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  • I heard this amazing story about Miuccia Prada.

    我曾聽過一則關於Miucha Prada 的有趣故事

  • She's an Italian fashion designer.

    她是位義大利籍的時裝設計師

  • She goes to this vintage store in Paris

    她曾與她的一票朋友

  • with a friend of hers.

    到巴黎的一間古著店

  • She's rooting around, she finds this one jacket by Balenciaga --

    逛著逛著, 她發現了一件巴黎世家的夾克外套

  • she loves it.

    她很喜歡

  • She's turning it inside out.

    她把夾克翻到反面

  • She's looking at the seams. She's looking at the construction.

    她看了看夾克的車工縫線, 整件衣服的剪裁

  • Her friend says, "Buy it already."

    她的朋友說: 就買下它吧

  • She said, "I'll buy it, but I'm also going to replicate it."

    她說: 我會買, 而且我還要把它複製出來

  • Now, the academics in this audience may think,

    現在坐在觀眾席,身為知識分子的你們也許會想

  • "Well, that sounds like plagiarism."

    『嗯, 這看起來似乎是一種抄襲行為』

  • But to a fashionista, what it really is

    但對一個時尚達人來說

  • is a sign of Prada's genius:

    這正是Prada真正厲害的地方

  • that she can root through the history of fashion

    她可以在不同年代的流行當中

  • and pick the one jacket

    選中一件夾克

  • that doesn't need to be changed by one iota,

    甚至不需怎麼修改

  • and to be current and to be now.

    就可以讓這件骨董夾克變成入時且時髦的

  • You might also be asking whether it's possible

    有人也許會問她這麼做

  • that this is illegal for her to do this.

    是否是違法的

  • Well, it turns out that it's actually not illegal.

    其實, 這的確不犯法

  • In the fashion industry, there's very little

    在時尚業界裡

  • intellectual property protection.

    並沒有什麼智慧財產權的保護

  • They have trademark protection,

    他們有商標保護法

  • but no copyright protection

    但並沒有保護版權的規範

  • and no patent protection to speak of.

    也沒有專利保護的法則

  • All they have, really, is trademark protection,

    時尚產業只擁有商標的法律規範

  • and so it means that anybody

    所以這也就意味著任何人

  • could copy any garment

    都可以模仿在場的人

  • on any person in this room

    身上穿的任一服裝款式

  • and sell it as their own design.

    當做自己的設計將其生產販賣

  • The only thing that they can't copy

    唯一不能抄襲的

  • is the actual trademark label

    就是縫在衣服內裡的

  • within that piece of apparel.

    品牌商標

  • That's one reason that you see logos

    這也是為什麼你們會看到許多商品上

  • splattered all over these products.

    佈滿了品牌標誌

  • It's because it's a lot harder for knock-off artists

    是因為這樣對仿冒商來說

  • to knock off these designs

    要仿冒這些設計更為困難

  • because they can't knock off the logo.

    因為他們不能仿冒品牌標誌

  • But if you go to Santee Alley, yeah.

    但如果你到聖提街

  • (Laughter) Well, yeah.

    沒錯

  • Canal Street, I know.

    還有運河街, 我知道

  • And sometimes these are fun, right?

    這其實還蠻有趣的, 對吧

  • Now, the reason for this, the reason that the fashion industry

    現在, 要來解釋時尚界

  • doesn't have any copyright protection

    沒有任何版權保護法的原因

  • is because the courts decided long ago

    是因為在很久以前法院就決定

  • that apparel is too utilitarian

    由於服裝款式應用範圍太廣

  • to qualify for copyright protection.

    所以無法以版權保護來界定

  • They didn't want a handful of designers

    他們不想讓一群設計師

  • owning the seminal building blocks of our clothing.

    對服裝產業擁有太多影響力

  • And then everybody else would have to license this cuff or this sleeve

    不然大家可能得跑去申請某一袖口樣式

  • because Joe Blow owns it.

    只因為此樣式為Joe Blow所擁有

  • But too utilitarian? I mean is that the way you think of fashion?

    但真的太過實用嗎? 我是指這就是你們對時尚產業的觀感嗎?

  • This is Vivienne Westwood. No!

    這是Vivienne Westwood. 喔不

  • We think of it as maybe too silly,

    我們覺得這也許太愚蠢

  • too unnecessary.

    太不必要了

  • Now, those of you who are familiar with the logic

    現在,熟悉版權保護的

  • behind copyright protection --

    背後操作邏輯的你們

  • which is that without ownership, there is no incentive to innovate --

    也就是認為沒有擁有權,就不會有創新的動機

  • might be really surprised

    可能會很驚訝

  • by both the critical success of the fashion industry

    時尚產業的巨大成功

  • and the economic success of this industry.

