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  • Hi, everyone. I'm Jade. Today we're talking about Greek words in English, and I'm not

    大家好,我是Jade,今天我們要談談英文當中的希臘字根,

  • teaching you these words because they'll be the most useful words for you, and I'm not

    我不會教你這些單字,因為這些對你來說是最實用的字根,

  • teaching you these words so you can go around sounding really clever using long words when

    所以當你講英文時,可以靈活聰明的運用在冗長的單字裡

  • you're speaking English. The reason is to show you a little bit about how the English

    方法就是讓你了解英文這個語言是如何發展形成的,

  • language has evolved, and also so that when you do encounter a long word, you can use

    所以當你遇到冗長的單字時,

  • what I'm teaching you today to break it down, and maybe you'll recognize parts of this word

    妳可以用我今天教你的方式解決,或許你可以認得一部分,

  • and that will help you understand.

    幫助你瞭解這個單字

  • So, let's have a look at some Greek words in English. So, most of the time, when we

    讓我們來看一些英文當中的希臘單字吧,大部分時間,

  • find a Greek word in English, it's , it represents a concept or idea,

    當我們看到英文裡的希臘單字,這就是學術性的語言,表示一個觀念或想法

  • and there'll be quite a lot of medical language as well. So, looking at medical words for

    也有很多關於醫學的術語,看到關於心理與生理的醫學單字

  • the mind and body. The Greeks from a long time ago, they were very knowledgeable about

    可以知道很久以前的希臘人對醫學那類的東西是相當了解的

  • medicine and things like that, so we took a lot of words from their language. We didn't

    所以我們有很多來自那個語言的單字,我們當時還沒有那種觀念...

  • have idea... We didn't have words for these things, because it was not knowledge known

    沒有關於那些領域的單字,因為當時並不知道這門學問

  • here, so the concepts came from Greece, and with that, the language came from Greece.

    因此來自希臘的語言也伴隨著當時來自希臘的觀念

  • So, when we find a word with "dermo" or "derma" in it, we need to think of this part of the

    所以當我們看到「dermo」或是「derma」,

  • word as a building block, and you put different building blocks together, and that can help

    我們會把這些字視為建築的積木,然後你把不同的積木放在一起,

  • you understand the whole meaning of the word; otherwise known as a root. So, that means

    那可以幫助你了解整個單字的意思,另外那也是字根,

  • skin. And when we get this end part of the world... Word, which sounds like "ology",

    意思是表皮,然後當我們把這個聽起來是「ology」的字放到結尾,

  • that means study of the subject. So, skin, study of the skin. You put it together, and

    意思就是一門學科或研究,所以,皮膚,皮膚的研究,你把它放在一起,

  • that gives you the full meaning. So, if you have a problem with... With your skin and

    就可以得到一個完整的涵義了,如果你的皮膚有問題,而且需要去看醫生

  • you need to go to the hospital, you would go to the "dermatology department", and the

    你就會到皮膚科部門,

  • doctor would be a "dermatologist"; a special doctor who knows about skin problems. A different

    那裏的醫生就是「dermatologist」,解決皮膚問題的專業醫生,

  • skin problem is "dermatitis", and the "titis" part means inflammation, it means... Could

    有一個皮膚問題就是「皮膚炎」,「titis」意思是發炎,

  • be... Could be swollen skin, or it could be inside your body. If it's a problem with your

    可能指的是腫大的皮膚,也可能是發生在身體裡的,如果你的骨頭有問題,

  • bones, you get a disease called "arthritis" that older people get, usually, and it's quite

    你得到了老人常常患的「關節炎」,

  • painful and difficult to move their fingers, and things like that. So, these are examples

    那很痛而且指頭或其他關節會很難移動,所以這些是關於醫學的例子

  • of medical words. You can sometimes get a sense of what one part means, and maybe guess

    有時你可以知道這一部分的意思,或許其他的也一樣

  • the other.

