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  • It's estimated that candy sales this Halloween will reach upwards to $2.5 billion dollars in the US.

    在美國,今年萬聖節的糖果銷售額估計會高達 25 億美元

  • In keeping within the bounds of this season's spookinesstoday we're looking at how

    為延續這個時節毛骨悚然的氛圍 — 今天我們要來看看

  • many pieces of Halloween candy, when eaten in one sitting, can kill the average person.

    要一次吃下多少萬聖節糖果才能殺死一個普通人

  • It isn't called candy if it isn't absolutely loaded with sugar.

    如果裡頭完全只有糖的話,就不能叫糖果

  • The average American consumes around 22 teaspoons of added sugar per day, even though experts

    平均每個美國人每天消耗大約 22 茶匙的添加糖,儘管專家

  • suggest that men consume no more than 9 teaspoons, and for woman, only 6.

    建議男性一天不應該超過 9 茶匙,而女性則是 6 茶匙

  • Of course, all those added sugars haven’t come without a toll.

    當然,攝取這些添加糖不可能沒有代價

  • The National Institute of Health found that around 2/3rds of Americans are overweight,

    衛生研究院發現大約 3 分之 2 的美國人有過重的問題

  • and while there are varying factors that contribute to this problem, candy is most certainly putting its dent in it.

    雖然有很多原因促使這個問題發生,糖果一定佔了很大部分

  • Table sugar, or sucrose, is a simple carbohydrate that is composed of two main parts: Glucose and Fructose.

    食糖,或蔗糖,是一種簡單的碳水化合物,主要由兩個部分組成:葡萄糖跟果糖

  • Just like with High Fructose Corn Syrup, our bodies breaks this molecule down into these separate parts.

    就像高果糖漿,我們的身體會將這些分子分解成單獨的小分子

  • Glucose passes through the liver and is readily distributed about the body as your cells can use it for energy.

    葡萄糖通過肝臟,並迅速地分配到身體各個地方,如此你的細胞就能利用它產生能量

  • Fructose on the other hand sticks around in the liverthe only hardware in your body

    但是果糖會留在肝臟周圍 — 你身體內唯一

  • that can break it down into simpler pieces.

    可以將它分解成更簡單的分子的器官

  • The liver then converts around 50% of the fructose into glucose, almost 30% into lactate,

    肝臟會將大約 50% 的果糖轉化為葡萄糖,約 30% 變成乳酸

  • and whatever remains gets stored as fat.

    然後不管剩下多少,都儲存成脂肪

  • When you load up your body with sugar, all that glucose can't be used at once to power

    當你不斷的往體內堆積糖份,所有的葡萄糖沒辦法一次全都用來幫你的細胞增添能量

  • your cells so it ends up being converted and stored in cells called adipocytes, or fat cells.

    所以它最後就會被轉化並儲存在脂肪細胞中

  • So you can see why all those added sugars end up having an extended stay right here (show belly).

    所以你可以看到為什麼所有的添加糖最後都會停留在這裡,並使它變大 (指肚子)

  • Candy can come with nuts and other treats inside, but let's focus on sugar for our hypothetical death by gluttony.

    糖果也會有一些堅果和其他內容物包含其中,但為了我們假設的暴食糖果致死,我們先聚焦在糖分

  • As the old saying goes, “the dose makes the poison.”

    有句俗話這麼說,「只要劑量足,萬物皆有毒。」

  • At high enough doses, sugar can be toxic.

    當你攝取的劑量夠高,糖分也會變毒藥

  • But how much is too much?

    但到底多少才叫太多?

  • We're going to need to look at the Oral LD50

    我們需要看看口服途徑的半數致死量

  • the quantity per kilogram that can successfully kill half of an animal test population such as rats.

    每公斤體重需要多少劑量才能成功殺死半數動物實驗母體,像老鼠

  • The LD50 of Sucrose is 29.7 grams per kilogram or 13.5 grams per pound.