    與極大的經濟效益

  • What I'm going to argue today is that

    今天我在這裡所要討論的是

  • because there's no copyright protection

    由於在時尚產業中

  • in the fashion industry,

    並無版權保護規範

  • fashion designers have actually been able to elevate

    時裝設計師其實已經在把

  • utilitarian design,

    我們穿戴在身上的

  • things to cover our naked bodies,

    大眾服裝設計

  • into something that we consider art.

    提升到較高的藝術層面

  • Because there's no copyright protection

    因為在時尚圈

  • in this industry,

    並沒有版權保護

  • there's a very open and creative

    所以這個圈子非常的開放,極具創意性

  • ecology of creativity.

    是創意的孕育箱

  • Unlike their creative brothers and sisters,

    不像其他的藝術型產業

  • who are sculptors or photographers

    利如雕塑或攝影

  • or filmmakers or musicians,

    電影或音樂

  • fashion designers can sample

    時尚設計師可以向其他同儕設計師

  • from all their peers' designs.

    取樣其設計

  • They can take any element from any garment

    他們可以取樣流行史上任一服裝款式

  • from the history of fashion

    的一項元素

  • and incorporate it into their own design.

    並加以融合成自己的設計

  • They're also notorious for riffing off of the zeitgeist.

    他們也喜歡加入當代風潮

  • And here, I suspect,

    這個, 我猜

  • they were influenced by the costumes in Avatar.

    是受到電影阿凡達裡的服裝造型所影響

  • Maybe just a little.

    也許影響不大

  • Can't copyright a costume either.

    電影裡的戲服同樣也不受版權保護

  • Now, fashion designers have

    現在, 服裝設計師擁有

  • the broadest palette imaginable

    最大的想像空間

  • in this creative industry.

    在這個創意產業裡揮灑自如

  • This wedding dress here

    這件新娘禮服

  • is actually made of sporks,

    其實是用塑膠叉子所做成的

  • and this dress is actually made of aluminum.

    而這件洋裝的材質則是用鋁所製的

  • I've heard this dress actually sort of sounds like wind chimes

    當這件洋裝擺動時

  • as they walk through.

    聽起來就像風鈴的聲音

  • So, one of the magical side effects

    所以模仿文化的

  • of having a culture of copying,

    其中一項神奇附加效應

  • which is really what it is,

    其實也就是

  • is the establishment of trends.

    流行風潮的建立

  • People think this is a magical thing. How does it happen?

    大家都覺得這真的很神奇. 這是怎麼發生的呢?

  • Well, it's because it's legal for people to copy one another.

    嗯, 這是因為人們可以合法的相互抄襲

  • Some people believe that

    有些人相信

  • there are a few people at the top of the fashion food chain

    在時尚產業的頂端有幾個人

  • who sort of dictate to us what we're all going to wear,

    將獨裁決定大眾的穿衣規則

  • but if you talk to any designer at any level,

    但如果你跟任一階層的服裝設計師聊過

  • including these high-end designers,

    包括那些知名大牌服裝設計師

  • they always say

    他們總會說

  • their main inspiration comes from the street:

    他們的主要靈感來源是來自於街頭

  • where people like you and me remix and match

    也就是出現在大街上像你我的普羅大眾混搭出

  • our own fashion looks.

    屬於自己的獨特風格

  • And that's where they really get a lot of their

    正是他們得到許多靈感

  • creative inspiration,

    的地方

  • so it's both a top-down and a bottom-up kind of industry.

    所以這其實是個由上到下,從細部到全體都相互關聯的產業

  • Now, the fast fashion giants have

    現在, 就屬平價流行服飾大廠

  • probably benefited the most

    受惠最多

  • from the lack of copyright protection in the fashion industry.

    由於時尚產業並無版權保護的關係

  • They are notorious for knocking off high-end designs

    他們經常抄襲各大精品品牌的設計

  • and selling them at very low prices.

    然後以非常低的售價銷售

  • And they've been faced with a lot of lawsuits,

    他們曾面臨許多法律訴訟

  • but those lawsuits are usually not won by fashion designers.

    但這些案件都跟服裝設計師無關

  • The courts have said over and over again, "You don't need

    法院總不停得重申:

  • any more intellectual property protection."

    你們並不需任何額外的版權保護

  • When you look at copies like this,

    當你看到像這樣的仿冒品

  • you wonder: How do the luxury high-end brands

    你可能會想, 那那些精品名牌

  • remain in business?

    該怎麼生存下去呢?

  • If you can get it for 200 bucks, why pay a thousand?

    如果可以花200元買到, 誰會願意花1000元去買?