  • Similarly, when we get words with "hemo" or "hema", this is related to blood. "Hemoglobin"

    同樣地,當我們看到「hemo」或「hema」,這就跟血液有關,「血紅素」

  • is a part of what makes up our blood. "Hematoma" is the medical word for bruise. You know when

    是組成血液的成分,「血腫」是受傷的醫學用語,

  • you hit yourself and skin goes purple? If it's a... If it's a big bruise, then it's

    當你撞到,皮膚會變紫色的,如果有嚴重的瘀傷,那就是血腫

  • a hematoma. And a "hemorrhage" is a medical problem where... Where blood is suddenly,

    「出血」就是血突然像是

  • like, leaking out where it's not meant to be inside your body, and you can be in very

    從身體某個不該出來的地方洩漏出來,

  • big, big, big trouble if you get a hemorrhage. Sometimes people get a brain hemorrhage, and

    如果出血,你就會有很大很大的麻煩,

  • maybe they die from that. So, "hemo" or "hema" means blood.

    有時人可能會死於腦出血,所以「hemo」或「hema」意思是血

  • What about "psycho" or "psych"? What does this mean? Well, this is to do with the mind,

    那「psycho」或「psych」是什麼意思呢? 那跟我們的心理有關,

  • and I think these words have... These words are interesting because we can see how they're

    這些字蠻有趣的,因為我們可以看出他們的關聯,

  • related. So, we have "psychic", that's the power of being able to read somebody's mind;

    「psychic」(靈媒),那是可以讀心的能力,

  • one mind to another mind. "Psycho" means, like, crazy. And "psychiatrist" means doctor

    一個人與另一人的心靈相通,「Psycho」(精神病的)指的是瘋狂,而「psychiatrist」就是精神心理醫生

  • of the mind. So, whenever you see a word with this, you know it's to do with the mind basically.

    所以不管什麼時候看到這類的字,你就知道基本上這跟心理有關,

  • That's a useful one, I think; you can find that in a lot of words.

    我覺得這還蠻實用的,你可以在很多單字中找到這字根

  • Then, let's have a look at words with "mania". You'll find words with "mania" at the end.

    再來,我們來看「mania」,可以看到這些以「mania」結尾的字

  • "Mania" means to be mad or addicted to something, so here are two... Here are two words. "Cleptomania"

    「mania」意思是生氣或是癡迷,這裡有兩個字,

  • means somebody addicted to stealing things; thief. They can't help themselves, but steal

    「Cleptomania」(盜竊癖)指的時對偷竊上癮,小偷,他們無法克制自己偷東西,

  • things. And "nymphomania" means somebody addicted to sex, somebody who can't help themselves

    「nymphomania」(慕男狂)就是某人沉迷於性,某人忍不住發生性行為,

  • from having sex. But that we've got many, many words with this "mania" on the end, so

    我們有很多很多以「mania」結尾的單字,所以當你看到它

  • if you see that, you can... You ca get a sense, again, of what it actually means.

    你可以有感覺並且知道它的意思

  • And we've got words here, "anthrop" and that means human, related to human things. "Anthropology",

    接著是「anthrop」,意思是人,跟人有關係的事,

  • do you remember what this part means? The study of. The study of humans. So, "an anthropologist"

    「Anthropology」(人類學)你還記得是什麼意思嗎? 人類的研究,

  • is somebody who studies the way people live in society and culture in the worlds. And

    所以「anthropologist」(人類學家)就是研究人類社會和文化的人,

  • "anthropomorphic", you might use this if you're a kind of literature student or something.

    「anthropomorphic」(擬人、人格化)如果是文學相關科系的學生,你可能會用到,

  • This is a word for when we make things that aren't humans... We talk about things that

    這字是當我們在講到不是人的事物的時候....我們將某事物看做是人,

  • aren't humans as if they were. So, when you put a little puppy dog in human clothes, and

    所以,當你為小狗穿上人類的服裝,

  • you start talking to it like it's a person, you're "anthropomorphising" the little dog,

    然後開始對他向對人一樣講話,你就是將那隻小狗「人格化」

  • but it's an anthropomorphic behaviour to dress up a little puppy dog like that. Very long,

    但為小狗穿衣服不是人格化的行為,

  • complicated words, I know. But we can break it down a little bit more. When you see "ic"

    很長又複雜的單字,我了解,但我們可以將它拆解,當你看到「ic」在字尾

  • on the end, it means it's an adjective and we're describing something. So, when we come

    指的就是形容詞,我們正在敘述某事物,

  • back we'll look at the next Greek roots... Greek words I want to show you.

