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字幕列表 影片播放

  • Imagine you were alive back in the 1980's and were told

    想像你現在活在1980年代

  • the computers would soon take over everything.

    有人對你說電腦會變成生活的一部分

  • >From shopping to dating and the stock market.

    從購物到交友

  • That billions of people would be connected via a kind of web.

    以及股市

  • That you would own a handheld device

    數十億人透過一種網交流

  • orders of magnitude more powerful than supercomputers.

    你會擁有一種掌上機器

  • It would seem absurd but then all of it happened.

    比超級電腦更為強大

  • Science fiction became our reality that we don't even think about it

    聽起來如同夢話

  • We're at a similar point today with genetic engineering.

    但現在全部都成真了

  • So let's talk about it.

    科幻小說成為現實

  • Where it came from? What we're doing right now?

    而被我們當作理所當然

  • And about a recent breakthrough that will change how we live

    目前基因工程的情況類似當時的電腦

  • and what we perceive as "normal" forever.

    現在就讓我們來討論

  • Humans have been engineering life for thousands of years. Through selective breeding

    它的歷史以及目前的情況

  • we strengthened useful traits and plants and animals.

    近期的突破會如何永遠改變我們的生活及世界觀

  • We became very good at this but never truly understood how it works.

    [片頭曲]

  • Until we discovered the code of life: deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA,

    基因工程

  • a complex molecule the guide of the growth, development function

    幾千年來人們不斷改造 (馴服) 生物

  • and reproduction of everything alive.

    透過人擇

  • Information is encoded in the structure of the molecule.

    我們不斷強化有利我們的特徵 (厚皮大籽→薄皮細籽)

  • Four nucleotides are paired and make up a code that carries instructions.

    技術愈來愈精進,但一直不清楚為什麼

  • Change the instructions and you change the being carrying it.

    直到我們發現了生命密碼

  • As soon as DNA was discovered people try to tinker with it.

    去氧核醣核酸 DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)

  • In the 1960's, scientists bombarded plants with radiation

    控制生物生長、發展、作用及生殖的複雜分子

  • to cause random mutations in the genetic code.

    資訊由分子的結構儲存

  • The idea was to get a useful plant variation by pure chance.

    四種核心成對組成指令

  • Sometimes, it actually worked too.

    改變指令就能改變生物

  • In the 70's, scientists inserted DNA snippets into bacteria, plants and animals

    在 DNA 剛被發現時人們就試圖更動它

  • to study and modify them for research, medicine, agriculture and for fun.

    在1960年代,科學家們用輻射照射植物使其基因產生隨機突變

  • The earliest genetically modified animal was born in 1974,

    希望可以隨機取得有利的品種

  • making mice a standard tool for research, saving millions of lives.

    有時,真的可以成功

  • In the 80's, we got commercial.

    在70年代,科學家在細菌、植物及動物中注入DNA片段來研究及改變

  • first patent was given for a microbe engineered to absorb oil today we

    用作研究、醫藥、農業及興趣

  • produce many chemicals by means of engineered life like life-saving

    第一個轉基因動物在1974年出生

  • clotting factors growth hormones and insulin, all things we had to harvest

    使得老鼠成為研究工具拯救了百萬人的性命

  • from the organs of animals before that. The first food modified in the lab went

    在80年代,開始商業化

  • on sale in 1994: the Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato given a much longer shelf life

    第一項專利是一種能吸收油脂的微生物

  • where an extra gene that suppresses the build-up of a rotting enzyme. But GM food

    在今日,我們透過許多人造生物來產生化學物質

  • and the controversy surrounding them deserve a video of their own.

    例如凝血因子、生長激素及胰島素

  • In the 1990's there was also a brief foray into human engineering. To treat

    許多原本必須從動物器官中提取

  • maternal infertility, babies were made to carry genetic information from

    第一個基改食品在1994年發售

  • three humans making them the first humans ever to have three genetic

    FLAVR SAVR 蕃茄

  • parents. Today there are super muscled pigs, fast-growing salmon, featherless

    一個可以儲藏更久的蕃茄

  • chickens and see-through frogs. On the fun side, we made things glow in the dark

    一個額外的基因抑制了使蕃茄腐壞的酶

  • fluorescent zebrafish are available for as little as ten dollars.

    但有關基改作物及其爭議值得製作另一部影片

  • All of this is already very impressive but until recently,

    基因改造作物

  • gene editing was extremely expensive, complicated and took a long time to do.