  • Well, that's one reason we had a conference here at USC a few years ago.

    事實上,這也是為什麼我們幾年前在U.S.C.這裡舉辦研討會

  • We invited Tom Ford to come --

    我們邀請Tom Ford與會

  • the conference was called, "Ready to Share:

    此研討會稱作:『 與您分享:

  • Fashion and the Ownership of Creativity" --

    時尚與創意擁有權的兩三事』

  • and we asked him exactly this question.

    我們很直接的問他這個問題

  • Here's what he had to say.

    而這是他的回答

  • He had just come off a successful stint as the lead designer at Gucci,

    他那時才剛從古馳光榮地卸下設計總監一職

  • in case you didn't know.

    如果你們不知道的話

  • Tom Ford: And we found after much research

    經過許多研究

  • that -- actually not much research, quite simple research --

    其實沒有太多的研究, 是非常簡單的調查

  • that the counterfeit customer was not our customer.

    我們發現那些購買仿冒品的民眾並不是我們的客戶群

  • Johanna Blakley: Imagine that.

    請想像一下

  • The people on Santee Alley

    在聖提街逛街的人們

  • are not the ones who shop at Gucci.

    並不是在古馳店裡消費的人

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • This is a very different demographic.

    這是非常截然不同的消費族群

  • And, you know, a knock-off is never the same

    而且你知道的, 仿冒品

  • as an original high-end design,

    永遠不可能跟真品一樣

  • at least in terms of the materials; they're always made of cheaper materials.

    至少在材料的部份. 仿冒品都是用較為廉價的材質所製

  • But even sometimes a cheaper version

    但有時平價版本

  • can actually have some charming aspects,

    反而有更多的好處

  • can breathe a little extra life into a dying trend.

    可以為欲振乏力的時尚圈帶來一點額外的生機

  • There's lots of virtues of copying.

    抄襲還有許多的優點

  • One that a lot of cultural critics have pointed to

    其中一個是許多文化評論家曾舉出的

  • is that we now have

    就是我們現在

  • a much broader palette

    擁有較多元的設計款式

  • of design choices to choose from than we ever have before,

    可供選擇, 比起從前還要來得多

  • and this is mainly because of the fast fashion industry, actually.

    這主要也是因為平價流行產業崛起的原因

  • And this is a good thing. We need lots of options.

    這真得很好. 我們需要許多不同的選擇

  • Fashion, whether you like it or not,

    時尚, 不管你喜不喜歡

  • helps you project who you are to the world.

    都是幫助你向外展現自己的工具

  • Because of fast fashion,

    由於平價流行服飾

  • global trends actually get established much more quickly than they used to.

    全球流行風潮的形成比以前要來得更為快速

  • And this, actually, is good news to trendsetters;

    而這對決定流行的領導人物是件好事

  • they want trends to be set

    他們希望能帶起流行

  • so that they can move product.

    如此他們才可以將其化為商品販賣

  • For fashionistas,

    而對時尚達人來說

  • they want to stay ahead of the curve.

    他們想要站在流行的前端

  • They don't want to be wearing what everybody else is wearing.

    他們不想穿的跟其他人一樣

  • And so, they want to move on to the next trend

    所以他們希望能趕快進入下一個流行裡

  • as soon as possible.

    越快越好

  • I tell you, there is no rest for the fashionable.

    老實說, 流行界是毫無歇息的

  • Every season, these designers have to struggle

    每一季, 那些設計師都得使盡混身解數

  • to come up with the new fabulous idea that everybody's going to love.

    想出大眾喜愛的設計

  • And this, let me tell you,

    而這,我告訴你

  • is very good for the bottom line.

    這對最後結果是非常好的

  • Now of course, there's a bunch of effects

    現在當然會有很多影響

  • that this culture of copying has

    也就是抄襲文化對創作過程

  • on the creative process.

    所產生的影響

  • And Stuart Weitzman is a very successful shoe designer.

    Stuart Weitzman是非常成功的女鞋設計師

  • He has complained a lot about people copying him,

    他曾多次抱怨他的設計遭人抄襲一事

  • but in one interview I read,

    但在一篇訪談中

  • he said it has really forced him to up his game.

    他提到, 這其實讓他更加把勁於自己的設計上

  • He had to come up with new ideas,

    他得想出新點子

  • new things that would be hard to copy.

    新的做法,讓他的設計難以抄襲

  • He came up with this Bowden-wedge heel

    他設計出這款包登楔型鞋

  • that has to be made out of steel or titanium;

    這款一定得用鋼或鈦來製作

  • if you make it from some sort of cheaper material,

    如果你用較為低廉的材料來製作這款鞋型

  • it'll actually crack in two.