    我們待會回來時,再來看看下一個我要介紹的希臘字根

  • Let's take a look at more Greek words in English. We'll start with words with "phone" or "phoney"

    讓我們來看看更多英文當中的希臘字根,我們從「phone」「phoney」開始

  • in them. Of course, we've got the "phone" that we use, and this root means "sound".

    毫無疑問,這就是我們在用的「電話」,它的字根意思是「聲音」

  • "Phone" is the informal word for "telephone". And this word: "cacophony", I remember...

    「phone」是「telephone」不正式的單字,接下來這個字「cacophony」(雜音),我記得...

  • I'll never forget this word because when I was at school, we wrote... You know, you write

    我永遠不會忘記這個字,因為我在學校時,你知道,我們都會寫作文

  • stories. I think I was quite young when this happened, and somebody else's story was read

    我那時非常小,然後某人的作文被念出來

  • out, and she used the word "cacophony" in it, and I was so jealous. I was like:

    她在文章中用了「cacophony」這個字,我超忌妒的,

  • "That's a really long word and you sound really clever", so I think I tried to, like, use it in every

    我就在想:「那真的是個冗長的單字,但那讓你聽起來很聰明」,所以之後我在每一個文章中都試著

  • single story I write after then. But it means, like, having very loud, different sounds that

    用這個單字,意思就像是非常吵雜的聲音聚在一起

  • go together, and it's like... It's an unpleasant sort of noise, basically.

    基本上那就是令人不愉快的噪音

  • So, anyway, I won't forget that word.

    無論如何,我都不會忘了這個字

  • Also, I remember that learning this part of the word means string when I was at school

    我記得這也是我在學校時學的,這個字意思是一串

  • as well, because "poly", we see this in lots of words, like: "polyester" is a kind of plastic,

    我們可以看到很多有「poly」的單字,像是「polyester」(聚酯纖維)就是一種塑膠

  • or when you... When you go to the shop and they give you a plastic bag, that one's "polythene",

    當你去商店買東西時,他們會給你塑膠袋,就是「聚乙烯」

  • a polythene bag. And I remember being at school and my science teacher telling me that "poly"

    聚乙烯袋子,我記得學校的自然老師告訴我

  • means string. Because if you think about how plastic is made, it's different atoms stringing

    「poly」意思是一串,因為如果你想到塑膠的製程,就是不同的原子串再一起的

  • together. You know what? I'm getting a bit science... We're talking about the English

    你知道嗎? 我離題講到科學去了,我們是在講英文耶

  • language, here. Anyway, so it's... Yeah, "string" meaning different things together, basically,

    總之,「string」基本上就是指不同的東西聚在一起,

  • so that's what all plastics are. Here's a word: "polyamorous", so we've got more than

    這就是塑膠了,「polyamorous」(多元之愛)有不只一個字根,

  • one, and this root, "amor" is related to love, and what this word means is relationships

    「armor」跟愛有關,這個字指的就是他們的關係

  • where they're, like, open relationships, and the people can have more than one partner,

    開放的關係,而且他們擁有不只一個伴侶

  • polyamorous love; different lovers.

    多元之愛,不同的情侶

  • Looking on this side for more technological words, we've got "tele", we already looked...

    看看另一邊比較技術性的字,「tele」我們已經講了...

  • Already mentioned "telephone", but the "tele" part means distant or far away. So, we have

    已經提過「telephone」,「tele」意思是距離或是遙遠的,所以我們有「電話」

  • "telephone", you know, communicating with someone who's not physically near you, someone

    就是跟不在你身邊的人講話,在遙遠的地方的某個人

  • who's far away. "Telepathy" is also communicating with someone who is not with you. Actually,

    「telepathy」(心靈感應)也是跟不在你身邊的人講話,其實也不是

  • no, they can be with you, but it's just through the mind communication. And "teleport" which,

    他們跟你同在,但是透過心靈感應溝通,再來是「瞬移」,

  • as far as I know, hasn't been invented yet, but it would be really cool, it's when you

    就我所知還沒發明出來,但那真的蠻酷的,

  • can travel to one place, just like that basically, to be in a different place. You don't need

    當你去異地旅行,

  • planes, you don't need buses, you don't need Oyster cards. You can just go, using a teleport.

    你不需要搭飛機、巴士,也不需要蠔卡(大倫敦地區交通用的電子收費系統),你只要瞬移過去就好了

  • But we haven't managed to invent that one yet.

