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  • Whenever I get to travel for work,

    我每天上班的時候,

  • I try to find out where my drinking water comes from,

    都試圖找出我們飲用水的來源。

  • and where my poop and pee go.

    還有我們排泄物的去向。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • This has earned me the nickname "The Poo Princess" in my family,

    這讓我贏得了「大便公主」的美名。

  • and it's ruined many family vacations, because this is not normal.

    這種奇怪的行為還讓 我們的家庭假期不得安寧。

  • But thinking about where it all goes is the first step in activating

    不過想這些問題是

  • what are actually superpowers in our poop and pee.

    發現大小便神力的第一步。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Yeah.

    是啊。

  • And if we use them well,

    如果我們好好利用,

  • we can live healthier and more beautifully.

    就能生活得更健康、更幸福。

  • Check out this landscape in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

    看看這個新墨西哥州 聖塔菲的景觀吧。

  • Just notice what kinds of words and feelings come to mind.

    看看我們會想到甚麼詞語和感覺。

  • This landscape was watered with treated sewage water.

    這片地是用改良污水澆灌的。

  • Does that change anything for you?

    你的感覺有沒有改變?

  • I imagine it might.

    我想會的。

  • And that's OK.

    那就好。

  • How we feel about this

    我們對它們的感受,

  • is going to determine exactly how innovative we can be.

    決定了我們處理它們時的創造力。

  • And I want to explain how it works,

    我想解釋一下這個過程

  • but what words do I use?

    不過我應該用什麼詞呢?

  • I mean, I can use profane words like "shit" and "piss,"

    我是說,我可以用 「屎」、「尿」這樣粗俗的詞,

  • and then my grandma won't watch the video.

    那樣我想我祖母 就不會看這支影片了。

  • Or I can use childish words like "poo" and "pee." Eh.

    我們也可以用「便便」、「臭臭」 這樣孩子氣的詞。

  • Or I can use scientific words like "excrement" and "feces." Humph.

    或者像「糞便」、「排泄物」 這樣科學的詞,嗯。

  • I'll use a mix.

    我就通通用好了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's all I got. (Laughs)

    反正就這麼多。(笑聲)

  • So, in this suburb,

    在偏遠的地方,

  • the poo and the pee and the wash water are going to this treatment plant

    大小便和生活用水 都會進入就在住宅區中間的

  • right in the middle of the community.

    污水處理設施。

  • It looks more like a park than a treatment plant.

    它更像公園而不是處理廠。

  • The poo at the very bottom of all those layers of gravel --

    大便在沉澱層的最下面—

  • not touching anyone --

    單獨一層—

  • is providing solid food for those marsh plants.

    為菌類提供充分的養料。

  • And the clean, clear water that comes out the other end

    淨化了的清水從另外一面流出來,

  • is traveling underground to water each person's yard.

    流過地下管道,流進每個人的院子。

  • So even though they're in a desert,

    所以,就算那是在沙漠裡,

  • they get their own personal oasis.

    他們也有自己的綠洲。

  • This approach is called Integrated Water Management,

    這種方法叫作「水資源綜合管理」,

  • or holistic or closed-loop.

    或者整體利用,或者循環利用。

  • Whatever you want to call it,

    你想叫什麼都行,

  • it's in conflict with the status quo of how we think about sanitation,

    但這與我們現在的衛生信條相牴觸,

  • which is contain, treat, push it away.

    那就是把廢物包起來, 淨化,扔得遠遠的。

  • But in this approach, we're doing one step better.

    不過用這種辦法,我們做得更好。

  • We're designing for reuse from the very beginning,

    我們一開始就為循環再利用而設計,

  • because everything does get reused,

    因為只要我們做好計劃,

  • only now we're planning for it.

    所有的東西都能循環。

  • And often, that makes for really beautiful spaces.

    通常,這讓環境更漂亮。

  • But the most important thing about this system

    不過這個系統最重要的

  • isn't the technicals of how it works.

    並不是支持它運作的技術。

  • It's how you feel about it.

    而是你們的感受。

  • Do you want this in your yard?

    你希望在後院有這樣一個裝置嗎?

  • Why not?

    為什麼不?

  • I got really curious about this question.

    我對這個問題很好奇。

  • Why don't we see more innovation in sanitation?

    為什麼我們不能在衛生領域有創新?

  • Why isn't that kind of thing the new normal?

    為什麼我們不能 帶著平常心接受這件事?

  • And I care so much about this question,

    我對這個問題簡直太關心了,

  • that I work for a nonprofit called Recode.

    以至於成立了一個叫做 Recode(重新定義)的NGO

  • We want to accelerate adoption

    我們需要加快

  • of sustainable building and development practices.

    永續使用建築及發展的應用。

  • We want more innovation.

