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  • We all have an inner dialogue inside our mind - reminding yourself to pay your cellphone

    在我們腦海中都有著一段段的內在對話─像是提醒自己記得支付手機帳單、

  • bill, or even rehearsing a tough conversation with a friend. But what if that voice becomes

    或者演練著要怎麼和朋友進行一場艱難的對話。但如果那個聲音逐漸

  • voices that are out of your control?

    脫離你的掌控呢?

  • Psychologist Julian Jaynes proposed a theory that, not so long ago all humans heard voices

    心理學家Julian Jaynes提出了一項理論,內容講述:在不久之前所有人類都聽得到某種聲音─

  • - created internally from the right hemisphere of the brain, but perceived as external from

    它是由我們右腦所內部創造出來的,但卻被左腦知覺是外部產生的

  • the left hemisphere (bicameralism). As a result these voices were perceived as communication

    因此這些聲音便被解讀成神與我們的對話 (譯註:這就是Jaynes所提出的二分心智理論)

  • from the gods. But around 1000 BC, with the rise of modern consciousness, these voices

    但大約在西元前1000年,隨著現代意識的興起,這些聲音

  • became recognized as our own. Some psychiatrists believe that the brains of schizophrenic people

    被認為是屬於我們自己的。有些精神科醫師相信患有思覺失調症的病人大腦

  • may revert to this state, and not recognize some of their thoughts as their own.

    可能會回復成之前的狀態,且並不認為他們的某些想法是源自於自己

  • Schizophrenia is a disease of the nervous system, affecting approximately 1% of the

    思覺失調症是一種神經系統的疾病,影響了大約1%的人口

  • population. To be clear, schizophrenia is not the same as havingmultiple personality

    講得明確點,思覺失調症和「多重人格障礙」並不相同

  • disorder’. Symptoms often include hallucinations: from seeing things that aren’t there, to

    它的症狀通常包含幻覺,例如看見不存在的事物、

  • delusions such as a higher belief in conspiracy, higher rates of depression, and most notably

    產生像是「堅信事物有陰謀」的妄想、擁有高比例的憂鬱傾向,還有最明顯地是會聽到某些聲音

  • hearing voices. Auditory hallucinations occur in many disorders - from simple sounds to

    幻聽發生在很多疾病─從簡單的聲音到單詞、或者聽到有人呼喚名字─

  • words or names being called - but the voices heard in schizophrenics are quite different.

    但思覺失調症的患者所聽到的聲音相當不同

  • They are often associated with their current mental state, and can be quite hostile, accusing,

    它們經常關連到他們當下的精神狀況,且十分地具有敵對性、指責性、

  • threatening or persecuting (58); ultimately embodying many of their fears.

    威脅性或者迫害性,並最終體現了他們的恐懼

  • A 2006 study of over 3000 schizophrenic patients found that genes related to immune function

    在2006年,一個針對3000多名思覺失調症患者所做的研究中發現,免疫功能基因

  • may play a role - specifically the complement component 4 or C4 genes. C4 is a gene involved

    可能扮演了某種角色─特別是C4基因(complement component 4),C4是一個

  • in trimming the synapses in the brain; for example, teenage brains undergo a process

    與修剪腦中突觸有關的基因,舉例來說,青少年的大腦會經歷一段

  • known assynaptic pruningin which unused connections are cut away to aid in our brains

    被稱作是「突觸修剪」的時期,這段時期裡會修剪無用的連結、以增進我們大腦的效率

  • efficiency. But in individuals with schizophrenia, this C4 gene may be overactive and cut down

    只是在思覺失調症患者身上,C4基因會過度活躍,

  • areas that are involved in planning, cognition and thinking. Links have also made between

    並修剪了與規劃、認知、思考有關的區域。思覺失調與腸道中的微生物也有所關連─

  • microbes in the gut - after all, the microbes that live within us have also been shown to

    畢竟存在於我們體內的微生物也被證明

  • modulate immune response and impact brain development. One study found that lactic acid

    可以調節免疫反應,並影響大腦發展。其中一項研究發現乳酸菌在

  • bacteria were significantly more abundant in people with schizophrenia, while another

    思覺失調症病人身上特別地多,同時另一項研究也發現

  • found that the prevalence of lipid and glucose abnormalities is much higher in patients with schizophrenia.