    但我們還沒打算發明那個東西

  • And "micro", this root means small. So, we've got "microchip", you find these in laptops,

    「micro」這字根意思是小,「microchip」(微晶片),你可以在筆電裡頭看到

  • any kind of electronic devices where all the... All the information... This is, again, like

    在放有資訊......的任何電子設備,

  • a science lesson. I'm not going to explain what a microchip is, except that it makes

    我好像又在上自然課了,我不會解釋什麼是微晶片,就是讓電子產品運作,

  • electronic things work, I think is a good way to explain it. And "microcosm" means something

    我想這是最好的說法,「microcosm」(縮影、小規模、小世界)指的就是一個大物體裡面的小東西,

  • small within something bigger. So, one way people talk about it, mostly I find is when

    這是其中一種講法,我最常在氣象看到,

  • talking about the weather, so like in the UK, we don't have many places with good weather,

    就像在英國,我們很多地方天氣都不好

  • but some places are described as being microcosms, like some particular beaches are more... Seem

    但有些地方被形容是另一個小世界,像是某些海灘總是...

  • to be sunnier than general... General places in England. Not as much rain, and things like

    總是比英國大不分的地方還要晴朗,沒有太多雨,

  • that, so those places would be described as microcosms of the bigger... You know, the

    所以那些地方會被形容是

  • surrounding climate, which is generally rainy.

    常下雨的大環境氣候當中的另一個小世界

  • We can also thank the Greeks for analytical words. Like, they were, they were measuring

    我們也要感謝希臘人解析用的單字,他們會測量東西,

  • things, probably weren't... We weren't measuring things then, I don't know. But yeah, so, from

    或許沒有......我不知道,但在公制系統中,

  • the metric system, we have the word "kilo" and related words. This means a thousand of

    我們有「kilo」和與其相關的字,意思是幾千個東西

  • something. So, a "kilometre" is 1,000 metres, and "kilogram" is 1,000 grams. So, this one

    所以「kilometre」就是1000公尺,然後「kilogram」就是1000克,

  • is for distance, and this one is for measurement.

    這個是距離,這個是度量

  • Then you've probably seen "geo" in some words, and that root means the earth and things related

    你可能會看到「geo」在一些字當中,那個字根就是土地,

  • to the planet where we live. So, we've got "geography", which is another school science.

    以及跟我們住的行星相關的東西,所以我們「geography」這個字,這又是另一門自然學科了

  • It's about learning about our world, and how it's made up. And "geology", which is the

    就是關於我們世界的學問,還有它如何形成的,再來是「geology」(地質學),

  • study of rocks, stones, that kind of thing. So, yeah, here are some Greek words for you.

    就是岩石、地質之類的學問。所以沒錯,這些就是介紹給你的希臘單字

  • No... Just paying attention to roots can really help you develop your vocabulary, you just

    注意字根真的可以幫助你曾進你的字彙量,

  • start to guess things, you don't have to check the meaning of every word that you encounter.

    你只要開始猜,不用看每個單字到就去查它的意思,

  • You can go to the engVid website, do a quiz on this lesson, test out your vocabulary brain power.

    你可以到engVid的網站,做這堂課的測驗,考考你的字彙能力

  • And if you like this lesson, please subscribe.

    如果你喜歡這堂課,請訂閱

  • I've got all different kinds of lessons on my engVid channel; not just about really long words that you might not ever use when you're speaking.

    我會在engVid上傳不同類型的課程,不只有你講話時不會用到的冗長單字

  • I've also got my personal channel, and there's lots and lots

    我也有個人的頻道,那裡有很多很多影片,

  • of videos on my personal channel, so you need to go and check that out, too. And yeah, I'm

    你也可以去看看,

  • finished, so I'm going to go and

    今天就到這了,我要去研讀字典

  • swallow a dictionary now, and learn some really complicated words. So, see ya later.

    然後學習一些複雜的單字,所以下次見囉

  • Bye.

Hi, everyone. I'm Jade. Today we're talking about Greek words in English, and I'm not

大家好,我是Jade,今天我們要談談英文當中的希臘字根,

字幕與單字
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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 單字 字根 希臘 皮膚 醫學 看到

如何用字根學習新單字 (How to understand new English vocabulary by learning roots!)

  • 13816 1956
    Jenny 發佈於 2016 年 11 月 18 日
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