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  • All right.

    好的

  • Thank you very much for having me.

    謝謝你們邀請我

  • This is the first time I've ever spoken at a TED Conference.

    這是我第一次在 TED 演講

  • So, you know, you guys have the good taste of inviting me.

    你知道嗎?你們真的很有眼光才會找上我

  • I had never passed anybody else's standard to be invited.

    我一向都達不到讓任何人邀請的資格

  • So, I'm flattered.

    所以,我真是受寵若驚

  • And perhaps we can make a little history today, right?

    或許我們今天可以留下一點故事,對吧?

  • So, a little bit about my background.

    首先,簡單說明我的經歷

  • I worked for Apple from 1983 to 1987

    我從 1983 年到 1987 年在蘋果工作

  • I was Apple's software evangelist.

    當時我擔任蘋果的產品傳教士

  • My job was to convince people to write Macintosh software.

    我的工作是說服大家寫麥金塔的程式

  • How many of you use Macs in this audience?

    在場有多少人用麥金塔電腦?

  • I love to see that. (Laughter)

    哇,這麼多人,真好(笑聲)

  • Yeah.

  • And the rest of you what? Are you oppressed? I mean what --

    其他人呢?被迫害了嗎? 我意思是,你們怎麼了?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, I worked for Apple,

    好,我曾在蘋果工作

  • I started some software companies,

    我開了幾間軟體公司

  • and I became a writer and a speaker.

    然後變成作家和演說家

  • I returned to Apple as Apple's chief evangelist.

    後來回到蘋果當產品傳教士的主管

  • This is in the 1995 time frame.

    這是 1995 年的事

  • And I had a great time with Apple not very long ago,

    在蘋果工作的時光很快樂

  • as we all know, Steve Jobs passed away.

    大家都知道在不久前,賈伯斯過世了

  • And I worked for him twice.

    我在他手下工作兩次

  • One of the few people who survived working for him twice.

    是少數在他手下工作兩次還能倖存的人

  • And he had a monumental effect on my life.

    他深深地影響了我的人生

  • As well as really the Valley and probably the world, truly the world.

    他影響了矽谷,可能甚至是影響了全世界

  • I think you'd have to rank him with Walt Disney and Edison and Steve Jobs.

    我覺得你們應該把賈伯斯和華特.迪士尼、愛迪生齊名看待

  • I mean, who are truly visionaries.

    我的意思是,他們是真正有遠見的人

  • You'll hear lots of people throw the "V" word around

    你會聽到很多人用「V」(超)這個字

  • and there are I think in my estimation really three people who qualify,

    在我看來,真的有資格得到這個稱號的有三個人

  • and it would be Edison, Disney and Jobs.

    那就是愛迪生、迪士尼和賈伯斯

  • So, I created this presentation right after he passed away

    因此在他過世後,我馬上製作了這份報告

  • because I wanted to get on paper, get onto PowerPoint, get into the world,

    因為我想要讓它上報、上簡報、讓全世界看到

  • what I personally learned from Steve Jobs.

    我個人從賈伯斯身上學到了什麼

  • I'm not sure he intended to teach me this,

    我不確定他是不是有意要教我這些

  • but this is what I learned from Steve Jobs.

    但,這就是我從賈伯斯身上學到的事

  • And so, I would like his memory to live on forever

    因此,我希望他能夠永遠活在人們的記憶中

  • and forever to influence people.

    進而影響大家

  • So, the first thing that I learned from Steve Jobs is that

    我從賈伯斯身上學到的第一件事是

  • "Experts pretty much are clueless."

    「專家幾乎都是無知的。」

  • And this is a very important lesson for you

    這對你們是很重要的一課

  • because there's a temptation to default to, shall I say, older people,

    專家總有操控的欲望,好比說年紀比較大的人、

  • people with big titles, people who have declared themselves experts,

    頭銜閃亮的人、號稱專家的人總是如此

  • and if there's anything that Apple has proven,

    而蘋果證明了

  • is that the experts are often wrong.

    專家常常是錯的

  • And so, as you go through your life,

    因此當你經歷一生

  • you start your companies, and you start your careers,

    你開了自己的公司、開創了自己的事業

  • and you try to change the world.