    脂質與葡萄糖異常的發生率,在思覺失調症患者身上也是較高的

  • And while diagnosing schizophrenia is primarily based on behavior and reported experiences,

    而儘管診斷思覺失調症主要是依據病人行為和其自述經歷,

  • research has found the cause to be a combination of these genetic factors along with some environmental

    研究已發現疾病原因是來自於遺傳因子與環境壓力源的配合,

  • stressors like growing up in an urbanized area, minority group position, and even cannabis

    而環境壓力源包含─生長在都市地區、少數群體的自我定位、甚至還有使用大麻中的四氫大麻酚

  • use as THC can exaggerate psychotic response in some individuals with genetic risk or developmental trauma.

    會擴大某些人精神方面的反應,並伴隨著遺傳上的風險或發展上的創傷

  • Currently, medication for schizophrenia mostly focuses on combating hallucinations and delusions

    目前對思覺失調症的藥物治療,大多專注在抑制幻覺與妄想

  • but, unfortunately, 49.5% of schizophrenia patients don’t end up taking their medicine.

    但不幸地是,有49.5%的思覺失調症患者最終並沒有選擇服藥

  • This is why genetic research is so important to combatting this disease. Of course, some

    這也是為何遺傳學研究對抑制此疾病如此重要。當然地,

  • people can and do recover through a combination of medication, counselling and support which

    有些人可以經由藥物治療、個別輔導與他人支持的搭配下逐漸康復

  • can greatly reduce the symptoms.

    而這些對減輕症狀有極大的幫助

  • On AsapTHOUGHT we talk about how mental health stigma is a serious issue in our culture and

    在AsapTHOUGHT,我們談論了精神健康的烙印 如何在我們的文化與媒體中成為嚴重的問題

  • the media. Many of us negatively contribute to the stereotyping of mental illness without

    我們大多數對精神疾病抱有負面的刻板印象─即使我們並不了解它─

  • even realizing it - so we break down 5 ways we can all reduce mental health stigma right

    所以我們找出5個可以減少汙名化精神健康的方法

  • now. Check it out with the link below.

    點開並查看下面的連結

  • And special thanks to audible for supporting this episode to give you a free 30 day trial

    還有特別感謝audible支持本集,並給予你們在audible.com/asap 上的30天免費試用

  • at audible.com/asap. This week we wanted to recommend the bookSchizophrenia: Understanding

    這週我們想要推薦一本書─《Schizophrenia: Understanding Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment》,

  • Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatmentwhich tackles much of the stigma tied to schizophrenia and

    這本書處理了很多與思覺失調症有關的汙名化問題,

  • how it affects those with the condition. You can get a free 30 day trial at audible.com/asap

    還有談論了它如何影響這種情況。你可以取得在audible.com/asap 上的30天免費試用,

  • and choose from a massive selection! We love them as they are great when youre on the go.

    並從大量選擇中挑選你想要的!我們喜歡使用它是因為在你想邊走邊聽時,它十分地方便

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos!

    訂閱我們以獲得更多的每週科學影片

We all have an inner dialogue inside our mind - reminding yourself to pay your cellphone

在我們腦海中都有著一段段的內在對話─像是提醒自己記得支付手機帳單、

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 思覺 失調症 修剪 患者 聲音 精神

如果開始聽到腦子裡出現一個聲音,該怎麼辦? (What If You Hear Voices In Your Head?)

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    韓澐 發佈於 2017 年 02 月 02 日
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