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  • It's not hard to imagine a world where at any given moment, you and everyone you know could be wiped out without warning at the push of a button.

    我們很難想像,任何時候你我身邊所有人能夠在一夕之間因為一顆按鈕,就全都消失得無影無蹤。

  • This was the reality for millions of people during the 45-year period after World War II, now known as the Cold War.

    但這卻是數百萬的人,在二戰後 45 年期間所要面對的現實,也就是大家所知道的「冷戰時期」。

  • As the United States and Soviet Union faced off across the globe, each knew that the other had nuclear weapons capable of destroying it.

    當美國和蘇聯開始了國際競爭,彼此都知道對方擁有足以毀滅世界的核武。

  • And destruction never loomed closer than during the 13 days of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    而衝突爆發的緊張程度在古巴飛彈危機的 13 天內達到巔峰。

  • In 1961, the U.S. unsuccessfully tried to overthrow Cuba's new Communist government.

    1961 年,美國政府未能成功推翻古巴的新共產政府。

  • That failed attempt was known as the Bay of Pigs, and it convinced Cuba to seek help from the U.S.S.R.

    而整個失敗的計畫被稱作豬灣事件,讓古巴向蘇聯尋求協助。

  • Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was happy to comply by secretly deploying nuclear missiles to Cuba, not only to protect the island, but to counteract the threat from U.S. missiles in Italy and Turkey.

    蘇聯總理赫魯雪夫非常樂意暗中在古巴部署核彈,不僅僅是為了讓他們能自我防衛,另外還能平衡美國在義大利和土耳其飛彈部署的威脅。

  • By the time U.S. intelligence discovered the plan, the materials to create the missiles were already in place.

    在美國得到了關於這個計畫的情報之前,用來製造飛彈的材料都已經準備完畢。

  • At an emergency meeting on October 16, 1962, military advisors urged an airstrike on missile sites and invasion of the island.

    在 1962 年 10 月 16 日的緊急會議中,軍方顧問認為要盡快在飛彈部署位置發動空襲,以及侵襲古巴島。

  • But President John F. Kennedy chose a more careful approach.

    但甘迺迪總統選擇了一個更謹慎的方法。

  • On October 22, he announced that the the U.S. Navy would intercept all shipments to Cuba.

    在 10 月 22 日,他宣布美方海軍將會攔截所有進入古巴的貨運。

  • There was just one problem: a naval blockade was considered an act of war.

    但這個舉動背後潛藏著一個問題:海軍封鎖被認為是戰爭行為。

  • Although the President called it a quarantine that did not block basic necessities; the Soviets didn't appreciate the distinction.

    雖然總統聲稱這個是封鎖行為,並不會阻礙民生用品的載運,蘇聯並不同意這樣的區別。

  • In an outraged letter to Kennedy, Khrushchev wrote, "The violation of freedom to use international waters and international airspace is an act of aggression which pushes mankind toward the abyss of world nuclear missile war."

    赫魯雪夫在一封給甘迺迪總統的信件中生氣地寫道:「違反國際水域和國際飛行的使用自由權是一種侵略性行為,將把全人類推向核彈戰爭的深淵當中。」

  • Thus ensued the most intense six days of the Cold War.

    隨之而來的就是冷戰期間最緊張的 6 天。

  • While the U.S. demanded the removal of the missiles, Cuba and the U.S.S.R. insisted they were only defensive.

    當美方強烈要求撤除飛彈,古巴和蘇聯堅持他們部署飛彈是站在自衛的立場。

  • And as the weapons continued to be armed, the U.S. prepared for a possible invasion.

    因此,當武裝越來越多之後,美國政府已做好被侵略的準備。

  • On October 27, a spy plane piloted by Major Rudolph Anderson was shot down by a Soviet missile.

    在 10 月 27 日,一架由 Rudolph Anderson 少校駕駛的間諜機被蘇聯飛彈擊落。

  • The same day, a nuclear-armed Soviet submarine was hit by a small-depth charge from a U.S. Navy vessel trying to signal it to come up.