    在1990年代也曾有短暫的人因工程研究

  • This has now changed with a revolutionary new technology now

    為了治療不孕症,嬰兒由三個人提供基因訊息

  • entering the stage: CRISPR. Overnight, the costs of engineering have shrunk by 99%

    使得他們成為第一批擁有三個生父母的人類

  • Instead of a year.

    在今日,超級肌肉豬、快速成長鮭、無毛雞及透明蛙

  • it takes a few weeks to conduct experiments and basically everybody with

    為了興趣,我們讓生物在夜中發光

  • a lab can do it. It's hard to get across how big a technical revolution CRISPR is.

    便宜的熒光魚甚至一條不到十美元

  • It literally has the potential to change humanity forever.

    這些已經非常神奇

  • Why did this sudden revolution happen and how does it work?

    但直到最近,基因改造非常昂貴

  • Bacteria and viruses have been fighting since the dawn of life.

    複雜,且耗費許多時間

  • So-called bacteriophages, or phages, hunt bacteria.

    這被一個革命性的新技術出現所改變

  • In the ocean, phages kill 40% of them every single day.

    CRISPR

  • Phages do this by inserting their own genetic code into

    一夜之間,基因工程的成本降低了99%

  • the bacteria and taking them over to use them as factories.

    實驗原本需要一年的時間縮短成幾個星期 並且有實驗室的人都可以使用

  • The bacteria try to resist, but fail most of the time

    也許很難想像 CRISPR 是如何大的技術革命

  • because their protection tools are too weak.

    它可以說是擁有改變人類的力量

  • But sometimes, bacteria survive an attack. Only if they do so can they activate

    為什麼會出現這個技術革命

  • their most effective antivirus system. They save a part of the virus DNA in

    它又是如何作用的?

  • their own genetic code in a DNA archive called CRISPR.

    最古老的戰爭

  • Here it's stored safely until it's needed.

    從生命出現開始,細菌與病毒就不斷戰鬥

  • When the virus attacks again, the bacterium quickly makes an RNA copy

    一種稱作噬菌體的病毒獵取細菌

  • from the DNA archive and arms a secret weapon, a protein called Cas9.

    每天它們獵殺海洋中 40% 的細菌

  • The protein now scans the bacterium's inside for signs of the virus invader by

    噬菌體透過注入自己的基因到細菌中

  • comparing every bit of DNA it finds to the sample from the archive.

    並使細菌成為自己控制的工廠

  • When it finds a 100-percent perfect match

    細菌會試圖抵抗,但大多時候會失敗

  • it's activated and cuts out the virus DNA making it useless, protecting the

    因為細菌的抵抗系統太弱

  • bacterium against the attack.

    但有時,細菌會在攻擊下存活。

  • What's special is that Cas9 is very precise, almost like a DNA surgeon.

    只有存活下來才能啟動它們最厲害的防禦系統

  • The revolution began when scientists figured out that the CRISPR system is programmable.

    它們在自己的基因中儲存病毒的一部分 DNA

  • You can just give it a copy of DNA you want to modify and put the

    被儲存的地方稱作 CRISPR

  • system into a living cell. If the old techniques of genetic manipulation were

    在要使用前安全的存在這裡

  • like a map, CRISPR is like a GPS system. Aside from being precise cheap and easy,

    當病毒再次攻擊

  • CRISPR offers the ability to edit life cells to switch genes on and

    細菌會快速從儲存的地方製作一份 RNA 複製品

  • off and target and study particular DNA sequences.

    並武裝一個稱作 CAS9 的蛋白質祕密武器

  • It also works for every type of cell: microorganisms, plants

    蛋白質會在細菌裡面掃描病毒入侵者的跡象

  • animals or humans. But despite the revolution CRISPR is for science,

    透過與儲存中樣本比對 DNA

  • it's still just a first generation tool. More precise tools are already being

    當它發現一個 100% 相同的批配

  • created and used as we speak.

    它會啟動並剪下病毒的 DNA

  • In 2015, scientists use CRISPR to cut the HIV virus out of living cells from patients

    使其失去作用,面對攻擊時保護細菌。

  • in the lab, proving that it was possible. Only about a year later they carried out

    Cas9 特別之處在於它非常精確

  • a larger scale project with rats that had the HIV virus in basically all of

    如同 DNA 外科醫生

  • their body cells. By simply injecting CRISPR into the rats tails, they were

    技術革命就來自於研究員發現可以控制 CRISPR 的機制

  • able to remove more than 50% of the virus from cells all over the body.

    給它一份你想更動的 DNA 片段

  • In a few decades, a CRISPR therapy might cure HIV and other retroviruses.

    然後將它放入活細胞

  • Viruses that hide inside human DNA like herpes could be eradicated this way.