    是會斷成兩半的

  • It forced him to be a little more innovative. (Music)

    這讓他的設計變得更創新

  • And that actually reminded me

    而這也讓我想到

  • of jazz great, Charlie Parker.

    爵士樂的傳奇人物Charlie Parker

  • I don't know if you've heard this anecdote, but I have.

    不知道你們是否有聽過他這段軼事

  • He said that one of the reasons he invented bebop

    他說他發明bebop爵士樂的其中一項原因

  • was that he was pretty sure

    就是他很確定

  • that white musicians wouldn't be able to replicate the sound. (Laughter)

    白人樂手是無法複製出這種聲音的

  • He wanted to make it too difficult to copy,

    他想讓它變得難以模仿

  • and that's what fashion designers are doing all the time.

    這也是服裝設計師們一直在致力的

  • They're trying to put together

    他們試著將

  • a signature look, an aesthetic

    屬於自己的經典裝扮與其特有美學

  • that reflects who they are.

    來呈現出自己身為設計師的本色

  • When people knock it off, everybody knows

    一旦有人抄襲, 大家就會發現

  • because they've put that look out on the runway,

    因為他們把一套套的服裝送上伸展台展示

  • and it's a coherent aesthetic.

    每一套服裝皆相互呼應連貫

  • I love these Gallianos.

    我好愛這些Galliano的作品

  • Okay, we'll move on. (Laughter)

    好的, 我們繼續

  • This is not unlike the world of comedy.

    這其實跟喜劇界一樣

  • I don't know if you know that jokes

    我不知道你們是否知道笑話

  • also can't be copyright protected.

    同樣也沒有版權保護

  • So when one-liners were really popular,

    所以當某一台詞開始流行起來時

  • everybody stole them from one another.

    大家就會開始競相使用

  • But now, we have a different kind of comic.

    但現在的喜劇方式較為不同

  • They develop a persona,

    他們為其人物發展出特有人格

  • a signature style, much like fashion designers.

    一套特有風格, 有點像時裝設計師

  • And their jokes,

    而他們的笑話

  • much like the fashion designs by a fashion designer,

    就如同設計之於時裝設計師一般

  • really only work within that aesthetic.

    得靠獨特的美感才能顯現

  • If somebody steals a joke

    例如,如果有人模仿Larry David

  • from Larry David, for instance,

    所講的笑話的話

  • it's not as funny.

    那就會變得不好笑

  • Now, the other thing that fashion designers have done

    現在另一個時裝設計師努力在

  • to survive in this culture of copying

    此抄襲文化底下生存的方法

  • is they've learned how to copy themselves.

    是他們學到如何模仿自己

  • They knock themselves off.

    他們抄襲自己的設計

  • They make deals with the fast fashion giants

    與平價流行服裝大廠合作

  • and they come up with a way to sell their product

    他們想出新的方式來銷售他們的設計

  • to a whole new demographic:

    拓展至一全新不同的消費族群

  • the Santee Alley demographic.

    也就是聖提街消費族群

  • Now, some fashion designers will say,

    現在有些時裝設計師會表示

  • "It's only in the United States that we don't have any respect.

    『只有在美國, 時裝設計未受到重視

  • In other countries there is protection

    在其他國家, 都有對時裝設計

  • for our artful designs."

    給予保護』

  • But if you take a look at the two other biggest markets in the world,

    但如果看一下世界另外兩大市場

  • it turns out that the protection that's offered

    他們所提供的保護

  • is really ineffectual.

    其實並沒有什麼成效

  • In Japan, for instance, which I think is the third largest market,

    例如在日本, 我認為是世界第三大市場

  • they have a design law; it protects apparel,

    他們有設計法規來保護服裝的設計

  • but the novelty standard is so high,

    但要達到申請專利標準的門檻非常高

  • you have to prove that your garment has never existed before,

    你必須能夠證明你的服裝款式未曾發明過

  • it's totally unique.

    它必須是獨一無二的

  • And that's sort of like

    這有點像是

  • the novelty standard for a U.S. patent,

    要申請美國專利的標準

  • which fashion designers never get --

    是服裝設計師不可能申請

  • rarely get here in the states.

    或難以申請到的

  • In the European Union, they went in the other direction.

    在歐盟則是相反

  • Very low novelty standard,

    其門檻非常低

  • anybody can register anything.

    任何人都可以拿任一東西去申請

  • But even though it's the home of the fast fashion industry

    但雖然它是平價流行廠牌的發源地

  • and you have a lot of luxury designers there,

    而且擁有許多精品品牌設計師

  • they don't register their garments, generally,

    他們通常並不會去為他們的服裝去做申請