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  • When I was first learning to meditate,

    當我第一次學習冥想的時候,

  • the instruction was to simply pay attention to my breath,

    得到的指示就是, 簡單地注意自己的呼吸,

  • and when my mind wandered, to bring it back.

    而如果心思遊走了, 就把它拉回來。

  • Sounded simple enough.

    聽起來很簡單。

  • Yet I'd sit on these silent retreats,

    但當我在靜坐冥想時,

  • sweating through T-shirts in the middle of winter.

    嚴冬也會讓我汗流浹背。

  • I'd take naps every chance I got because it was really hard work.

    我總會把握每個可能的機會小睡片刻, 因為靜坐冥想也是一番功夫。

  • Actually, it was exhausting.

    其實是筋疲力盡了。

  • The instruction was simple enough

    指示是很簡單,

  • but I was missing something really important.

    但我錯過了很多重要之處。

  • So why is it so hard to pay attention?

    那為什麼專注會這麼困難呢?

  • Well, studies show

    根據研究指出,

  • that even when we're really trying to pay attention to something --

    就算是我們嘗試著專注於一些事情 --

  • like maybe this talk --

    就好像這個演講 --

  • at some point,

    到了某個時間點,

  • about half of us will drift off into a daydream,

    我們當中會有一半的人, 都會恍惚進入神遊狀態,

  • or have this urge to check our Twitter feed.

    或是會有一種念頭, 去查看一下推特的內容。

  • So what's going on here?

    那到底是怎麼回事呢?

  • It turns out that we're fighting one of the most evolutionarily-conserved

    原來我們與之抗爭的, 是一種最近被科學界發現的 --

  • learning processes currently known in science,

    「演化保守」的學習過程,

  • one that's conserved

    它會保守護存着

  • back to the most basic nervous systems known to man.

    回到人類所知的 最基本神經系統裡頭。

  • This reward-based learning process

    這類以獎勵為本的學習過程,

  • is called positive and negative reinforcement,

    稱之為正面的和負面的強化,

  • and basically goes like this.

    基本上是這樣運行的。

  • We see some food that looks good,

    我們看到了看起來好吃的食物,

  • our brain says, "Calories! ... Survival!"

    我們的大腦會說: 「卡路里!...... 生存!」

  • We eat the food, we taste it --

    我們把食物吃下去, 我們嚐了味道 --

  • it tastes good.

    食物的味道很好。

  • And especially with sugar,

    尤其是有加糖的,

  • our bodies send a signal to our brain that says,

    我們的身體就會向大腦發出訊息說,

  • "Remember what you're eating and where you found it."

    「要記住你在吃甚麼和從哪裡找到的。」

  • We lay down this context-dependent memory

    我們種下了這「情境關連」的記憶

  • and learn to repeat the process next time.

    學懂了下一趟再重覆這個過程。

  • See food,

    看到食物,

  • eat food, feel good,

    吃下食物,感覺良好。

  • repeat.

    重覆。

  • Trigger, behavior, reward.

    觸發、行為、獎勵。

  • Simple, right?

    簡單,對不對?

  • Well, after a while, our creative brains say,

    這樣過了一陣子, 我們富有創意的腦袋就會說:

  • "You know what?

    「 你知道嗎?

  • You can use this for more than just remembering where food is.

    你不只可以利用這個過程 來記住食物在哪裡,

  • You know, next time you feel bad,

    而且還可以 在下一次你感覺糟糕時,

  • why don't you try eating something good so you'll feel better?"

    嘗試吃一些好吃的食物, 來讓你感覺好一點?」

  • We thank our brains for the great idea,

    我們感謝自己的腦袋裡 有這麼好的點子,

  • try this and quickly learn

    試著這樣做並且很快就學會,

  • that if we eat chocolate or ice cream when we're mad or sad,

    當我們生氣或是傷心的時候, 如果我們吃下巧克力或雪糕,

  • we feel better.

    我們的感覺就會好一點。

  • Same process,

    同樣的過程,

  • just a different trigger.

    只是不一樣的觸發方式。

  • Instead of this hunger signal coming from our stomach,

    本來是來自我們胃裡的飢餓訊息,

  • this emotional signal -- feeling sad --

    這個情感上的訊息 -- 感到傷心 --

  • triggers that urge to eat.

    觸發了吃的慾望。

  • Maybe in our teenage years,

    大概在我們的青少年時期,

  • we were a nerd at school,

    我們都是阿呆,

  • and we see those rebel kids outside smoking and we think,

    看著那些站在校園外吸煙的叛逆少年, 我們也都會想,

  • "Hey, I want to be cool."

