  • Complexity is the problem that any theory of biology has to solve,

    但你不能通過幻想出一個跟複雜的機體來解決它,

  • and you can't solve it by postulating an agent that is even more complex,

    從而使問題進一步加深。

  • thereby simply compounding the problem.

    達爾文的自然選擇是那麼讓驚人的優雅

  • Darwinian natural selection is so stunningly elegant

    因為它解決了解析複雜性的的問題

  • because it solves the problem of explaining complexity

    用非常簡單的方式。

  • in terms of nothing but simplicity.

    基本上,這是通過簡單的累積

  • Essentially, it does it by providing a smooth ramp

    逐漸一步步的變化。

  • of gradual, step-by-step increment.

    不過在這裡, 我只是要強調

  • But here, I only want to make the point

    達爾文主義的優雅對宗教是有腐蝕性的

  • that the elegance of Darwinism is corrosive to religion,

    正因為它是如此的優雅,簡單,有力,

  • precisely because it is so elegant, so parsimonious, so powerful,

    有那麼強大的經濟性。

  • so economically powerful.

    它有著像一座美麗的吊橋那樣發達的系統。

  • It has the sinewy economy of a beautiful suspension bridge.

    上帝的理論不僅是劣拙的理論。

  • The God theory is not just a bad theory.

    到頭來,它在原則上不能解決要解決的問題。

  • It turns out to be -- in principle --

    那麼,回到策略和演化論遊說團上來,

  • incapable of doing the job required of it.

    我要辨論也許製造麻煩正是我們應該做的事。

  • So, returning to tactics and the evolution lobby,

    我攻擊創世論的方法和演化論遊說團不一樣.

  • I want to argue that rocking the boat

    我攻擊創世論的方法是從整體上來攻擊宗教,

  • may be just the right thing to do.

    在這個時候我要指出一個異乎尋常的禁忌--

  • My approach to attacking creationism is --

    我們不能說宗教的壞話的禁忌。

  • unlike the evolution lobby --

    而我將藉用已故的Douglas Adams所說的話,

  • my approach to attacking creationism is to attack religion as a whole.

    他是我一個很好的朋友,如果他沒有來過TED的話,

  • And at this point I need to acknowledge the remarkable taboo

    那麼他在世的時候你們真的應該要請他。

  • against speaking ill of religion,

    (Richard Saul Wurman: 我們邀請過他了。)

  • and I'm going to do so in the words of the late Douglas Adams,

    Richard Dawkins: 是嗎,好。我就想他肯定來過。

  • a dear friend who, if he never came to TED,

    在他死前不久有段在劍橋錄製演講

  • certainly should have been invited.

    是這樣開始的。

  • (Richard Saul Wurman: He was.)

    他說科學假設必須通過各種各樣的測試

  • Richard Dawkins: He was. Good. I thought he must have been.

    而這些假設都是建立在容易被反證的基礎上的,他接著說,

  • He begins this speech, which was tape recorded in Cambridge

    我引用他的話, “宗教好像並不是這樣子的”

  • shortly before he died --

    在它的中心有一些我們奉以為神聖的概念。

  • he begins by explaining how science works through the testing of hypotheses

    它的意思就是有這麼一個概念或者說法

  • that are framed to be vulnerable to disproof, and then he goes on.

    你不允許說它有任何不好的地方。

  • I quote, "Religion doesn't seem to work like that.

    你不可以,為什麼呢?因為你不可以。

  • It has certain ideas at the heart of it, which we call 'sacred' or 'holy.'

    (笑)

  • What it means is: here is an idea or a notion

    為什麼我們可以理所當然的支持民主黨或者共和黨,

  • that you're not allowed to say anything bad about.

    這種經濟模式或者那種經濟模式,蘋果Mac或者微軟Windows,

  • You're just not. Why not? Because you're not."