    我們需要創新。

  • But a lot of times, whole categories of innovation --

    不過很多時候,所有類型的創新,

  • ones that can help us live more beautifully --

    讓我們過得更好的創新,

  • turn out to be illegal.

    都是違法的。

  • Today's regulations and codes were written under the assumption

    現在的法規和法律是有前提的,

  • that best practices would remain best practices,

    前提是好的做法永遠是好的,

  • with incremental updates forever and ever.

    之後也只能增加條款,

  • But innovation isn't always incremental.

    不過創新往往不只是增加。

  • It turns out, how we feel about any particular new technique

    我們對於任何新科技的看法

  • gets into everything we do:

    決定了我們的行為:

  • how we talk about it,

    我們如何談論它,

  • how we encourage people to study,

    我們如何鼓勵人們去學習它,

  • our jokes, our codes ...

    我們的笑話, 我們的原則等

  • And it ultimately determines how innovative we can be.

    最終決定了我們的創造力有多強。

  • So, that's the first reason we don't innovate in sanitation.

    這就是我們在衛生領域 無法創新的原因。

  • We're kind of uncomfortable talking about sanitation,

    因為我們不願意談論衛生。

  • that's why I've gotten called "The Poo Princess" so much.

    這就是為什麼別人 叫我「大便公主」。

  • The second reason is:

    第二個理由是

  • we think the problem is solved here in the US.

    我們認為在美國, 這個問題已經解決了。

  • But not so.

    但並沒有。

  • Here in the US we still get sick from drinking shit in our sewage water.

    在美國,有人仍然因為 飲用不乾淨的水而生病,

  • Seven million people get sick every year,

    每年有七百萬人罹患各種疾病,

  • 900 die annually.

    900人死亡。

  • And we're not taking a holistic approach to making it better.

    如果我們不採取一種 整體的態度來改進,

  • So we're not solving it.

    我們就解決不了問題。

  • Where I live in Portland, Oregon,

    我還住在俄勒岡州的波特蘭時,

  • I can't take Echo for a swim during the rainy season,

    下雨的時候,我都不能 帶我的狗艾克去游泳,

  • because we dump raw sewage sometimes into our river.

    因為我們有的時候 就直接把餿水排進河裡。

  • Our rainwater and our sewage go to the same treatment plant.

    我們的雨水和餿水 一起進入淨化工廠。

  • Too much rain overflows into the river.

    過多的雨水令河水氾濫。

  • And Portland is not alone here.

    而且並不是波特蘭才有這個問題。

  • Forty percent of municipalities self-report

    百分之四十的市民自己承認,

  • dumping raw or partially treated sewage into our waterways.

    有把污水或者部分淨化 的污水倒入水路的經歷。

  • The other bummer going on here with our status quo

    現實還有另一個很可惜的地方,

  • is that half of all of your poop and pee is going to fertilize farmland.

    就是一半的大小便會用於農田施肥。

  • The other half is being incinerated

    另一半會被燒棄

  • or land-filled.

    或者填埋。

  • And that's a bummer to me,

    我覺得這很可惜,

  • because there are amazing nutrients in your daily doody.

    因為排泄物中有極其豐富的養分。

  • It is comparable to pig manure;

    它可以與豬糞肥相比;

  • we're omnivores, they're omnivores.

    我們是雜食動物, 牠們也是雜食動物。

  • Think of your poo and pee as a health smoothie for a tree.

    想想吧,你的大小便 對於樹來說就是一杯健康奶昔。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The other bummer going on here

    另一個我覺得可惜的地方是

  • is that we're quickly moving all the drugs we take into our waterways.

    我們服用的藥物都排進了水道。

  • The average wastewater treatment plant can remove maybe half of the drugs

    普通的廢水處理工廠大概可以

  • that come in.

    處理掉排入藥物中的一半。

  • The other half goes right out the other side.

    另外一半就這麼從淨化口排出來了。

  • Consider what a cocktail of pharmaceuticals --

    想像一杯藥物雞尾酒—

  • hormones, steroids, Vicodin --

    賀爾蒙、類固醇、止痛藥—

  • does to a fish,

    對一條魚,

  • to a dog,

    一隻狗,

  • to a child.

    一個孩子造成的傷害。

  • But this isn't just some problem that we need to contain.

    不過這並不只是一個 我們需要管制的問題。

  • If we flip this around, we can create a resource

    如果我們掉過頭來看 我們能創造一種資源,

  • that can solve so many of our other problems.

    解決我們很多其他的問題。

  • And I want to get you comfortable with this idea,

    我想讓你習慣這種想法。

  • so imagine the things I'm going to show you, these technologies,

    所以,想像一下我要 展示給你們的東西。

  • and this attitude that says,

    這些科技和這種態度認為:

  • "We're going to reuse this.