    "嘿!我也想要耍酷"

  • So we start smoking.

    於是我們開始抽煙。

  • The Marlboro Man wasn't a dork, and that was no accident.

    所以萬寶路男人不是笨蛋, 這並不意外。

  • See cool,

    看到耍酷,

  • smoke to be cool,

    吸煙耍酷,

  • feel good. Repeat.

    感覺良好,重覆。

  • Trigger, behavior, reward.

    觸發、行為、獎勵。

  • And each time we do this,

    每一次我們這樣做,

  • we learn to repeat the process

    我們學懂了去重覆這個過程

  • and it becomes a habit.

    從而把這個過程養成了習慣。

  • So later,

    所以再過一陣子,

  • feeling stressed out triggers that urge to smoke a cigarette

    感覺有壓力的時候, 就會觸發慾望去吸煙

  • or to eat something sweet.

    或是去吃一些甜的東西。

  • Now, with these same brain processes,

    伴隨這些相同的大腦過程,

  • we've gone from learning to survive

    我們體會了從學習到生存,

  • to literally killing ourselves with these habits.

    到簡直是用這些習慣 在殘害著我們自己。

  • Obesity and smoking

    肥胖和吸煙

  • are among the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the world.

    是全世界數一數二發病率 和致命率極高的可預防疾病。

  • So back to my breath.

    所以,回到我的呼吸。

  • What if instead of fighting our brains,

    假設我們不要再跟腦袋去抗爭,

  • or trying to force ourselves to pay attention,

    也不要再強逼自己去專注,

  • we instead tapped into this natural, reward-based learning process ...

    取而代之,我們借助這個天然的、 以獎勵為本的學習過程......

  • but added a twist?

    然後稍微改變扭轉一下?

  • What if instead we just got really curious

    假設我們變得很好奇,

  • about what was happening in our momentary experience?

    想了解自己的瞬間體驗 到底是怎樣一回事?

  • I'll give you an example.

    我會給你們一個例子。

  • In my lab,

    在我的實驗室,

  • we studied whether mindfulness training could help people quit smoking.

    我們研究冥想的訓練 是不是可以幫助人們戒掉吸煙。

  • Now, just like trying to force myself to pay attention to my breath,

    其實,就像嘗試著強迫自己 去專注於呼吸一樣,

  • they could try to force themselves to quit smoking.

    他們也可以嘗試著去強迫自己戒煙。

  • And the majority of them had tried this before and failed --

    他們大部份人都曾經這樣嘗試, 但都失敗了 --

  • on average, six times.

    平均來說,嘗試過六次。

  • Now, with mindfulness training,

    現在,要是用冥想的訓練,

  • we dropped the bit about forcing and instead focused on being curious.

    我們把強迫的那部份去掉, 取而代之的是專注於好奇。

  • In fact, we even told them to smoke.

    事實上,我們甚至吩咐他們抽菸。

  • What? Yeah, we said, "Go ahead and smoke,

    甚麼?是呀,我們說," 去抽菸就對了,

  • just be really curious about what it's like when you do."

    只是在抽菸的時候,真心的去好奇一下 抽菸到底是怎麼回事。"

  • And what did they notice?

    結果他們覺察到了什麼?

  • Well here's an example from one of our smokers.

    讓我們來看看其中的一位抽菸者怎麽說。

  • She said, "Mindful smoking:

    她說,「 專注地抽菸:

  • smells like stinky cheese

    聞起來就像發臭的奶酪,

  • and tastes like chemicals,

    味道則好像化學製品,

  • YUCK!"

    超噁心!」

  • Now, she knew, cognitively that smoking was bad for her,

    其實在認知上,她知道,抽菸會危害她,

  • that's why she joined our program.

    正因如此,她參加我們的計劃。

  • What she discovered just by being curiously aware when she smoked

    她發現,在抽菸的時候,只要好奇地去體會,

  • was that smoking tastes like shit.

    就會察覺到菸的味道像大便。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, she moved from knowledge to wisdom.

    現在,她從知識昇華到智慧。

  • She moved from knowing in her head that smoking was bad for her

    她從腦袋裡開始了解抽菸對她有害

  • to knowing it in her bones,

    並昇華到骨子裡去,

  • and the spell of smoking was broken.

    就破解了抽菸的魔咒。

  • She started to become disenchanted with her behavior.

    她開始對她的行為產生覺悟。

  • Now, the prefrontal cortex,

    其實,前額葉皮質,

  • that youngest part of our brain from an evolutionary perspective,

    從進化的角度來看, 那是我們大腦最年輕的部份,

  • it understands on an intellectual level that we shouldn't smoke.