    在同一天,一個有核武武裝的蘇聯潛水艇被試圖請他們離開的美方小型炸彈攻擊。

  • The commanders on the sub, too deep to communicate with the surface, thought war had begun and prepared to launch a nuclear torpedo.

    而當時在潛水艇中的指揮官,因為位置太深無法和基地取得聯繫,單方認為戰爭已經開打了,並且準備好要射出核魚雷。

  • That decision had to be made unanimously by three officers.

    這個提議必須獲得三位軍官一致同意。

  • The captain and political officer both authorized the launch, but Vasili Arkhipov, second in command, refused.

    艦長和政務官同意執行魚雷發射,但是副指揮官 Vasili Arkhipov 否決了這個行動。

  • His decision saved the day and perhaps the world.

    他的決定讓人類能夠倖免於難。

  • But the crisis wasn't over.

    然而,這場危機尚未結束。

  • For the first time in history, the U.S. Military set itself to DEF CON 2, the defense readiness one step away from nuclear war.

    有史以來第一天,美國軍方宣布進入第二級備戰狀態,戰備等級離核武戰爭僅差一個階級。

  • With hundreds of nuclear missiles ready to launch, the metaphorical Doomsday Clock stood at one minute to midnight.

    隨著上百個核彈部署,彷如末日之中只差一分鐘就要午夜鳴響。

  • But diplomacy carried on.

    然而外交協商仍持續進行。

  • In Washington, D.C., Attorney General Robert Kennedy secretly met with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin.

    當時在華盛頓特區,司法部長 Robert Kennedy 和蘇聯大使 Anatoly Dobrynin 秘密會面。

  • After intense negotiation, they reached the following proposal.

    經過了緊張的協商過程,雙方達到了共識。

  • The U.S. would remove their missiles from Turkey and Italy and promise to never invade Cuba in exchange for the Soviet withdrawal from Cuba under U.N. inspection.

    美國同意移除在土耳其及義大利的飛彈部署,並且保證絕不侵略古巴,但蘇聯必須在聯合國的監督下撤除在古巴的核彈武裝。

  • Once the meeting had concluded, Dobrynin cabled Moscow saying time is of the essence and we shouldn't miss the chance.

    在會議達成共識之後,Dobrynin 發電報向莫斯科回報,認為時機是很重要的,而我們不應該錯失這個機會。

  • And at 9 a.m. the next day, a message arrived from Khrushchev announcing the Soviet missiles would be removed from Cuba.

    接著在隔天的早上九點,一封由赫魯雪夫發出的電報,宣布蘇聯將會從古巴撤除飛彈。

  • The crisis was now over.

    危機便解除了。

  • While criticized at the time by their respective governments for bargaining with the enemy, contemporary historical analysis shows great admiration for Kennedy's and Khrushchev's ability to diplomatically solve the crisis.

    然而當時各國皆有許多民眾批評自己政府與敵人協商,當代的歷史分析則大大讚揚甘迺迪以及赫魯雪夫能以外交手段處理這次飛彈危機。

  • But the disturbing lesson was that a slight communication error, or split-second decision by a commander, could have thwarted all their efforts, as it nearly did if not for Vasili Arkhipov's courageous choice.

    然而真正的課題是,只要區區的溝通不良,或者一個軍官一剎那間的決定,就會前功盡棄,尤其要不是 Vasili Arkhipov 軍官勇敢的行為,遺憾或許就會發生。

  • The Cuban Missile Crisis revealed just how fragile human politics are compared to the terrifying power they can unleash.

    古巴飛彈危機背後的訊息告訴我們,人類政治是脆弱的,相較於它能釋放的驚人威力。

It's not hard to imagine a world where at any given moment, you and everyone you know could be wiped out without warning at the push of a button.

我們很難想像,任何時候你我身邊所有人能夠在一夕之間因為一顆按鈕,就全都消失得無影無蹤。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 飛彈 古巴 蘇聯 核彈 危機

【TED-Ed】古巴飛彈危機的歷史 (The history of the Cuban Missile Crisis - Matthew A. Jordan)

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    Darya kao 發佈於 2016 年 11 月 10 日
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