    如果舊方法如同用地圖找路

  • CRISPR could also defeat one of our worst enemies: cancer. Cancer occurs when

    CRISPR 就像用 GPS

  • cells refused to die and keep multiplying while concealing themselves

    除了精確、便宜及簡單

  • from the immune system. CRISPR gives us the means to edit your immune cells and

    CRISPR 擁有更改活著的細胞的能力

  • make them better cancer hunters. Getting rid of cancer might eventually mean

    可以開關特定基因,也可研究單一片段

  • getting just a couple of injections of a few thousand of your own cells that have

    它也可以在所有細胞中使用

  • been engineered in the lab to heal you for good.

    微生物、植物、動物和人類

  • The first clinical trial for a CRISPR cancer treatment on human patients was

    即使 CRISPR 對科學而言的確是革命性的

  • approved in early 2016 in the US. Not even a month later, Chinese

    它依然只是基因工程工具的開始

  • scientists announced that they would treat lung cancer patients with immune

    在這部影片播放同時有更精確的工具被創造及使用

  • cells modified by CRISPR in August 2016. Things are picking up pace quickly.

    疾病的消失?

  • And then there are genetic diseases. There are thousands of them and they range,

    在 2015 年

  • from merely annoying to deadly or entail decades of suffering. With a powerful

    科學家利用 CRISPR 在實驗室從病人的活細胞中剪下的 HIV 基因

  • tool like CRISPR, we may be able to end this. Over 3,000 genetic diseases are

    證明它是可以做到的

  • caused by a single incorrect letter in your DNA.

    僅一年之後

  • We are already building a modified version of Cas9 that is made to

    科學家用全部細胞都被感染 HIV 病毒的白老鼠實驗

  • change just a single letter, fixing the disease in the cell. In a decade or two

    透過注射 CRISPR 到鼠尾中

  • we could possibly cure thousands of diseases forever. But all of these

    成功在 50% 被感染的細胞中去除病毒

  • medical applications have one thing in common: they are limited to the

    在幾十年內,CRISPR 可能就可以治癒 HIV 患者

  • individual and die with them, except if you use them on reproductive cells or

    及其他反轉錄病毒

  • very early embryos. But CRISPR can and probably will be used for much more:

    隱藏在人類 DNA 中的病毒,例如:皰疹

  • the creation of modified humans, designer babies and will mean gradual but

    可以被消滅

  • irreversible changes to the human gene pool.

    CRISPR 也可能可以擊敗我們最強的敵人:癌症

  • The means to edit the genome of a

    癌症就是拒絕死亡的細胞不斷複製

  • human embryo already exists, though the technology is still in its early stages.

    同時避免被免疫系統發現

  • But it has already been attempted twice: in 2015 and 2016, Chinese scientists

    CRISPR 給我們編輯免疫細胞使它們更容易追蹤癌細胞

  • experimented with human embryos and were partially successful on their second

    治療癌症

  • attempt. They showed the enormous challenges we still face in gene editing

    可能變成注射幾千個實驗室改造的細胞

  • embryos but also that scientists are working on solving them.

    治療並且不會再復發

  • This is like the computer in the seventies: there will be better computers.

    第一個在人類患者身上的 CRISPR 臨床實驗

  • Regardless of your personal take on genetic engineering, it will affect you.

    在 2016 年初在美國核准許可

  • Modified humans could alter the genome of our entire species because their

    不到一個月後

  • engineered traits will be passed on to that children and could spread over

    中國的科學家宣布他們將用 CRISPR 改造後的免疫細胞 治療肺癌患者

  • generations slowly modifying the whole gene pool of humanity. It will start

    實驗會在 2016 年 8 月實施

  • slowly: the first designer babies will not be overly designed, it's most likely

    進步愈來愈快

  • that they will be created to eliminate deadly genetic disease running a family.

    還有超過數千種遺傳性疾病

  • As the technology progresses and gets more refined, more and more people may argue

    從僅僅麻煩、到致命或會造成患者數十年的苦難

  • that not using genetic modification is unethical, because it condemns children

    有了像 CRISPR 的厲害工具

  • to preventable suffering and death and denies them to cure. But as soon as the

    我們也許能夠終結這些遺傳疾病

  • first engineered kid is born, a door is opened that can't be closed anymore.

    有超過三千種疾病僅僅來自 DNA 中一個指令的錯誤

  • Early on, vanity traits will mostly be left alone, but as genetic modification

    我們已經在建立一個只能編輯 DNA 中一個字母的 CAS9

  • becomes more accepted and our knowledge of our genetic code enhances,

    治療細胞中的疾病

  • the temptation will grow.

