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  • Speech writing must be one of the weirdest jobs in the world.

    寫演講稿一定是世界上最詭異的工作之一了。

  • No matter how carefully the words have been prepared,

    不管你已經用字多麼小心,

  • you are never quite sure how they are gonna be delivered.

    你永遠不能肯定它們將如何被傳達。

  • Yesterday, I was in London,

    昨天我在倫敦,

  • and I was watching one of my clients, who is a big Australian businessman,

    我當時正在看著我的客戶,他是個澳洲的商人,

  • deliver a speech that I'd written for him.

    用我寫給他的稿子進行演講。

  • I'd written for him this passage, kind of with Winston Churchill in mind,

    我寫給他這麼一段文章,像是想到邱吉爾,

  • about how we've got to fight for our future,

    關於我們將如何為自己的未來拼搏;

  • fight to protect our position, fight our competitors.

    為了保護自己的職位拼搏;擊敗我們的競爭對手。

  • And I'd forgotten about the Australian accent.

    而我忘記了澳洲口音。

  • And I watched from the back of the room with horror as I saw him go,

    我在場地的最後排,帶著恐懼,聽著他的演講。

  • "We've got to 'fart' for our future, 'fart' to protect our position,

    「我們將為了未來而幹(fight-音似fart-);為了保護我們的職位而幹(fight-音似fart-);」

  • and I'll tell you what, folks, when I wake up every morning,

    我告訴你們,各位,當我每天早上醒來,

  • there is one thing I know for sure I'm gonna do that day; 'fart'!"

    我總是很確定我將要做的一件事情,那就是「幹」(fart-音似fight-)

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲掌聲)

  • So today I'm gonna share with you some speechwriter secrets.

    所以今天我將要與你分享一些演講稿寫手的秘密。

  • I don't know whether you know this,

    我不知道你是不是知道這個,

  • but there is a secret language of leadership;

    但是有一個領導的語言秘密。

  • a secret language of leadership that we all used to be taught at school.

    這個領導語言秘密是我們過去經常被學校教導的。

  • Ancient rhetoric.

    古代修辭學。

  • This was a core part of the curriculum in Ancient Rome, part of the trivium.

    這是古羅馬三學科中,最核心的一部分課程。

  • In London, right the way through to the 19th century,

    在倫敦,直到19世紀,

  • it was possible to get a free education in rhetoric, but not in mathematics,

    我們很可能接受免費的修辭學教育,而不是數學,

  • reflecting the importance that was placed on the topic.

    這反映出修辭學被放在主要科目的重要性。

  • Today, teaching in rhetoric is restricted; restricted to a powerful, privileged few.

    時至今日,修辭學教育是備受限制的;受限於有力的、有特權的少數幾個人。

  • So what I'm gonna do in my speech is revive this ancient art of rhetoric

    所以我將會在我接下來的演講中做的事情是,復甦這個古代修辭學藝術,

  • and share with you six techniques so that you can all speak like leaders.

    並且和妳們分享6個技巧,使你們全都可以像領導人那樣子演說。

  • So right, okay, stop.

    那麼,暫停。

  • Right, stop listen.

    好,停下來聆聽。

  • Look left, look right, look center.

    看左,看右,看中間。

  • How are you feeling?

    你覺得怎樣?

  • Distressed? Anxious? Little bit edgy?

    哀傷?焦慮?有點急躁?

  • That's because I'm mimicking, hyperventilating.

    這是因為我正在模仿,呼吸過度。

  • This is the authentic sound of fear,

    這是恐懼的真實聲音,

  • and that fear transfers to you.

    而這個恐懼傳到你那邊。

  • This is an ancient Roman rhetorical device;

    這就是古羅馬的修辭學工具。

  • they used to call it asyndeton.

    他們稱之為「接續詞省略」。

  • And it's one leaders still use today.

    這是一個領導人還在使用的技巧。

  • So David Cameron uses it:

    所以卡麥隆使用它:

  • "Broken homes,

    「被打碎的家,

  • failing schools,

    受損的學校,

  • sink estates."

    陷落的家產。」

  • Tony Blair used to use it as well:

    布萊爾也使用了它:

  • "Education,

    「教育,

  • education.

    教育,

  • education."

    教育。」

  • Barack Obama too:

    歐巴馬也是:

  • "A world at war,

    「在戰爭中的世界,

  • a planet in peril,

    在苦難中的星球,

  • the worst financial crisis in a generation.

