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  • Since the dawn of humanity, an estimated 100.8 billion people have lived and died, a number that increases by about 0.8% of the world's population each year.

    自從人類出現在地球上,已約有一千零八億人口活過又死去,根據每年世界人口約增加百分之零點八的趨勢

  • What happens to all of those people's bodies after they die?

    這些人們死去以後身體發生了什麼事?

  • and will the planet eventually run out of burial space?

    地球最終會沒地方讓人埋葬嗎?

  • When a person's heart stops beating,

    當一個人的心跳停止

  • the body passes through several stages before it begins decomposing.

    屍體在最終分解前會歷經許多階段

  • Within minutes after death,

    死亡後幾分鐘內

  • the blood begins settling in the lower-most parts of the body.

    血液開始在屍體最底層的部位留滯

  • Usually eight to twelve hours later,

    通常八至十二小時後

  • the skin in those areas is discolored by livor mortis, or post-mortem stain.

    那些部位的皮膚會變色浮現瘀痕,或稱為屍斑

  • And while at the moment of death, the body's muscles relax completely

    身體肌肉在死亡的當下全然放鬆

  • in a condition called primary flaccidity,

    這狀態稱為初期癱軟

  • they stiffen about two to six hours later in what's known as rigor mortis.

    約二至六小時過後,屍體僵直進入所謂的屍僵

  • This stiffening spreads through the muscles,

    這僵直透過肌肉間擴散

  • and its speed can be affected by age, gender, and the surrounding environment.

    僵直的速度會依年齡、性別和所處環境變動

  • The body also changes temperature,

    屍體的溫度同樣改變

  • usually cooling off to match its environment.

    通常降至與周遭環境同溫

  • Next comes decomposition,

    接著是分解階段

  • the process by which bacteria and insects break apart the body.

    過程中會由細菌及昆蟲來支解屍體

  • Many factors affect the rate of decomposition.

    許多因素會影響分解的比率

  • There is, however, a basic guide of the effect of the environment on decompositon

    雖然如此,還是有一套有關環境影響分解的基本規則

  • called Casper's Law.

    稱為卡斯柏定律

  • It says that if all other factors are equal, a body exposed to air decomposes twice as fast as one immersed in water and eight times as fast as one buried in earth.

    根據此定律,若是所有其他因素皆相同,暴露至空氣中的屍體分解速度會是在水中屍體的兩倍快,也比埋至地底的屍體快八倍

  • Soil acidity also greatly affects bone preservation.

    土壤酸度也會大幅影響骨頭的保存程度

  • High-acidity soils with a pH of less than 5.3

    酸鹼值低於 5.3 的強酸土壤

  • will rapidly decompose bone,

    會迅速分解骨頭

  • whereas in a neutral or basic soil with a pH of 7 or more,

    而在酸鹼值 7 或是以上的土壤中

  • a skeleton can remain in relatively good condition for centuries.

    一具骨骼可以在相當良好的情況下維持數世紀

  • Different cultures throughout history have developed unique approaches to burials.

    歷史中不同的文化,皆發展出各自獨特的埋葬方式

  • As far back as the first Neanderthal burials,

    最早追溯遠至第一場尼安德特人的埋葬

  • death was accompanied by rituals,

    儀式伴隨死亡而來

  • like the positioning, coloring, or decorating of corpses.

    內容包括屍體的姿勢、著色和衣著裝飾

  • Traditional Christian burials decorate the body in dress,

    傳統基督教葬禮中,屍體身著套裝

  • while in traditional Islam,

    而在傳統回教葬禮中

  • a body is wrapped in a piece of ritual fabric

    屍體全身包裹一條儀式用布

  • with the face oriented toward Mecca.

    頭朝向麥加

  • Traditional Hindus ceremonially burn the body,

    傳統印度教在儀式上裡會火葬屍體

  • and Zoroastrians, followers of one of the oldest monotheistic religions,

    而拜火教教徒,是最古老一神論宗教之一的信徒

  • traditionally place bodies atop a tower to expose them to the Sun

    傳統上會將屍體放置於一座天井上,暴露給太陽

  • and scavenging birds.

    及食腐鳥類

  • Before the Industrial Revolution, burials were simple and accessible.

    在工業革命以前,土葬單純且易於實施

  • These days, with suitable burial land running out in high-population areas,

    在今日,由於在多人口地區,適當的土葬區域為數不多

  • purchasing private gravesites can be costly,

    購買個人墓地會是一筆大花費

  • and many people can't afford simple burials.

    許多人因此無法負擔簡易的土葬

  • Even cremation, the second most common burial practice in the world,

    甚至是火葬,世上第二通用的殯葬方式

  • comes with a high cost.

    也花費不少

  • As for the question of running out of space,

    至於空間匱乏的問題

  • the issue isn't so much about total land in the world

    主要不在於全球總土地面積

  • as it is that large populations cluster together within cities.

    而在於城市中密集的人口聚集

  • Most of the big cities in the world

    世上絕多數的大城市

  • may run out of suitable burial grounds within a century.

    在一個世紀以內適於埋葬的土地就會用罄

  • For London, it's even sooner.

    對倫敦而言更快

  • That may happen by 2035.

    2035 年就可能發生這情況

  • So are there alternatives to traditional burials

    所以,是否有傳統土葬的替代方案

  • that might help with the space issue?

    能夠幫助解決土地匱乏的問題?

  • In some countries, skyscraper cemeteries enable vertical burials.

    在一些國家,高樓式的墓園讓埋葬得以垂直的方式體現

  • Some options focus on the body's relationship with the environment.

    有些方案則著重在人體與自然環境的關係

  • Promession, for example, freeze-dries and pulverizes the body,

    舉例來說,冷葬技術(promession)將屍體凍乾然後磨碎

  • creating a powder that can turn into compost

    形成的粉末能夠成為肥料

  • when mixed with oxygen and water.

    只要混和氧及水

  • There are also green burials that use special materials,

    其他也有環保埋葬(green burials)採用特殊材料

  • such as biodegradable caskets,

    例如生物可分解的棺材

  • urns that sprout trees,

    能發芽成樹的甕

  • and burial suits that grow mushrooms.

    以及會長蘑菇的喪服

  • Eternal reefs take that concept to the depths of the ocean

    永恆的礁石方案(eternal reefs),這樣的觀念則發想自海底深處

  • using a mixture of ashes and cement to create marine habitats for sea life.

    利用骨灰及水泥的混和物,製成海洋生物的棲息地

  • Death is an inevitable part of the human condition, but how we treat bodies and burials continues to evolve.

    死亡是人類必經的過程,然而處理遺體及埋葬的方式一直在進展

  • We may each have different spiritual,

    或許我們每個人各自有不同靈魂的、

  • religious,

    宗教的、

  • or practical approaches to dying,

    或是現實實際的方式來面對死亡

  • but the ever-increasing demand for burial space

    但墓地的需求日益增多

  • might give us a push to be creative

    或許會促使我們多發奇想

  • about where our bodies go after the final stages of life.

    我們的身體在人生的最後階段後,該何去何從

Since the dawn of humanity, an estimated 100.8 billion people have lived and died, a number that increases by about 0.8% of the world's population each year.

自從人類出現在地球上,已約有一千零八億人口活過又死去,根據每年世界人口約增加百分之零點八的趨勢

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 屍體 埋葬 分解 死亡 傳統

【TED-Ed】我們死後身體會發生什麼事? (What happens to our bodies after we die? - Farnaz Khatibi Jafari)

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    Flora Hu 發佈於 2016 年 11 月 04 日
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