    「我們應該回收利用排泄物,

  • Let's design to make it beautiful" --

    一起設計,讓它們變漂亮。」

  • as advanced potty training.

    這會成為高級便壺培訓的主題。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I think you're ready for it.

    我認為你已經做好準備。

  • I think we as a culture are ready for advanced potty training.

    我認為我們作為一種文化已經 準備好迎接高級便壺培訓。

  • And there are three great reasons to enroll today.

    有三個你應該加入的理由。

  • Number one:

    第一個:

  • we can fertilize our food.

    我們能肥沃土壤,豐富食物的營養

  • Each one of us is pooping and peeing something

    我們每個人的排泄物

  • that could fertilize half or maybe all of our food,

    可以為一半或者全部的食物施肥

  • depending on our diet.

    這取決於我們的飲食。

  • That dark brown poo in the toilet is dark brown because of what?

    為什麼廁所裡的大便是深棕色的?

  • Dead stuff, bacteria.

    因為裡面有死去的細菌。

  • That's carbon.

    這是碳水化合物。

  • And carbon, if we're getting that into the soil,

    如果我們把碳水化合物加入土壤中

  • is going to bind to the other minerals and nutrients in there.

    它會跟其他礦物質和營養物質結合

  • Boom! Healthier food.

    砰!就有了更健康的食物。

  • Voilà! Healthier people.

    砰!就有了更健康的人。

  • Chemical fertilizers by definition don't have carbon in them.

    化學肥料,顧名思義, 裡面是沒有碳水化合物的。

  • Imagine if we could move our animal manure and our human manure to our soil,

    想像一下,如果我們能把 動物和人類排泄物加入土壤中,

  • we might not need to rely on fossil fuel-based fertilizers,

    我們就用不著 化石燃料製造的肥料了。

  • mine minerals from far away.

    也不用從很遠的地方採集礦物質了。

  • Imagine how much energy we could save.

    我們能節約多少能源啊!

  • Now, some of us are concerned

    現在有些人擔心

  • about industrial pollutants contaminating this reuse cycle.

    工業污染物會污染這種循環利用過程。

  • That can be addressed.

    這個問題是可以解決的。

  • But we need to separate our discomfort about talking about poo and pee

    不過我們需要拋棄 談論排泄物的尷尬感,

  • so we can calmly talk about how we want to reuse it

    所以我們就能冷靜地談論回收利用,

  • and what things we don't want to reuse.

    以及我們不打算再利用的東西。

  • And get this:

    而且你要知道:

  • if we change our approach to sanitation,

    如果我們改變對待衛生的方式,

  • we can start to slow down climate change.

    我們就能減緩氣候變化。

  • Remember that carbon in the poop?

    記得大便裡有碳水化合物嗎?

  • If we can get that into our soil bank,

    如果我們可以把它加入土壤,

  • it's going to start to absorb carbon dioxide that we put into the air.

    它就能吸收我們排出的二氧化碳。

  • And that could help slow down global warming.

    然後就能減緩全球暖化。

  • I want to show you some brave souls

    我要給你們介紹一些勇敢的人,

  • who've had the courage to embrace this advanced potty training approach.

    一些有勇氣接受高級便壺訓練的人。

  • So those folks in New Mexico --

    這些住在新墨西哥的人,

  • why did they do it?

    為什麼他們要這麼做?

  • 'Cause they're in a desert? 'Cause they save money? Yeah.

    因為他們住在沙漠裡? 因為他們能省錢?沒錯。

  • But more importantly, they felt comfortable

    但是更重要的是, 他們能夠坦然對待

  • seeing what was going down the toilet as a resource.

    把廁所當成資源的概念。

  • Here's an average house in Portland, Oregon.

    這是俄勒岡波特蘭的一棟普通房子。

  • This house is special because they have a composting toilet

    這棟房子的特殊之處 在於它有一個堆肥式廁所。

  • turning all their poo and pee, over time, into a soil amendment.

    經過一段時間後, 把人的排泄物全部變成土壤肥料。

  • Their wash water, their shower water, is going underground

    他們洗手、洗澡的水 全部會去往地下,

  • to a series of mulch basins,

    流到一系列附有護蓋物的盆地,

  • and then watering that orchard downhill.

    然後去澆灌山下的蘭花。

  • When they went to get this permitted,

    當他們去為這種設計申請許可時,

  • it wasn't allowed in Oregon.

    俄勒岡並沒有通過申請。

  • But it was allowed in five other states nearby.

    但是這在附近的 另外五個州是可以的。

  • That was Recode's -- my organization's -- first code-change campaign.

    這是我的組織Recode的 第一個改變的運動。

  • Here's a great example where the Integrated Water Management approach

    關於綜合水源管理系統的節約性,

  • was the cheapest.