    你試著改變世界時

  • I want you to learn to ignore experts.

    我希望你學會忽略專家

  • This maybe contrary to what you've been taught

    這也許和你以往所學的不同

  • but experts usually define things within some established limits

    但是專家常常以既定的限制來定義事情

  • and I think you should break those limits.

    我認為你們應該打破那些限制

  • So, I view what I call bozosity --

    因此,我稱蠢事為 ——

  • I view bozosity as somewhat like the flu

    和流感有點類似

  • where it can be something that you can be inoculated to.

    是你可以接種疫苗來預防的

  • So, how do you fight the flu?

    那麼,要怎麼和流感對抗呢?

  • You get a little bit of flu, so that when you encounter big flu,

    你要先有一點小感冒,才能在之後碰到超強流感時

  • you've already built up resistance.

    就已經有了抵抗力

  • So, I'm gonna inoculate you to bozosity

    因此,我要幫你接種一些蠢事疫苗

  • so that when you encounter big bozosity,

    這樣當你碰到超蠢的事

  • you will have already built up resistance.

    你就會已經有抵抗力

  • So, let me show you some bozosity of experts.

    讓我告訴你一些專家做的蠢事

  • First thing.

    第一

  • 1943, Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM says,

    1943年,湯瑪斯華生,IBM 的執行長,他說:

  • "There is a world market for maybe 5 computers."

    「全球的電腦市場需求大概是五台。」

  • I have 5 Macintoshes in my house.

    我家有五台麥金塔電腦

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I have all the computers he anticipated in the world.

    他預期世界上所有的電腦都在我家

  • If you were Steve Jobs or Steve Wozniak or Bill Gates and you listened to this,

    如果你是賈伯斯、史蒂夫沃茲尼克、或比爾蓋茲

  • where would we be today? Next example.

    你聽了他的話,那我們現在會在哪裡?下一個例子是

  • "This telephone has too many shortcomings

    「因為電話有太多缺點

  • to be seriously considered as a means of communication.

    很難成為真正的溝通工具

  • The device is inherently of no value to us."

    這個設備對我們來說毫無價值。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Western Union memo, 1876.

    這是西聯匯款在 1876 年的備忘錄

  • Oops!

    喔噢!

  • You know, Western Union should be PayPal today.

    西聯匯款可能成為現在的 PayPal

  • It's not. It's very hard to go from telegraph to Internet,

    但它卻不是。如果略過電話

  • if you write off telephone in the middle.

    從電報直接演變至網路是很困難的

  • You know what I am saying, it's just too big of chasm to cross.

    你懂的,我們無法跨越如此大的鴻溝

  • The last example is from our friends at DEC. Ken Olsen, founder of DEC,

    最後一個例子來自我們的朋友,肯奧爾森,迪吉多電腦的創辦人

  • great company, great entrepreneur.

    很棒的公司和企業家

  • "There is no reason why anyone would want a computer in their home."

    「沒有理由每個人都會想要在家裡放一台電腦。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • If you wanted to run something at home

    如果你想在家裡開個檔案

  • you would just have to instead go back to your office and run a DEC minicomputer.

    你只需要回到辦公室裡去用迪吉多的微電腦

  • Three examples of bozosity,

    三個和蠢事有關的例子

  • and not from, you know, total people that you wouldn't expect.

    而且這些都出自於你料想不到的人

  • These are all people you would expect.

    這些你曾會想要成為的角色

  • Founder of IBM.

    IBM 的創辦人

  • Founder of DEC.

    迪吉多的創辦人

  • You know, Western Union, hugely successful company back then.

    西聯匯款則是當時非常成功的公司

  • You need to learn to ignore experts.

    你必須學會忽略專家

  • Next thing you need to do is to understand that

    下一件你需要了解的事情是

  • "Customers cannot tell you what they need."

    「顧客無法告訴你他們需要什麼。」

  • They could tell you that "I want bigger, faster, cheaper status quo."

    他們可能會跟你說:「我要更大、更快、更便宜。」

  • That's what they usually will tell you.

    他們通常都會這樣跟你說

  • You really can't ask them about a revolution

    你不可能從他們口裡問到革命性的改變

  • because they can only define things, they can only describe things

    因為他們只會根據現有的產品和服務

  • in terms of products or services that they already have.

