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  • In April 2016, a viral video showed a Georgia school principal paddling a five-year-old

    2016年4月,一個爆紅的影片揭露了一所在喬治維亞的學校校長打一位年僅5歲的

  • student.

    學生

  • The video prompted a public debate on the effectiveness and legality of corporal punishment,

    這個影片引起了大眾對於體罰是否有效或合法產生了爭論

  • which continues in many US schools despite efforts to outlaw it.

    即使體罰是非法的,美國許多學校依舊使用體罰

  • So we wanted to know, where is it still legal for teachers to hit students?

    所以我們想要知道,有哪個地方的老師可以合法的體罰學生呢?

  • Well, in the United States, there is no federal law that addresses the use of corporal punishment

    在美國,沒有任何一條聯邦法律有提到在學校使用體罰的

  • in schools, meaning that it’s up to states and individual school districts to regulate

    條文,換言之,就是由各個州或是獨自的學區來訂定

  • it as they see fit.

    他們認為適合的規定

  • As of August 2016, 31 states had outlawed the disciplinary practice and 19 allow it

    直到2016年8月,31個州將體罰這種紀律處分認定違法,另外19個州則是允許

  • to a certain extent, or with permission from a parent or guardian.

    在特定限度內的使用,或是取得父母親或監護人同意許可

  • However it should be noted that corporal punishment is not pervasive in many of these states,

    然而,應該要知道的就是其實在這些州裡用體罰來處罰學生的情況並不是很普遍

  • it just hasn’t been outlawed yet.

    只是還沒被認定是違法的

  • According to data from the Department of Education, more than 70 percent of children who were

    根據美國教育部的資料顯示,超過百分之70的孩童曾遭

  • disciplined with physical force reside in one of five states - all of which are in the south.

    到體罰,且都是居住在美國南部的5個州其中一個。

  • Corporal punishment has been used in US schools since the birth of America as a country, as

    自美國建國以來,美國學校就開始使用體罰作為處罰手段之一,此

  • the practice was brought over by British colonizers.

    手段是由英國殖民者所帶進來的

  • Such discipline was, and continues to be justified by the common law doctrinein loco parentis”,

    像這樣的處罰,後續一直遭到聯邦普通法法條「代位父母(in loco parentis)」的調整

  • which literally translates toin the place of a parent”.

    字面上翻譯就是「在父母的角度」

  • The idea is that because the child’s parent or guardian isn’t present, their teacher

    是因為孩童的父母親或是監護人不在了,他們的老師

  • automatically assumes all disciplinary rights and responsibilities.

    自動就必須承擔所有管教權利與責任

  • And although adults inflicting pain on children may seem like an obvious breach of their rights,

    而且雖然如果成年人在孩童身上施加傷痛看似好像是很明顯地迫害了孩童的權利

  • it’s actually constitutional.

    但是其實這樣是合乎憲法的

  • In 1977, the Supreme Court found that physical discipline does not violate a student’s

    1977年,美國最高法院裁定針對身體的處分並沒有違反學生的

  • rights, even their freedom fromcruel and unusual punishment

    權利,這種「殘忍、不尋常的懲罰」甚至也沒有侵害他們的自由

  • So exactly how pervasive is corporal punishment?

    所以體罰到底有多普遍呢?

  • Well federal data suggests that nationwide, one child is hit every 30 seconds in school.

    根據聯邦政府資料表示全國各地,每30秒就是一個孩童在學校被打

  • This number increases considerably for black students, who receive corporal punishment

    受到體罰的黑人學生數字增長的非常驚人

  • at nearly three times the rate of their peers.

    是其他同儕的三倍

  • Not even special ed students are exempt from such discipline.

    特教學生也甚至會遭到這種管教方式

  • According to a 2007 study by the Office for Civil Rights, nearly 42,000 disabled students

    根據美國教育部人權司2007年的研究顯示,每一學年有將近42000名

  • received corporal punishment over the course of a single school year, even though they

    障礙學生受到體罰,即使他們

  • were likely misbehaving as a result of their disability.

    是因為他們的障礙所導致行為不當

  • Some educators argue that physical force is the most effective way to discipline.

    有些教育學家爭論最有效管理的方式就是體力

  • However a slew of evidence suggests otherwise.

    然而有一堆的證據顯示其實不然

  • Countless studies have shown that students who are subjected to corporal punishment are

    無數的研究顯示受過體罰的學生

  • more likely to struggle academically and face psychological problems like depression, PTSD

    更有可能在此之後學業表現不佳並且會有像是憂鬱症、創傷後壓力症候群、

  • and social anxiety later in life.

    社交恐懼症等心理問題

  • Reports like these have led a number of organizations, including the UN and the US Department of

    像這些的報告已經影響一些組織,像是聯合國、美國

  • Education, to strongly discourage the use of corporal punishment in school.

    教育部,強烈建議在學校不使用體罰

  • Most countries have ceded to these recommendations.

    多數的國家並沒有採用這些建議

  • The practice is only unregulated in 10 countries, most of which are in the Middle East and Africa.

    這種作法甚至在10個國家內並沒有立法管理,而其中絕大多數都是在中東和非洲地區

  • Meanwhile 106 countries have either outlawed or committed to outlawing corporal punishment

    同時,世界上有106個國家已經將在任何情況之下的體罰行為皆視為違法或

  • in any setting.

    試著將此視為違法

  • As with other aspects of its educational system, it may take a while for the US to catch up

    同樣地,其他美國教育制度的方面,美國或許還需要一段時間追上

  • to the rest of the world.

    世界上的其他國家

  • -

    -

  • Concern for students well being doesn’t stop at corporal punishment.

    爭取學生的福利並不能停在體罰這件事

  • Many schools, particularly those in war-torn countries, are so unstable that students and

    特別是那些遭到戰火無情洗禮的國家,許多學校都相當不穩定,學生和

  • faculty fear for their lives.

    老師連命都擔心不保

  • To learn more about these dangerous schools, check out this video.

    想到得知關於更多這些身處危險之中的學校,請看這部影片

  • Thanks for watching Seeker Daily!

    感謝觀賞Seeker Daily!

  • Don’t forget to like and subscribe for new videos every day.

    別忘記按個讚,並追蹤觀賞每天的新影片

In April 2016, a viral video showed a Georgia school principal paddling a five-year-old

2016年4月,一個爆紅的影片揭露了一所在喬治維亞的學校校長打一位年僅5歲的

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老師體罰學生合法嗎? (Is It Legal For Teachers To Hit Students?)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2016 年 12 月 03 日
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