    一個世代中最慘的經濟危機。」

  • Why three?

    為什麼是三呢?

  • Well, three is the magic number in rhetoric.

    恩,在修辭學中有個魔術數字。

  • "Government of the people, by the people, for the people."

    「政府是民有,民治,民享。」

  • (In German) "One people, one empire, one leader."

    (德語)「一個人,一個帝國,一個領導人。」

  • (In Italian) "Eat well, laugh often, love much."

    (義大利語)「吃的好,常笑,愛多一點。」

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • That was the hardest part of this speech to practice,

    這是這場演講中最難練習的一部分了。

  • so thank you for the applause.

    所以謝謝你們的掌聲。

  • This is also an ancient Roman rhetorical device.

    這也是古羅馬修辭學中的工具。

  • They used to call it tricolon,

    他們過去稱之為「層遞」。

  • which makes it sound like a peculiar part of the digestive system.

    他聽起來像是消化系統的某個罕見部位。

  • But it's just putting things in threes.

    但是它就僅僅是將東西三個三個放在一起。

  • You put your argument in threes,

    你將你的論述以三為單位放在一起。

  • it makes it sound more compelling, more convincing, more credible.

    這使得論述聽起來更受矚目,更有說服力,更有可信度。

  • Just like that.

    就像這樣。

  • And so we find the rule of three here, there, and everywhere.

    所以我們找到三的定律,在這裡,在那裡,在所有地方。

  • And so indeed you can tell the history of Verona

    所以你確實可以說出維洛那的歷史,

  • through nothing more than the rule of three.

    就只是透過三的定律。

  • If you think that Caesar used to come here 2,000 years ago,

    如果你認為凱薩在2000年前經常到這裡,

  • "Veni, vidi, vici."

    「我來,我見,我征服。」

  • 400 years ago,

    400年前,

  • Shakespeare wrote "Romeo and Juliet,"

    莎士比亞寫了「羅密歐與茱麗葉」

  • which was set here.

    這件事情發生在此。

  • "Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou, Romeo?"

    「羅密歐,羅密歐,為何你是羅密歐?」

  • But of course,

    但是當然,

  • far and away the most momentous event in Verona's history -

    維洛那的歷史中,遙遠、最具有歷史性的活動,

  • today's TEDx;

    今天的TED演講。

  • "Reinvent. Rethink. Relay."

    「重新發明、重新想、重新傳遞」

  • Right.

    好的。

  • Let's move on; number two.

    我們繼續吧!第二。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Three sentences in which the opening clause is repeated.

    三個句子當中,第一個句子被一直重複述說。

  • Now this is what Winston Churchill did with his,

    現在,這是邱吉爾說過的,

  • "We shall fight on the beaches,

    「我們將在沙灘戰鬥;

  • we shall fight on the landing grounds,

    我們將在降落地上戰鬥;

  • we shall fight on the fields and in the streets."

    我們將在田野、街道上戰鬥。」

  • Of course, he could have said this a whole lot quicker.

    當然,他可以把這整句話說快一點。

  • But he wanted to communicate his emotion, so he repeated it.

    但是他想傳達他的情緒,所以他重複了這句話。

  • When we are emotional about things, our perspective distorts.

    當我們對某件事情充滿情緒,我們的觀點會扭曲,

  • And this then manifests in our speech.

    這當然就反映在我們的談吐上。

  • And so this is the authentic sound of passion.

    所以這是熱情的真實聲音。

  • I love Verona.

    我愛維洛那。

  • I love Italy.

    我愛義大利。

  • I love pasta.

    我愛義大利麵。

  • I love tiramisu.

    我愛提拉米蘇。

  • I love all of you.

    我們愛你們全部的人。

  • I love the excitement,

    我愛激情。

  • I love the energy,

    我愛能量。

  • I love the enthusiasm here in this room;

    我愛在這房間的熱情。

  • Are you feeling my passion?

    你感受到我的熱情了嗎?

  • You should be because I am a speech writer and I know how to make a point.

    你應該感受得到,因為我是一個演講稿寫手,而我知道如何傳達重點。

  • It sweeps people away.

    這橫掃人心。

  • And this is why this technique is used by slick salesmen and by market traders.

    這也是為什麼這個技巧常被狡猾的商人、市集貿易商使用。

  • "I'm not asking £20, I'm not asking £15,

    「我不賣20英磅,我不賣15英磅,

  • I'm not even asking 10 pounds."

    我甚至不賣10英磅。」

  • It sweeps people onto the next point, which is free balance in statements.

    它把人們帶到下個論點,這是敘述中的自由平衡。

  • "Ask not what your country can do for you,

    「別問國家能為你做什麼,

  • ask what you can do for your country."

    問你能為國家做什麼。」

  • "There is nothing wrong with America

    「美國沒有什麼缺點,

  • that can't be cured by what's right with America."

    是不能被美國的優點補足的。」

  • "To be or not to be."

    「做或者不做。」

  • If the sentence sounds as if it's balanced,

    如果句子聽起來像是平衡的,

  • we imagine that the underlying thinking is balanced,

    我們就會把他的思想想像成平衡的。

  • and our brain is tuned to like things that are balanced.

    而我們的大腦本來就喜歡平衡的東西。

  • Balanced minds, balanced diets, balanced lives.

    平衡的心思,平衡的飲食,平衡的生活。

  • And so we are drawn to these kinds of sentences,

    所以我們被拉到這些句子當中。

  • we are attracted to them even if that balance is actually just an illusion.

    我們被這些句子吸引,甚至這些平衡的東西只是假象。

  • Like, we're looking to the future, not the past.

    像是,我們在找的是未來,而不是過去。

  • We're working together, not against one another.

    我們在一起工作,而不是對抗彼此。

  • We're thinking about what we can do, not what we can't.

    我們在思考的事情是我們可以做的事,而不是不可以做的事。

  • Now let's move on to number four.

    現在我們繼續說第四個技巧。

  • Metaphor.

    暗喻。

  • Metaphor is probably the most powerful piece of political communication.

    暗喻可能是政治語言中,最有力量的一部分。

  • But it's the bit no one ever talks about, the elephant in the room, so to speak,

    但是這是從來沒人說過的意點,也就是說在房間裡的一頭大象。

  • which is extraordinary because we use metaphor once every 16 words on average.

    暗喻的話術非常特別,因為我們平均每16個字詞就會使用一次暗喻。

  • So our conversation is littered with metaphors, scattered with metaphors.

    所以我們的交談中,參雜了一些暗喻,散布了一些暗喻。

  • We can't speak for very long without reaching for a metaphor,

    我們如果不尋求一個暗喻,就不能說出一句太長的句子,

  • and metaphors are very loaded.

    而且暗喻都寓意深長。

  • See, metaphors are all over the place,

    看吧!暗喻無所不在,

  • and they are political in that they are used by people

    而且他們有政治意味,他們被人們使用,

  • to lead people towards things, or indeed to make them recoil.

    用來領導人們贊成某些事務,或者確實使他們畏懼。

  • And so we use beautiful images, images of people, images of love,

    所以我們使用美麗的圖像,人們的圖像,愛的圖像,

  • images of family, of sunshine, in order to draw people towards things,

    家庭的圖像,陽光的圖像,去吸引人們贊成某些事務。

  • and we use disgusting images- vermin, scary monsters, disease, sickness,

    而我們使用噁心的圖像-害蟲,可怕的怪獸,病害,疾病-

  • in order to make people recoil.

    使人們退縮。

  • And they're all lies, and they are never challenged.

    而他們都是謊言,它們從沒被質疑過,

  • And yet they have an enormous impact on the way that people behave and respond.

    但是他們對人們的行為與反應有很深遠的影響。

  • There's been research showing changing nothing more than the metaphor

    已經有研究表示,單單將一段文字轉換成暗喻的方式,

  • in a piece of text

  • can lead to fundamentally different reactions from people

    可以導致人們根本完全不同的反應。

  • on questions ranging from

    在很多問題中,從像是

  • whether or not they'll invest in a company,

    是否要投資一家公司,

  • whether or not they will back particular crime policies

    是否支援某個特別的犯罪政策。

  • to even whether or not they'll support a foreign war.

    甚至到問他們是否支持一個外國戰爭。

  • And so this is really important stuff. and it's all around us.

    所以這真的是非常重要的東西,而它們就在我們四周圍。

  • So let me just take three of the big metaphors -

    所以請讓我舉出三大暗喻-

  • three is the magic number -

    三是個魔術數字-

  • three of the big metaphors that are around at the moment.