    但是當我們說到宇宙起源的時候,

  • (Laughter)

    當說到誰創造了宇宙的時候-- 不行,那是個神聖的話題。

  • "Why should it be that it's perfectly legitimate

    所以,我們習慣了不去挑戰宗教的概念

  • to support the Republicans or Democrats,

    而當Richard挑戰宗教時能引起那麼多的不滿, 這真的很有意思,

  • this model of economics versus that,

    他指的是我不是哪位

  • Macintosh instead of Windows,

    「每個人都為此而憤怒了,

  • but to have an opinion about how the universe began,

    因為你是不許說這些話的,但當你理性地看這個時間

  • about who created the universe --

    我們沒有理由不去公開辯論這些宗教概念

  • no, that's holy.

    這和其他話題是一樣的,只是我們有不去討論它們的默契

  • So, we're used to not challenging religious ideas,

    而已。」 我引用Douglas的話到此結束。

  • and it's very interesting how much of a furor Richard creates

    在我看來,不僅是科學對宗教有腐蝕性,

  • when he does it." --

    宗教對科學也有腐蝕性。

  • He meant me, not that one.

    它教導人們去滿足於瑣碎的、超自然的謬論

  • "Everybody gets absolutely frantic about it,

    而看不到我們觸手可及的美妙的真理。

  • because you're not allowed to say these things.

    它教導他們接受權威、啟示、和信仰

  • Yet when you look at it rationally,

    而放棄對佐證的不懈追求。

  • there's no reason why those ideas

    這就是Douglas Adams, 在他的書《最後一眼》裡精彩的照片。

  • shouldn't be as open to debate as any other,

    這裡是一份典型的科學刊物,the Quarterly Review of Biology.

  • except that we've agreed somehow between us

    而我將作為客座編輯來編輯

  • that they shouldn't be."

    一份題為《恐龍是因為小行星撞擊地球而滅絕的嗎?》的特刊。

  • And that's the end of the quote from Douglas.

    第一份論文是標準的的科學論文

  • In my view, not only is science corrosive to religion;

    羅列證據, 「在介於白堊紀和第三紀之間的含銥黏土層

  • religion is corrosive to science.

    通過使用鉀-氬法鑑定Yucatan的隕坑里的年代後,

  • It teaches people to be satisfied with trivial,

    顯示了恐龍是因為小行星撞擊地球而滅絕的。」

  • supernatural non-explanations,

    非常典型的科學論文。

  • and blinds them to the wonderful, real explanations

    下一份,「皇家學會的主席

  • that we have within our grasp.

    被賜予了一個堅強的信念 -- (笑)--

  • It teaches them to accept authority, revelation and faith,

    恐龍是因為小行星撞擊地球而滅絕的。」

  • instead of always insisting on evidence.

    (笑)

  • There's Douglas Adams, magnificent picture from his book, "Last Chance to See."

    「Huxtane教授在私底下被告示

  • Now, there's a typical scientific journal,

    恐龍是因為小行星撞擊地球而滅絕的。」

  • The Quarterly Review of Biology.

    (笑)

  • And I'm going to put together, as guest editor,

    「Hordley 教授被帶引致

  • a special issue on the question, "Did an asteroid kill the dinosaurs?"

    完全毫無疑問的信仰」--

  • And the first paper is a standard scientific paper,

    (笑)

  • presenting evidence,

    「恐龍是因為小行星撞擊地球而滅絕的

  • "Iridium layer at the K-T boundary,

    道金斯教授頒發了一份官方教條

  • and potassium argon dated crater in Yucatan,

    規定所有忠誠的信奉道金斯的人,

  • indicate that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs."

    認知恐龍是因為小行星撞擊地球而滅絕的。」

  • Perfectly ordinary scientific paper.

    (笑)

  • Now, the next one.

    這當然是不可思議的。

  • "The President of the Royal Society

    但假如 --

  • has been vouchsafed a strong inner conviction

    (鼓掌)

  • that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs."

    -- 1987年,一位記者問老布什總統

  • (Laughter)

    他是否承認在美國的人們會擁有同等的公民權和愛國主義

  • "It has been privately revealed to Professor Huxtane

    如果他們是無神論者的話

  • that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs."

    布希先生很著名的回答說

  • (Laughter)

    「不,我不認為無神論者應該被當作公民,

  • "Professor Hordley was brought up

    他們也不應該被當作愛國者。

  • to have total and unquestioning faith" --

    這是一個上帝引領下的國度 。」

  • (Laughter) --

    布希的偏執並不是一個單獨的錯誤,

  • "that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs."