    定義和敘述事情

  • Bigger, faster, cheaper status quo.

    更大、更快、更便宜

  • If you truly want to change the world,

    如果你真的想要改變世界

  • you need to ignore your customers.

    你要忽略你的顧客

  • And you need to jump curves. Let's talk about this.

    你要跳脫框架、不斷創新。我們來聊聊這個吧

  • This is the Macintosh 128K.

    這是麥金塔 128K

  • I promise you nobody in the world was asking for this computer in 1984.

    我跟你保證 1984 年時沒有人會提出對這種電腦的需求

  • No one said, "Give us a cheap little graphic toy, 128k of RAM,

    沒有人會說:「給我們一個小巧、便宜、有128K的記憶體、無內建軟體的

  • no software," thanks to my efforts.

    圖形化電腦。」 因為我們這得以成真

  • That's what we did.

    那是我們過去做到的事

  • Totally unexpected.

    完全出乎意料之外

  • Nobody was asking for it.

    並非為了滿足任何人的需瘀求

  • It's because Steve Jobs, using the "V" word,

    那是因為賈伯斯用了「V」這個字

  • had a vision for what the future would be.

    對未來有遠見

  • This is his vision - graphical user interface.

    這是他的願景 —— 圖形化使用者介面

  • Next thing I learned from Steve Jobs is,

    另一件我從賈伯斯身上學到的是

  • "You need to jump to the next curve,"

    「你得要跳脫框架、不斷創新。」

  • rather than duking it out on the same curve

    而不是一直在同個框架裡打轉

  • trying to do something 10% better

    只想把事情做到最好

  • you need to get to the next curve.

    你應該要跳脫原本的框架

  • Don't stay on the same curve.

    不要一直留在同一個框框裡

  • Great example - 1900s, Ice 1.0.

    有一個很棒的例子:1900 年代的冷凍 1.0 版

  • There was an ice harvesting industry in the United States.

    美國的採冰業正蓬勃發展

  • This meant that Baba and Junior would go to a frozen lake

    這意謂著爸爸和小孩會到結冰的湖邊

  • or frozen pond and cut a block of ice.

    或池邊去採冰塊

  • 9 million pounds of ice were harvested in 1900.

    1900 年代總共採獲了九百萬磅的冰

  • Ice 2.0.

    冷凍 2.0 版

  • Ice 2.0 was ice factory.

    冷凍 2.0 版則是座製冰工廠

  • Now, you froze water, any city, any time of year.

    人們可以在任何時間、地點製冰

  • Major breakthrough.

    跨時代的變化

  • So much better.

    好太多了

  • They didn't have to be cold city.

    人們不一定要在寒冷的城市

  • They didn't have to be cold time of year.

    也不一定要在很冷的時候才能製冰

  • Ice 3.0. the refrigerator curve.

    冷凍 3.0 版——冰箱

  • Now, it wasn't about the ice factory with the iceman delivering ice to your house.

    你不需再仰賴製冰工廠和冰塊配送

  • Now, you had your own personal ice factory.

    你有自己專屬的冰工廠了

  • Your own PC, your own "Personal Chiller."

    你有自己的 PC,你的「個人冷卻機」(Personal Chiller)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The great innovation occurs when you are not staying on the same curve.

    當你跳脫框架時就會產生偉大的創新

  • Don't do a better ice harvester.

    別只是做一個優良的採冰工

  • Don't add horses to the sleight.

    別只是在雪橇上加幾匹馬

  • Don't have a bigger sharper saw.

    別只是要一支更大、更利的鋸子

  • If you are an ice factory,

    如果你有製冰廠

  • don’t have more ice factories,

    別只是要更多的製冰廠

  • don't build better ice factories,

    或是蓋更好的製冰廠

  • don't have better icemen delivering ice

    別只是要更好的快遞來送冰塊

  • you wanna get to the next curve.

    你要跨越到另一個境界

  • If you were a printer company,

    如果你開了一家印刷廠

  • although many of you are too young to understand this,

    也許這對你們而言太古老了

  • there used to be this thing called daisy wheel printer

    我們過去會用菊輪式印表機

  • and had this little ball in this, ball rotated and struck the paper.