    三個此刻在我們周遭的大暗喻。

  • "The Arab Spring".

    「阿拉伯之春」

  • You've all heard of The Arab Spring.

    你們都聽過阿拉伯之春。

  • You can't talk about

    你們都不能說出

  • what's going on in the Middle East without calling it an Arab Spring.

    在中東發生了什麼事情,如果你不叫它「阿拉伯之春」。

  • "The Arab Spring".

    「阿拉伯之春」

  • Sun's shining, flowers blooming.

    陽光很耀眼,花多都盛開著。

  • This is a time of regrowth, rebirth, rejuvenation.

    這是個重新生長、重生、回春的時刻。

  • And yet it's a big lie, isn't it?

    但是這是個大謊言,不是嗎?

  • Even the most optimistic, geopolitical experts

    甚至最樂觀的地緣政治專家也會

  • look at the Middle East and say

    看著中東,然後說

  • this is going to take two generations to recover.

    這要花2個世代才可以恢復。

  • It's not an Arab Spring; it's an Arab Inferno.

    這不是阿拉伯之春;這是阿拉伯的地獄。

  • Take another one; "The Calais Jungle".

    舉另一個例子,「加來叢林」

  • Now this a phrase that has really taken root,

    現在這個詞真的已經廣泛散布了。

  • metaphorically speaking, in the last year or so.

    暗喻說起來,大約在去年,

  • If you Google "Calais" and "jungle," you get 70 million results.

    如果你Google「加來」和「叢林」,你會得到7千萬個搜尋結果。

  • If you google "Calais" and "croissant," you get just half a million results.

    如果你Google「加來」和「牛角麵包」,你只會得到1百萬個搜尋結果。

  • And what's the image this is planting in your mind?

    那麼深植在你心中的這個圖像是什麼呢?

  • It's planting in your mind the idea that migrants are like wild animals,

    它正在你心中植入的想法是,移民像是野生動物,

  • to be afraid of, they are dangerous, they represent a threat to you.

    牠們應該被害怕,牠們很危險,牠們對你構成威脅。

  • And this is a very dangerous metaphor because this is the language of genocide,

    這是非常危險的暗喻,因為這是種族滅絕的語言。

  • it's the language of hate.

    這是仇恨的語言。

  • It's the same metaphor that Hitler used against the Jews depicting them as snakes.

    這就和希特勒用來反對猶太人而將他們描繪成蛇時,用到的相同暗喻。

  • It's the same language which was used in Rwandan genocide

    這是和盧安達種族滅絕時,被胡圖族用來反對圖西族的相同語言。

  • by the Hutu against the Tutsi; they were described as cockroaches.

    他們被形容成是蟑螂。

  • And so it should be of intense concern to us

    所以這個暗喻需要我們的高度關注,

  • that this is a phrase that is being used now by the mainstream media

    這是個現今經常被主流媒體使用到的詞彙,

  • to talk about some of the most vulnerable people on our planet.

    用來說一些在這個地球上最容易受到傷害的人們。

  • Let's take one more; "The financial storm".

    我們再來說一個。「金融風暴」

  • The financial storm for the financial crisis.

    金融風暴代表金融危機。

  • Was the financial crisis really an act of nature

    金融危機真的是自然的行為表現嗎?

  • as the storm metaphor suggests?

    就像是風暴這個暗喻象徵的意思嗎?

  • So it has nothing to do with greedy bankers?

    所以它真的跟貪心的銀行家無關囉?

  • Or timid politicians?

    或者跟膽小的政客無關?

  • Or ineffective regulators?

    或者跟沒用的執法者無關?

  • The storm plants a phoney image in our minds

    風暴在我們的心中植入了一個假象。

  • that this is something that just swept in, naturally

    就像是某個東西侵襲過來,以自然的、平和的方式,

  • and equally, will just sweep away with no need for action on our parts.

    它也將會退去,我們不需要多做任何動作。

  • It's a big lie.

    這是個天大的謊言。

  • Pope Francis knows that it's a big lie.

    教皇弗朗西斯知道這是個大謊言。

  • And so he doesn't speak using the financial storm metaphor.

    所以他不使用金融風暴這個暗喻。

  • He has a different metaphor.

    它有不同的暗喻。

  • He talks about the dung heap of capitalism.