    它明白,理智上我們不應該抽菸。

  • And it tries its hardest to help us change our behavior,

    然後它嘗試盡最大的努力, 去幫助我們改變自己的行為、

  • to help us stop smoking,

    幫助我們戒菸,

  • to help us stop eating that second, that third, that fourth cookie.

    要幫助我們去戒掉吃第二塊、 第三塊、第四塊曲奇餅。

  • We call this cognitive control.

    我們稱之為「認知控制」。

  • We're using cognition to control our behavior.

    我們用認知去控制自己的行為。

  • Unfortunately,

    很不幸的是,

  • this is also the first part of our brain

    當我們過度勞累時,這也是我們腦袋裡,

  • that goes offline when we get stressed out,

    率先離線的部份。

  • which isn't that helpful.

    所以不太能夠幫得上忙。

  • Now, we can all relate to this in our own experience.

    其實我們大家都可以找到 自己類似的經驗。

  • We're much more likely to do things like yell at our spouse or kids

    當我們壓力過大或是很勞累時,

  • when we're stressed out or tired,

    我們有很大的可能, 會向自己的伴侶或小孩吼叫,

  • even though we know it's not going to be helpful.

    雖然我們知道, 這樣的吼叫並沒有幫助。

  • We just can't help ourselves.

    只是我們控制不了自己。

  • When the prefrontal cortex goes offline,

    在前額葉皮質 處於離線狀態時,

  • we fall back into our old habits,

    我們會墜落回老習慣,

  • which is why this disenchantment is so important.

    這是為什麼覺悟是這麼的重要。

  • Seeing what we get from our habits

    明白我們如何養成習慣

  • helps us understand them at a deeper level --

    可以幫助我們更深層次的去了解它們 --

  • to know it in our bones

    讓我們從骨子裡去明白,

  • so we don't have to force ourselves to hold back

    那我們就不需要再強逼自己去憋住

  • or restrain ourselves from behavior.

    或是去遏止自己的行為。

  • We're just less interested in doing it in the first place.

    我們只是在一開始的時候 沒有太大的興趣去做這件事。

  • And this is what mindfulness is all about:

    這就是冥想:

  • Seeing really clearly what we get when we get caught up in our behaviors,

    當我們被自己的行為絆住的時候, 得真的很清醒得去了解,我們得到的是什麼,

  • becoming disenchanted on a visceral level

    發自內心層次的覺悟,

  • and from this disenchanted stance, naturally letting go.

    在覺悟的狀態下,自然地放它走。

  • This isn't to say that, poof, magically we quit smoking.

    這不是在說,神奇的 " 噗 "的一聲, 我們就戒菸了。

  • But over time, as we learn to see more and more clearly

    而是日積月累,當我們學會 看得愈來愈清楚

  • the results of our actions,

    我們行為所導致的結果,

  • we let go of old habits and form new ones.

    我們就會摒除掉老習慣, 而養成了新的習慣。

  • The paradox here

    吊詭的是,

  • is that mindfulness is just about being really interested

    冥想是,打從內心的感到有興趣,

  • in getting close and personal

    很私密的去體會

  • with what's actually happening in our bodies and minds

    到底我們的身體和心智,發生了什麼事。

  • from moment to moment.

    時時刻刻

  • This willingness to turn toward our experience

    將這種意願轉換成我們的體驗

  • rather than trying to make unpleasant cravings go away as quickly as possible.

    而不是嘗試得儘快把 不好的癮念去除。

  • And this willingness to turn toward our experience

    將意願轉換成體驗

  • is supported by curiosity,

    是源由自好奇,

  • which is naturally rewarding.

    那是先天性的一種獎勵機制。

  • What does curiosity feel like?

    好奇的感覺是怎樣的呢?

  • It feels good.

    感覺很好。

  • And what happens when we get curious?

    我們感到好奇的時候會發生什麼事情呢?

  • We start to notice that cravings are simply made up of body sensations --

    我們會開始察覺到,癮念其實單就是 從身體的感官所造成 --

  • oh, there's tightness, there's tension,

    噢,那裡很緊張,那邊有壓力

  • there's restlessness --

    那邊煩躁不安 --

  • and that these body sensations come and go.

    這些身體的感覺來來去去。

  • These are bite-size pieces of experiences

    這些都是我們時時刻刻

  • that we can manage from moment to moment

    都可以處理好的小體驗,

  • rather than getting clobbered by this huge, scary craving

    無需被這巨大可怕的

  • that we choke on.

    癮念所噎住並擊倒。

  • In other words, when we get curious,

    換句話來說,當我們感到好奇,

  • we step out of our old, fear-based, reactive habit patterns,

    我們就走出舊有的、恐懼為本的、 回應式的習慣模式,

  • and we step into being.