    裡頭有一顆小球,它會轉動,然後打印在紙上

  • If you were a daisy wheel printer company

    如果你有一家菊輪式印表機工廠

  • and your idea of innovation was,

    而你的創意點子是

  • "Well, let's introduce more typefaces in larger sizes,"

    「嗯,我們來引進更大、能夠裝進更多鉛字的機器吧。」

  • that's not innovation.

    那可不是創新

  • Innovation occurs when you go from daisy wheel printer to laser printer.

    創新是從菊輪式印表機變成雷射印表機

  • Jump to the next curve.

    跳脫框架、不斷創新

  • Next thing that I learned is,

    另一件我學到的是

  • "The biggest challenges beget the best work in people."

    「最大的挑戰激發出人類的最佳潛能。」

  • I think one of the reasons why we did such great work at Macintosh division

    我想我們使麥金塔如此成功的原因之一

  • is because Steve had such great expectations of us.

    就是因為賈伯斯對我們有很大的期待

  • And, you know, we try to rise to his expectations.

    我們試著達到他的期待

  • This is an ad that shows some of the --

    這是一則廣告,展現了 ——

  • shall I say, youthful exuberance of Apple.

    蘋果電腦的青春和活力

  • When IBM entered the computer business, Apple ran this ad

    當 IBM 加入電腦市場時,蘋果電腦推出了這則廣告

  • welcoming IBM to the computer business.

    歡迎 IBM 加入電腦市場

  • We were throwing down the gauntlet.

    我們接受挑戰

  • Welcome IBM, you huge successful East Coast mainframe computer company.

    歡迎 IBM 這個東岸最成功的大型電腦公司

  • Welcome to the personal computer business.

    歡迎加入個人電腦市場

  • Welcome to Vietnam.

    歡迎來到越南

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Next thing I learned from Steve is that "Design counts."

    另一件我從賈伯斯身上學到的是「設計很重要。」

  • Many people can say that they appreciate design.

    很多人會說他們欣賞設計

  • Many companies say that.

    很多公司也這麼說

  • But truly, how many companies care about design?

    但是事實上,到底有多少公司真的在乎設計?

  • Apple is one of the few, truly cares.

    蘋果是少數真正在乎的一家公司

  • And you know what, not everybody in the customer base

    你知道嗎?不是每個消費者

  • truly cares about design.

    都真的在乎設計

  • To this day, 95% of the world doesn't use a Macintosh, only 5% does.

    直至今日,世界上有 95% 的人不用麥金塔,只有 5% 的人使用

  • But they are people who really care about design and they count.

    但他們是真的在乎設計的人們,而且他們很重要

  • Design counts.

    設計很重要

  • This is a Mac Book Air.

    這是蘋果的輕型筆記型電腦

  • Thin, beautiful, design counts.

    超薄又好看,設計很重要

  • You have one?

    你有一台嗎?

  • Thin, beautiful, design counts.

    超薄又好看,設計真的很重要

  • Next thing is, when you make a presentation,

    下一件事情是,當你做簡報時

  • if you did nothing else but this, [Use big graphics and big fonts] (Laughter)

    如果你什麼都不用做,只是…(用很大的圖表和字體)

  • you would be better than 9/10 of the presentations in the world.

    你就會比世界上 90% 的講者還厲害

  • Seriously.

    真的

  • Seriously, just do this.

    真的,這樣做就對了

  • I'll show you a typical Steve Jobs slide.

    給你看看賈伯斯常用的投影片範本

  • What a great slide!

    超讚的投影片!

  • Big graphic.

    超大的圖

  • "The best Windows app ever written: iTunes."

    「有史以來最棒的微軟應用程式:iTunes」

  • It's a typical Steve Jobs slide.

    這是典型的賈伯斯投影片樣式

  • You know, any other CEO, there would be a matrix, right?

    你知道的,其他的總裁會用表格,對吧?

  • There would be a 4 column matrix,

    裡頭會有四個欄位

  • and it would have this like checkboxes,

    包含了確認欄

  • and it would be an 8 point font

    用八號字體

  • and you couldn't read it.

    你根本看不清楚上面寫什麼

  • The person giving the presentation would not be able to explain it.