    他說這是資本主義的糞坑。

  • And so there he is using the metaphor of shit,

    所以他用到的是大便的暗喻,

  • which is wonderful because what he is calling for,

    這是個完美的比喻,因為他呼籲的是,

  • he is demanding a clean-up of the whole system.

    他請求整個系統要進行大掃除。

  • And this is a metaphor that every human being on the planet

    這就是每個在地球上的人們,

  • can instantly understand, will be instantly disgusted by,

    可以迅速理解的暗喻,它會被厭惡。

  • and this is a metaphor that can get a giggle from time to time.

    這也是一個暗喻,它無論何時都會被取笑。

  • So falling into this metaphorical space is one that

    所以掉到這個暗喻的宇宙中,

  • some of our funnier politicians do from time to time.

    是一些可愛的政治家常常做的事情。

  • Boris Johnson, back in the UK,

    回到英國,鮑里斯·強森

  • he's talked about how the labor leader

    他說勞動領袖,

  • emanated from the bowels of the trade union movement.

    發源自一碗碗的尿液交易運動。

  • In my time working in government

    當我在政府工作時,

  • we had Tony Blair and Gordon Brown described as two cheeks of the same arse.

    我們將東尼·布萊爾和戈登·布朗形容成同一個屁股的兩片肉。

  • And Ronald Reagan once talked about government as a baby

    雷根總統曾說過政府就像是嬰兒,

  • with a huge appetite at one end,

    一方面有個大胃口,

  • no sense of responsibility at the other.

    另一方面沒有任何責任感。

  • So let's move on to number five.

    那我們繼續到第五個技巧。

  • Exaggeration.

    誇飾。

  • When we're emotional, our perspective distorts.

    當我們充滿情緒,我們的觀點會扭曲。

  • This manifests in our speech.

    這自然會在我們的言談中表現出來。

  • And people who are emotional about something

    當人們對某件事情充滿情緒,

  • will therefore go over the top.

    就會因此變得很極端。

  • So, "My god, I've been waiting to give this talk my whole life.

    所以,「我的天阿!我已經等著做演講等了一輩子了!」

  • I didn't sleep at all last night,

    我昨天整晚都沒有睡覺。

  • and I am going to give my heart and soul to you."

    而我將把我的心和靈魂都獻給你。

  • Okay, these are all exaggerative statements.

    好吧!這全都是誇大的言論。

  • Leaders do this kind of stuff all the time.

    領導人總是在做這種事情。

  • You might think it's out of order, but in actual fact,

    你可能說誇飾太亂了,但是事實上,

  • exaggeration is just part and parcel of ordinary conversation.

    誇飾只是日常溝通上的一小部分。

  • So they're just replicated in the kind of things that we do naturally

    所以他們只是穿插在我們自然情況下做的事情當中。

  • when we do that.

  • Let's move on to number six; rhyme.

    讓我們往下到第六個技巧。

  • There is research showing people are more likely

    研究顯示,比起沒押韻的句子,人們更容易相信某些有押韻的句子,

  • to believe something is true if it rhymes than if it does not rhyme,

  • which feels absurd but it's down to what linguists talk about

    這令人覺得荒謬,但是這就是語言學家所說的,

  • as the processing fluency of language; how easy is language to swallow?

    就像是處理語言流量。語言如何被輕易的吞噬?

  • If you speak using long words and long sentences,

    如果你用長的字詞和句子,

  • it's like giving someone a steak and asking them to swallow it.

    這就像是給人一個牛排,要求他們吞了它。

  • Whereas if you give them something pithy, like a rhyme,

    然而如果你給他們一些含蓄的東西,像是聲韻,

  • it's like asking them to just sip on some Prosecco.

    這就像是要求他們啜飲一些普羅賽柯(葡萄酒)。

  • And we learn things through rhymes from the moment that we're toddlers.

    當我們還在學步時,我們就開始學習聲韻了。

  • "One, two, buckle my shoe."

    「一、二,綁好鞋」

  • And so rhymes are signifiers of truth in our society,

    聲韻在我們社會中是現實的意符,

  • so they can often be used therefore to conceal fallacies.

    所以他們可以經常被使用,因此隱藏了錯誤的觀念。

  • I don't know if any of you remember the OJ Simpson case.

    我不知道你們之中是否有人記得辛普森殺妻案。

  • "If it doesn't fit, you must acquit."

    「如果他不符合條件,那麼你必須宣判無罪。」