    幾十年內,我們就可能可以終結數千種疾病

  • If you make your offspring immune to Alzheimer, why not also

    但這些治療的應用都有一個共同點

  • give them an enhanced metabolism?

    他只對個人有效

  • Why not throw in perfect eyesight? How about height or muscular structure?

    會跟著人死亡,除非被使用在生殖細胞中

  • Full hair? How about giving your child the gift of extraordinary intelligence? Huge changes

    或非常早期的胚胎

  • are made as a result of the personal decisions of millions of individuals

    但 CRISPR 可以也可能被用在更多應用

  • that accumulate. This is a slippery slope. Modified humans could become the new

    基因調整人、經過設計的嬰兒的出現

  • standard, but as engineering becomes more normal and our knowledge improves, we

    緩慢漸進及不可逆轉的改變人類基因庫

  • could solve the single biggest mortality risk factor: aging. Two-thirds of the

    經過設計的嬰兒

  • 150,000 people who die today will die of age-related causes. Currently we think

    編輯人類胚胎基因的技術早已存在

  • aging is caused by the accumulation of damage to ourselves, like DNA breaks and

    儘管技術仍處於初始階段

  • the system's responsible for fixing those wearing off over time. But there

    但已有兩次實驗

  • are also genes that directly affect aging. A combination of genetic

    在 2015 及 2016 年

  • engineering and other therapy could stop or slow down aging, maybe even reverse it.

    中國科學家用人類胚胎實驗

  • We know from nature that there are animals immune to aging. Maybe we could

    他們在第二次實驗時取得了部份成功

  • even borrow a few genes for ourselves. Some scientists even think biological

    他們顯示出我們編輯人類胚胎基因仍有困難

  • aging could be something that eventually just stops being a thing. We would still

    但科學家們也在努力解決這些問題

  • die at some point, but instead of doing so in hospitals at age 90

    這就像在 70 年代的電腦

  • we might be able to spend a few thousand years with our loved ones. Research into

    未來肯定會有更好的電腦

  • this is in its infancy, and many scientists are rightly skeptical about

    不管你對基因工程的態度為何

  • the end of aging. The challenges are enormous, and maybe it is unachievable.

    它一定會對你有影響

  • But it is conceivable that people alive today might be the first to profit from

    基因調整人會改變我們人類的基因庫

  • effective anti aging therapy. All we might need is for someone to convince a

    因為他們被調整的特徵會遺傳至他們的下一代

  • smart billionaire to make it their next problem to solve. On a bigger scale we

    並且擴散許多代並慢慢調整人類的基因庫

  • certainly could solve many problems by having a modified population. Engineered

    這不會一步到位,第一個基因調整嬰兒不會調整太多

  • humans might be better equipped to cope with high-energy food, eliminating many

    他們很有可能僅僅消除家族性遺傳疾病

  • diseases of civilization like obesity.

    隨著技術的進步,技術更精進

  • In possession of a modified immune system with a library of potential

    愈來愈多人可能會認為「不調整基因」是不道德的

  • threat, we might become immune to most diseases that haunt us today.

    因為會讓小孩痛苦並且不讓他們被治癒

  • Even further into the future we could engineer humans to be equipped for

    但當第一個基因調整嬰兒誕生

  • extended space travel and to cope with different conditions on other planet,

    就如同開啟潘朵拉的盒子,無法再蓋上

  • which would be extremely helpful in keeping us alive in our hostile universe.

    剛開始,虛榮性特徵調整可能不會被使用

  • Still a few major challenges await us. Some technological, some ethical.

    但當基因調整愈來愈被接受

  • Many of you watching will feel uncomfortable and fear that we will create a world in

    我們對人類基因更加瞭解

  • which we will reject non-perfect humans and preselect features and qualities

    誘惑會開始增加

  • based on our idea of what's healthy.

    如果你讓你的小孩對阿茲海默症免疫

  • The thing is we are already living in this world. Tests for dozens of genetic

    為何不給他們一個促進新陳代謝能力?

  • diseases or complications have become standard for pregnant women

    完美視力又有何不可?

  • in much of the world.

    那身高或肌肉呢?

  • Often, the mere suspicion of a genetic defect can lead to the end of pregnancy.

    不會禿頭?

  • Take Down Syndrome for example: one of the most common genetic defects.

    那給予您的孩子高智力呢?