    做簡報的人根本無法解釋

  • This is the beauty of Steve Jobs.

    這是賈伯斯的美感

  • The irony of saying that the best Windows app ever is iTunes from Apple.

    諷刺地說,微軟最棒的應用程式是自蘋果的 iTunes

  • Showing the logo of Windows.

    秀出微軟的標誌

  • This is a beautiful slide, this encapsulates the Steve Jobs presentation style.

    這是一張很美的投影片,足以說明賈伯斯的簡報風格

  • Big graphics.

    超大圖片

  • Big fonts.

    超大字體

  • The ideal font-size, just for you to know, maybe a rule of thumb --

    最合適的字體大小,只是讓你了解一下,也許是基本原則 ——

  • The rule of thumb is find out who the oldest person is in the audience,

    原則是找出最年長的觀眾

  • divide his or her age by two.

    把他的年齡除以二

  • (Laughter) OK?

    (笑聲)好嗎?

  • So, if you are talking to people of 60 years old, probably 30 points

    因此,如果你對 60 歲以上的人演講,大概就用 30 號字體

  • 50 years old, 25 points.

    50 歲左右就用 25 號字體

  • Someday, you maybe pitching to a really young VC.

    有一天,你也許要對一個很年輕的副總裁報告

  • Let's say, the VC is sixteen years old.

    假設他 16 歲

  • At that point, God bless you, use the 8 point font.

    在那個時候,願主保祐你,就用 8 號字體

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But until that time --

    不過在那之前 ——

  • big fonts.

    用大一點的字

  • Big fonts.

    大字

  • The beauty of a big font is, it makes it so

    大字之美在於

  • that you cannot put a lot of text on your presentation.

    它讓你不能在簡報裡塞進很多字

  • You don't want a lot of text

    你不會想要很多字的

  • because if you put a lot of text, you read the text

    因為如果你放很多字,你就會去讀它

  • and if you read the text, your audience will be lost.

    如果你去讀它,你的聽眾就會流失

  • Your audience will be lost because they are going to say to themselves,

    你的聽眾會流失是因為他們會在心裡說:

  • "This bozo is reading the slide verbatim.

    「這個蠢蛋在照著簡報唸

  • I can read silently to myself faster than this bozo can read it orally to me.

    我自己在心裡默唸都比這個蠢蛋唸給我聽還快

  • So I will just read ahead." (Laughter)

    我乾脆自己先唸。」 (笑聲)

  • And you will lose your audience.

    然後你就會失去你的聽眾

  • Big font.

    大字

  • Big graphics.

    大的圖片

  • Next thing.

    下一件事是

  • "Changing your mind is truly a sign of intelligence."

    「改變主意是智慧的象徵。」

  • You may think that you should formulate this great thought,

    你也許會認為你應該把好的想法標準化

  • you should use these analytical skills,

    你應該用些分析技巧

  • you should come to this great conclusion

    你應該做出個最好的決定

  • by God, you gotta stick to this conclusion

    你會緊抓著這個決定不放

  • because you know you are right and you believe.

    因為你知道你是對的、並深信不疑

  • And I think what Apple has proven time and time again is that

    而我想蘋果能夠一而再、再而三證明的是

  • if you change your mind, if you change the way you do things

    如果你改變主意、改變做事的方式

  • in response to how customers actually consider you, treat you, or accept you,

    對顧客怎麼看你、對待你、接受你做出回應

  • it is a sign of intelligence and it will lead to success.

    這是智慧的象徵,它最終會帶你走向成功

  • I'll give you an example.

    讓我來舉個例子

  • Believe it or not, when the iPhone first came out,

    信不信由你,當 iPhone 剛出來的時候

  • this was the press release that basically set the Apple perspective on apps:

    這是蘋果針對應用程式看法所發的新聞稿

  • "Our innovative approach, using Web 2.0-based standards,

    「我們用創新的手法,以 Web 2.0 為基礎

  • lets developers create amazing new applications

    讓我們研發出全新的應用程式

  • while keeping the iPhone secure and reliable."

    同時確保 iPhone 的安全與可靠。」

  • Steve Jobs said this in June 2007.

    這是賈伯斯在 2007 年 6 月時的聲明

  • Let me translate this for you.

    讓我翻譯給你聽