    蔗糖的半數致死量為 29.7 公克 / 公斤,或是 13.5 公克 / 磅

  • The LD50 represents toxicity for things consumed ALL AT ONCE and it doesn't guarantee death

    半數致死量代表「一次」攝取物質的毒性,也不保證會死

  • -- it's just what kills 50% of a population.

    因為它只殺死了總數的 50%

  • And since these numbers represent toxicity in rats, it's possible that sugar might be more or less toxic in humans.

    而且這些數字代表對老鼠的毒性,所以可能對人類來說要達到中毒程度的糖分攝取量要再多一點或少一點

  • Scientists often use approximations like these because getting the lethal dose of sugar or

    科學家經常使用像這樣的近似值,因為一些很明顯的原因,讓人類吃下致死劑量的糖分

  • other compounds in humans would be wildly unethical, for obvious reasons.

    或其他化合物,可能不太道德

  • But if there is human testing for the LD50 for Nutella, SIGN ME RIGHT UP.

    但如果有花生醬的半數致死量人類試驗,馬上跟我講

  • The average person in the US weighs around 180 pounds.

    在美國人均體重大約是 180 磅

  • That means that in order to reach the LD50, they would have to eat approximately 2,440 grams of sugar-- about 5.4 pounds!

    這代表為了達到半數致死量,他們必須吃下大約 2,440 公克的糖分,大約 5.4 磅!

  • But what does all this sugar mean in terms of a trick-or-treater's Halloween loot?

    但這樣的糖果數量在萬聖節的不給糖就搗蛋活動中又代表什麼呢?

  • An average piece of fun-size Halloween candy packs 9.3 grams of sugar and runs you about 75 Calories.

    平均每一包萬聖節歡樂包糖果內有 9.3 公克的糖分,提供你大約 75 卡路里

  • So in order to reach the LD50, the average person would need to eat 262 pieces -- nearly 20,000 Calories!

    所以為了達到半數致死量,平均每個人必須吃下 262 包糖果,大約 20,000 卡路里

  • So how about in terms of a specific Halloween staple, candy corn?

    那如果是萬聖節應景商品,玉米糖呢?

  • A single piece contains approximately 1.5 grams of sugar which would put our lethal dose at 1,627 pieces.

    一顆內含大約 1.5 公克的糖分,所以要達到我們的致死量需要 1,627 顆

  • I could probably do it.

    我或許辦得到

  • So now you know the numbers of an average person, but what about you?

    所以現在你知道平均一個人的劑量,但你的致死量是多少呢?

  • Down in the video description there's a handy equation to figure out your lethal dose of both trick-or-treat candy and candy corn.

    在下方影片資訊欄中有個方便的算式可以知道你的萬聖節糖果跟玉米糖的致死量是多少

  • Post your numbers down in the comments, and have some fun with it.

    在留言區貼上你的數量,希望你覺得這個主題有趣

  • We here Reactions love some candy, but look people, keep in good health and don't go overboard this year.

    我們 Reactions 的人都喜歡吃些糖果,但大夥,保持身體健康,今年別太衝動了

  • Make sure to check out this video on what happens when you eat too much, and while on

    要記得去看看這支影片,了解一下當你吃太多會發生什麼事

  • the topic of death, here's another video on what would happen to your body if you did

    另外標題有提到死亡,還有另一支影片可以知道

  • accidentally eat several hundred pieces of candy.

    如果你真的不小心吃下數百顆糖果,你的身體會發生什麼事

  • Hit thumbs up and subscribe on your way out, and we'll see you again soon.

    關掉影片前按個讚,並訂閱我們的頻道,我們很快就會再見面

It's estimated that candy sales this Halloween will reach upwards to $2.5 billion dollars in the US.

在美國,今年萬聖節的糖果銷售額估計會高達 25 億美元

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 糖果 糖分 劑量 吃下 葡萄糖 果糖

多少糖果能夠殺了你? (How Much Candy Would Kill You?)

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    alex 發佈於 2018 年 11 月 19 日
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