    我們從而踏進了當下。

  • We become this inner scientist

    我們成為了熱切地期待著下一個數據點的

  • where we're eagerly awaiting that next data point.

    內心科學家。

  • Now, this might sound too simplistic to affect behavior.

    這聽起來,好像太簡單到 沒那麼容易可以影響行為。

  • But in one study, we found that mindfulness training

    但有一個研究顯示, 我們發現了冥想的訓練,

  • was twice as good as gold standard therapy at helping people quit smoking.

    在幫助人們戒菸的這事情上, 比黃金標準治療法好 2 倍

  • So it actually works.

    所以冥想真的有效。

  • And when we studied the brains of experienced meditators,

    當我們研究資深冥想者的大腦時,

  • we found that parts of a neural network of self-referential processing

    我們發現了神經網絡裡面 「自我指認流程」的部分

  • called the default mode network

    被稱為「預設模式網絡」

  • were at play.

    正在產生影響。

  • Now, one current hypothesis is that a region of this network,

    目前是有一個 關於這個網絡某區域的理論,

  • called the posterior cingulate cortex,

    稱為「後扣帶回皮質」,

  • is activated not necessarily by craving itself

    會因為癮念本身而引發不必要的啟動。

  • but when we get caught up in it, when we get sucked in,

    但當我們被它牽絆住, 當我們被吸進去的時候,

  • and it takes us for a ride.

    它會欺騙我們。

  • In contrast, when we let go --

    相反來說,如果我們就讓它走--

  • step out of the process

    從流程裡走出來

  • just by being curiously aware of what's happening --

    只是單純的好奇 到底發生甚麼事情--

  • this same brain region quiets down.

    同一區域的大腦就會安靜下來。

  • Now we're testing app and online-based mindfulness training programs

    現在我們在測試手機應用程式和 以網路為基礎的冥想訓練課程,

  • that target these core mechanisms

    目標就是這些核心機制,

  • and, ironically, use the same technology that's driving us to distraction

    諷刺的是,竟是使用同一種 讓我們分心的科技

  • to help us step out of our unhealthy habit patterns

    去幫助我們脱離自己不健康的習慣模式,

  • of smoking, of stress eating and other addictive behaviors.

    像是吸煙、因壓力而狂吃 和其他上癮的行為。

  • Now, remember that bit about context-dependent memory?

    現在,還記得剛才曾提過的情境記憶嗎?

  • We can deliver these tools to peoples' fingertips

    我們可以把這些最重要的

  • in the contexts that matter most.

    內容工具傳遞到人們的指尖。

  • So we can help them

    所以我們可以幫助他們

  • tap into their inherent capacity to be curiously aware

    在渴望抽菸、遇壓力亂吃或 任何不好的慾望浮現的霎那,

  • right when that urge to smoke or stress eat or whatever arises.

    挖掘他們的內心潛力 去好奇地意識正確。

  • So if you don't smoke or stress eat,

    所以如果你不抽菸、 也沒有因為壓力而狂吃,

  • maybe the next time you feel this urge to check your email when you're bored,

    可能下一次你在無聊的時候 想去檢查電郵,

  • or you're trying to distract yourself from work,

    或是你想在工作時間透一下氣,

  • or maybe to compulsively respond to that text message when you're driving,

    又或在開車時, 有不得不回覆訊息的義務,

  • see if you can tap into this natural capacity,

    看看你是不是可以,藉助這先天的能力,

  • just be curiously aware

    就單純的去好奇

  • of what's happening in your body and mind in that moment.

    到底那一刻,你的身體和心智 在發生什麼事。

  • It will just be another chance

    這可能提供了一個機會

  • to perpetuate one of our endless and exhaustive habit loops ...

    讓你持續保有這個永無止境 和消耗性的惡性循環......

  • or step out of it.

    或是擺脫掉它。

  • Instead of see text message, compulsively text back,

    看見訊息時,不要再 -- 不得不的回覆

  • feel a little bit better --

    反而應該是有蠻好的感覺 --

  • notice the urge,

    察覺到渴望,

  • get curious,

    感到好奇,

  • feel the joy of letting go

    感受一下放走它的歡愉,

  • and repeat.

    然後重覆。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

When I was first learning to meditate,

當我第一次學習冥想的時候,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 冥想 好奇 習慣 行為 重覆

TED】Judson Brewer:戒除壞習慣的簡單方法 (A simple way to break a bad habit | Judson Brewer) (【TED】Judson Brewer: A simple way to break a bad habit (A simple way to break a bad habit | Judson Brewer))

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