    這是一個很好的例子:

  • This is three high-rise residential buildings in downtown Portland,

    這是波特蘭城區三座很高的住宅。

  • and they're not flushing to the sewer system.

    他們並不把水直接衝進污水系統。

  • How?

    那怎麼辦?

  • Well, their wash water is getting reused to flush toilets,

    他們洗手的水會用來沖馬桶,

  • cool mechanical systems,

    冷卻機械系統,

  • water the landscape.

    給植物澆水。

  • And then once the building has thoroughly used everything --

    當這座建築已經充分利用了一切,

  • aka, shat in it --

    也就是說,水裡已經有了糞便,

  • it's treated to highest standard right on-site by plants and bacteria,

    它就會按照最高標準, 由植物和細菌來淨化。

  • and then infiltrated into the groundwater right below.

    在滲透到下面的地下水裡,

  • And all that was cheaper

    這樣比更新周圍的污水設備

  • than updating the surrounding sewer infrastructure.

    更便宜。

  • So that's the last reason we should get really excited

    這是我們為什麼應該 為這種改變激動的

  • about doing things differently:

    最後一個理由:

  • we can save a lot of money.

    我們能省很多錢。

  • This was the first permit of its kind in Oregon.

    這是俄勒岡通過的 第一個類似的項目。

  • Brave and open-minded people sat down and felt comfortable saying,

    勇敢、開放的人能坐下來坦然地說:

  • "Yeah, that shit makes sense."

    「這樣處理屎尿更有道理。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "Let's do it."

    「我們一起這樣做吧。」

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • You know?

    你知道嗎?

  • I keep showing examples

    我不停地展示

  • where everyone's reusing everything on-site.

    每個人都當場回收利用的例子。

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Well, when we look at our aging infrastructure -- and it is old --

    當我們看到我們老化的設施時,

  • and we look at the cost of updating it,

    我們就能看看更新它們的費用:

  • three-quarters of that cost is just the pipes snaking through our city.

    四分之三的費用 都是用在穿過城市的水管。

  • So as we build anew, as we renovate,

    在我們新建、更新時

  • it might make more sense to treat and reuse everything on-site.

    不如想想這樣就地處理 和再利用所有的東西。

  • San Francisco realized that it made sense

    舊金山已經意識到了這一點。

  • to invest in rebates for every household

    開始撥款為安裝沖洗用水和雨水

  • to reuse their wash water and their rainwater

    回收裝置,並用它們澆灌院子

  • to water the backyard,

    的家庭提供退稅。

  • because the amount of water they would save as a community would be so big.

    因為社區共同節約的水量很可觀。

  • But why were all these projects so innovative?

    不過這些計畫為什麼這麼有創造力?

  • The money piece, yeah.

    因為錢,是的。

  • But more importantly,

    但更重要的是

  • they felt comfortable with this idea of advanced potty training.

    他們對待高級便壺的坦然態度。

  • Imagine if we embraced innovation for sanitation

    想像一下,如果我們 在衛生領域擁抱創新,

  • the way we have for, say, solar power.

    就像我們在太陽能領域做的那樣,

  • Think about it -- solar power used to be uncommon and unaffordable.

    想想吧,太陽能過去 可是不常見也不便宜的,

  • Now it's more a part of our web of power than ever before.

    現在它已經更好地與 我們的能源網融為一體,

  • And it's creating resiliency.

    而且創造了彈性,

  • We now have sources of power like the sun

    我們現在多了太陽 這樣一個能量來源。

  • that don't vary with our earthly dramas.

    一種並不隨著我們 塵世的風雲變化而變化的能量。

  • What's driving all that innovation?

    是什麼在驅動這些創新?

  • It's us.

    是我們。

  • We're talking about energy.

    我們談論能源。

  • It's cool to talk about energy.

    談論能源是好的。

  • Some folks are even talking about the problems

    有些人甚至會談論

  • with the limited resources where our current energy is coming from.

    我們現在有限的能量來源的問題。

  • We encourage our best and brightest to work on this issue --

    我們鼓勵最厲害、 最聰明的人處理這些問題。

  • better solar panels, better batteries, everything.

    更好的太陽能版, 更好的電池,等等。

  • So let's talk about where our drinking water is coming from,

    所以我們也來談談 我們飲用水的來源,

  • where our poo and pee are actually going.

    以及我們排泄物的去處吧。

  • If we can get over this discomfort with this entire topic,

    如果我們能克服 對這類話題的不適感,

  • we could create something that creates our future goldmine.

    我們未來能造出一座金礦。

  • Every time you flush the toilet,

    你每次沖馬桶的時候,

  • I want you to think,

    我希望你能想想: