字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Come take a walk with me, around Longyearbyen. 走，跟我去朗伊爾城。 That's the largest town on the Norwegian islands of Svalbard. 那是挪威斯瓦爾巴群島上的最大城鎮， Parts of it may look familiar. 可能有部分會有似曾相識的感覺， But make no mistake, 但是確定的是， this place IS different. 這個地方確實不一樣。 At 78° north, 位於北緯75度， It is just 1800mi/1300km from the North Pole. 這裡距離北極只有1800英里 /1300公里。 And with over 2000 permanent residents, 有2000個永久居民居住， it is the northernmost real town on Earth. 它是地球上位置最北的城鎮。 There are only 50km (31mi) of road, including the small streets between houses. 只有50公里的路（31mi），包括房屋之間的小街道。 So people get around the island mainly on snowmobile. 所以人們主要的交通工具是靠雪地摩托車。 In fact, there are more registered snowmobiles, than residents. 事實上，已登記的雪地摩托車比居民還多。 Anyone leaving town is required to travel with a gun and someone who knows how to use it. 任何人要離開小鎮，都需要帶一把槍和一個知道如何使用槍的人隨行。 Because the islands are also home to polar bears. 因為這些島上有北極熊。 The average daytime high, 一年中白天的平均最高溫， is below freezing for all but four months of the year. 只有4個月不在冰點以下。 Hi. 而且從十月底到二月中， And from the end of October to mid February, 太陽根本不會升上地平線。 the sun doesn't rise at all. 這就是漫長的永夜。 This is the long polar night. 住在這裡，是很艱辛的。 Living here, is tough. 去年12月，一場雪崩摧毀了10戶， This past December, an avalanche in town destroyed 10 homes, 本來在這裡，兩人身亡。 which used to be here, killing two people. 所以，在這麼冷、偏僻又有冰雪覆蓋的群島上怎麼還有人居住？ So how did this cold, remote, ice-covered archipelago come to be inhabited? 這城鎮附近的山上有豐富的煤炭儲量， Well, the hills around town are rich in coal deposits, 且已經開採了超過一百年。 that have been mined for over 100 years. 煤炭透過一連串的空中纜車運送到港口。 The coal was transported to the port via a series of aerial tramways. 至今其中一些仍然存在，但是他們不再運行。 Some of which remain today, though they are no longer operational. 煤炭意味著，斯瓦爾巴德群島並非一直都是冰天雪地。 Coal is a reminder that Svalbard was not always an Arctic ice world. 3.6億年前它實際上是在熱帶，就在赤道以北一些。 360 million yaers ago it was actually in the tropics, just north of the equator. 是一個沼澤地帶，被比現在大很多、 A swampy area it was covered with a precursor to modern ferns, 高達10-30公尺 (33-98英呎)的蕨類的祖先覆蓋著， which were much larger than they are today, reaching 10-30m (33-98ft) in height. 這些植物被覆蓋在泥巴和沙子中， This vegetation was then covered in mud and sand, 然後沉入海底。 and submerged under the sea. 經過長時間，它們變成了20世紀吸引來自 Over time, it turned into the coal deposites that in the 20th century 挪威、俄羅斯、美國的礦工的煤炭。 brought miners from Norway, Russia and the US. 大部分的煤炭礦場已經關閉，而這裡的 Most of the coal mines have now closed and the economy 經濟重心漸漸轉移到了觀光、教育和研究。 is gradually shifting towards tourism, education and research. 觀光客以雪地摩托車和雪橇移動。 Tourists take trips on snowmobiles and dog sleds. 在斯瓦爾巴的中央有一所大學， There is a university center in Svalbard which offers semester courses 提供了生物、物理和地質學的課程。 in biology, physics and geology. 而山的另外一端是斯瓦爾巴全球種子庫。 And up on the side of a mountain, is the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. 那個我們就以後再說吧。 But that's a story for another time. 當地人告訴我，各個國家對這裡越來越有興趣。 The locals tell me that interest in the region from different nations 當地人告訴我，各個國家對這裡越來越有興趣。 is increasing. 隨著全球暖化和極冰的縮減， As the globe warms and Arctic ice shrinks 北部多了很多新的貿易路線。 trade routs are opening up across the north. 而且斯瓦爾巴就位於北美洲、亞洲和歐洲之間。 And Svalbard is strategically placed between North America, Asia and Europe. 所以也許有一天，斯瓦爾巴不會再如此的冷和偏僻。 So one day in the future, Svaldbard may no longer be as cold or as remote as it once was. 但就現在而言，這代表著人們可以運用智慧 But for now, it is a reminder of how through our ingenuity people can live 住在一個最難以居住的地方。 in even the most inhospitable of places.