    在興致所至的時候脫口而出,然後又收回去。

  • "Professor Hawkins has promulgated an official dogma

    他面對反覆的讓他澄清和收回這句話的要求並沒有退讓。

  • binding on all loyal Hawkinsians

    他是真的這麼認為的。

  • that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs."

    更重要的是,他知道這並不影響他的競選,相反,

  • (Laughter)

    民主黨和共和黨都標榜他們的宗教信仰,

  • That's inconceivable, of course.

    如果他們要獲選的話。兩個黨都說這是上帝帶領下的國家。

  • But suppose --

    如果托馬斯•杰佛遜看到這個情況的話他會怎麼說呢?

  • [Supporters of the Asteroid Theory cannot be patriotic citizens]

    順便說一句, 我通常並不為作為英國人而非常自豪,

  • (Laughter)

    但實在忍不住要作出這個比較。

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • In 1987, a reporter asked George Bush, Sr.

    事實上,一個無神論者是個怎樣的人呢?

  • whether he recognized the equal citizenship and patriotism

    一個無神論者只是一個對耶和華的看法

  • of Americans who are atheists.

    和任何正經的基督教徒對托爾或者巴爾或者金牛犢的看法一樣的人。

  • Mr. Bush's reply has become infamous.

    正如之前所說,我們對人類歷史上絕大部分的神來說都是無神論者。

  • "No, I don't know that atheists should be considered citizens,

    只是我們有些人不相信的神要更多一個而已。

  • nor should they be considered patriots.

    (笑)

  • This is one nation under God."

    (鼓掌)

  • Bush's bigotry was not an isolated mistake,

    無論我們怎樣定義無神論,它都肯定是這麼一種學術信仰,

  • blurted out in the heat of the moment and later retracted.

    一個人有權利去相信而不用為此被詆毀為一個

  • He stood by it in the face of repeated calls for clarification or withdrawal.

    不愛國沒有選舉權的非公民的信仰。

  • He really meant it.

    然而,這是一個不可否認的現實,選擇成為一個無神論者

  • More to the point, he knew it posed no threat to his election --

    就是相當於介紹你自己是希特勒先生或者魔王小姐。

  • quite the contrary.

    這些都源於把無神論者看為

  • Democrats as well as Republicans parade their religiousness

    怪誕的,過時的少數派別。

  • if they want to get elected.

    Natalie Angier 在《紐約客》雜誌上寫過一分相當傷感的文章,

  • Both parties invoke "one nation under God."

    說作為一個無神論者她覺得多麼孤獨。

  • What would Thomas Jefferson have said?

    她明顯覺得自己屬於受困擾的少數派,

  • [In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty]

    但是實際上,到底美國無神論者們的數目加起來有多少呢?

  • Incidentally, I'm not usually very proud of being British,

    最新的調查結果出人意外的振奮人心。

  • but you can't help making the comparison.

    基督教,當然,佔了人口裡最大的份額

  • (Applause)

    有將近一億六千萬。

  • In practice, what is an atheist?

    但你覺得第二大的群體是哪個呢,

  • An atheist is just somebody who feels about Yahweh

    令人信服的比二百八十萬猶太教,加上一百一十萬的穆斯林,

  • the way any decent Christian feels about Thor or Baal or the golden calf.

    加上印度教,佛教和別的宗教加起來都要多的?

  • As has been said before, we are all atheists about most of the gods

    第二大的有著將近3千萬的,

  • that humanity has ever believed in.

    是那個被稱為不信教或者非宗教的群體。

  • Some of us just go one god further.

    你是感到奇怪,為什麼追求票數的政客們

  • (Laughter)

    那麼路人皆知的被譬如說猶太教遊說團體說嚇到。

  • (Applause)

    以色列這個國家好像

  • And however we define atheism, it's surely the kind of academic belief

    好像都要靠美國猶太人的投票,但在相同的時候,

  • that a person is entitled to hold without being vilified

    不信教的人卻基本上在政治上不值一提。

  • as an unpatriotic, unelectable non-citizen.

    這部分來在不信教的人的投票,如果適當地動員起來,