  • In Europe, about ninety percent of all pregnancies where it's detected are

    數以百萬計的個人抉擇所造成的巨大變化

  • terminated. The decision to terminate pregnancy is incredibly personal, but

    積沙成塔

  • it's important to acknowledge the reality that we are preselecting humans

    如此延伸思考

  • based on medical conditions. There is also no use in pretending this will

    基因調整人將成為新的常態

  • change, so we have to act carefully and respectfully as we advance the

    當基因工程變得更常見,且當我們有更多相關知識

  • technology and can make more and more selections. But none of this will happen

    我們可能可以解決的一個最大死亡因素

  • soon: as powerful as CRISPR is, and it is, it's not infallible yet. Wrong edit

    老化

  • still happen as well as unknown errors that could occur anywhere in the DNA and

    今日 15萬死亡人數 中的 2/3

  • might go unnoticed. The gene edit might achieve the desired result

    與老化有關

  • disabling a disease, but also might accidentally trigger unwanted changes.

    目前我們認為老化是由於細胞損傷會累積

  • We just don't know enough yet about the complex interplay of our genes to avoid

    例如:DNA 斷裂

  • unpredictable consequences. Working on accuracy and monitoring methods is a

    以及修復系統因為時間漸漸損壞

  • major concern as the first human trials begin. And since we've discussed a

    但也有些是因為基因而對老化有影響

  • possible positive future, there are darker visions too.

    基因工程搭配其他療法可能可以停止或減緩老化

  • Imagine what a state like North Korea could do if they embraced genetic

    或者有可能返老還童

  • engineering. Could a state cement its rule forever by forcing gene editing on

    我們從自然界知道有些動物不會衰老

  • their subjects? What would stop a totalitarian regime from engineering an

    也許可以借些基因移植到我們身上

  • army of modified super soldiers? It is doable in theory? Scenarios like this one

    有些科學家甚至認為可能未來不再有老化這件事

  • are far far off into the future, if they ever become possible at all. But the

    我們還是會死亡,但可能不是 90 多歲在醫院中

  • basic proof of concept for genetic engineering like this already exists

    我們可能可以用幾千年與親朋好友相處

  • today. The technology really is that powerful. One of this might be a tempting

    這方面的研究還在襁褓之中

  • reason to ban genetic editing and related research that would certainly

    許多科學家也依然懷疑是否能終結老化

  • be a mistake.

    前方的道路有許多困難,也有可能是達不到的

  • Banning human genetic engineering would only lead to the science wandering off

    今日的人們可能是第一代「免老療程」的得益者

  • to a place with jurisdiction and rules that we are uncomfortable with. Only by

    我們所需要的也許只是有人說服億萬富翁

  • participating can we make sure that further research is guided by caution,

    讓它成為下個要解決的問題

  • reason, oversight and transparency.

    的確人口皆為基因調整人可以解決很多問題

  • Do you feel uncomfortable now? Most of us have

    基因調整人可能更能應對高熱量食物

  • something wrong with them. In the future that lies ahead of us, would we have been

    終結許多文明病例如:肥胖

  • allowed to exist?

    調整過的免疫系統擁有抵抗疾病的資料

  • The technology is certainly a bit scary, but we have a lot to gain and genetic

    我們可能擁有免疫今天困擾我們的疾病的能力

  • engineering might just be a step in the natural evolution of intelligent

    在更久遠的未來

  • species in the universe. We might end disease, we could extend our life

    我們可以調整使人適合長時間的太空旅行

  • expectancy by centuries and travel to the stars. There's no need to think small

    並且使他適應不同星球的環境

  • when it comes to this topic.

    這對於使我們存活於危險的宇宙非常有幫助

  • Whatever your opinion on genetic engineering, the future is approaching no

    不可盡信

  • matter what. What has been insane science fiction is about to become our new

    前方依然有許多挑戰在等著我們

  • reality, a reality full of opportunities and challenges.

    一些是技術上的、一些是倫理上的

  • Videos like this would not be possible without your donations on patreon.com

    許多觀看的人會感到擔憂

  • If you want to support is expanding complicated stuff and maybe get your own

    害怕我們會創造出一個無法接受不完美人類的世界

  • bird in return you can do so here. If you want to learn more about CRISPR, we put

    並且會基於我們對健康的想像預先篩選

  • the sources and further reading in the description. More videos about the whole

    問題是,我們的世界早已是如此

  • topic area will follow. If you want to be notified when it happens,

    對孕婦做十幾種遺傳疾病及併發症的檢查

  • you can follow us here.

    早已成為整個世界的標準程序

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    常常僅僅是懷疑有基因缺陷

Imagine you were alive back in the 1980's and were told

想像你現在活在1980年代