字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Hello. My name is Emma, and in today's video I am going to teach you 嗨大家好，我是Emma，在今天的影片當中 an amazing way to listen and take notes. 我將會教你們如何有效聽課和作筆記 This method I am going to teach you today is really, really going 我即將教給你們的方法絕對能讓你們獲益良多， to help you, and I know this because I use this method myself, and I found it has really, 我會這麼說是因為，從大學開始我就一直使用這個方式學習， really helped me when I was in university, during meetings, during all sorts of different 直到現在無論在任何場合都仍然很有幫助，在會議上，不同的活動當中， situations. This method really works. 只要運用這個方法都無往不利 So, first, before I teach you about the method, I want you to think about yourself and I want 那接下來，在我開始講解這個方法之前，我希望你們去思考一件事： you to think about: When do you take notes? Okay? So, when do you listen and when do you 你什麼時候會做筆記? 好了嗎 ? 那麼，當你在聽講的時候，你都什麼時候做筆記? take notes? So, some of you might think... Maybe you're in university, maybe you're in 你們當中有些人可能會想....可能你在大學裡，可能你在某個學院， college, maybe you're in high school, and you have to listen to your teacher talk, and 或許你處於高中階段，而你必須聆聽老師的講解，同時， you have to take notes to help you remember what they are saying. Maybe you've graduated 你也要做筆記方便之後再複習老師授課內容 and you're working in a business, and you have meetings and... Or presentations, and 或許你已經是在企業工作的社會人士，而你有很多會議必須參加，或者做簡報， you also need to take notes. So, this method will work for whether you're working or you're 你也需要做筆記。不論你是社會人士或者是學生，這個方法都很有用 studying. Maybe you're taking the IELTS or the TOEFL, this can also help you on the TOEFL 或許你正在準備雅思或托福考試，這個方法也能幫助你訓練 test in terms of improving your listening and taking notes. 並改善托福的聽力，以及作筆記的技巧 So, how do you take notes? Okay? I know some students, they watch their professor or their 那麼，你怎麼做筆記呢? 想好了嗎? 我知道有些學生，他們習慣看著教授、老師講課， teacher talk, and they use their computer, and they just type everything their professor 同時使用筆記型電腦，他們每字每句都輸入電腦裡 or teacher says. Is this something you do? Maybe you write your notes, and you write 你是這麼做的嗎?又或者，你在筆記本上寫下所有講課內容， every single thing your professor says down on a piece of paper, or anything somebody 甚至是其他人說的話嗎 ? says. Well, there are a couple of problems with these methods, and I'm going to explain 其實呢，這些方法都有一些盲點，我將會一一解釋給你們聽 to you some of the problems now. So, for people who like to take notes by computer, there 那麼，對於使用筆記型電腦做筆記的同學來說，你們有幾個優勢 are some advantages of this. You're able to type really quickly and you're able to get 你能夠以最快速的方法記下所有你聽到的內容，而且很容易收藏保存 a lot of what you hear down on your computer, and it's easy to save. But the problem with 但這個方法的缺點是，你都只是在「被動地聽講」 this is it's a type of passive listening. So, a lot of the times you're not actually 因此，你利用了很多時間在轉換自己所聽到的內容，並輸入電腦裡， using your brain to interpret what you're listening to, and you're not actively listening. 但你並沒有很積極、主動的在聽課 You're just copying word for word, you're not actually doing anything active with the 你只是將所有話都輸入電腦，你沒有將講課內容內化整理後再作筆記 material you're listening to. So, working with a computer-and I've seen this in my university-a 所以，至少在我看來，很多用電腦做筆記的同學， lot of students also end up going on Facebook during the lesson or lecture. So, a lot of 最後都變成在課堂上使用facebook，也就是說，大部分的時間他們其實都不專心 the times they get very distracted. When they should be listening, they're actually not. So, 他們並沒有在該認真聽講的時間點上專注 for me personally and I think for a lot of people, using a computer to take notes is 我個人認為，對許多人而言，用電腦做筆記是很好的方式 not the best method. Again, for some people it might work, but for a lot of people it 但我必須再次強調，這對有些人是有用的，但對很多人來說，這是個不明智的選擇 doesn't. A lot of the times it's actually better to take notes by hand, and the reason 從多方角度來看，手寫筆記是很好的方式，原因是因為， is when you take notes by hand, you have to think about what you're writing because writing 當你手做筆記，你必須先經過大腦思考要如何書寫， takes a bit longer than typing. So you're organizing the material, therefore it's more 因為手寫花的時間稍微長一點。這樣一來，當你在整理思緒的時候， of an active way to listen. Okay? And they've done psychology studies on this, and they 相對於打字而言是更主動地去聽講並思考，懂嗎 ? 有心理學家也對這些方式做了研究， do find that taking your notes by hand is often better than taking notes by a computer. 他們也發現，手寫筆記確實比電腦打字輸入的效果好很多 So, today I am going to teach you a way to take notes by hand using what is called 那麼，今天我將要教你手寫筆記的方式叫做 "The Cornell Method". This method was developed at Cornell University, and a lot of universities 「康乃爾筆記術」。這是由康乃爾大學發展出來的筆記法，因為成效很好 actually encourage students to use this method because it is very good. So, what is the Cornell 很多大學也鼓勵學生用這個方法做筆記，那麼，什麼是康乃爾筆記術呢? Method? Okay, well, I'm glad you asked. So, I have here an example of how you would organize 我很高興你有這個怡疑問，我會舉一個例子來告訴你應該如何整理筆記 your paper. Imagine this is your paper that you take your notes on. What you can do is 想像一下，這是你用來做筆記的紙張 you can make a box just like this where you have a box where you write the title and the 你可以畫一個像這樣的表格，你可以寫下標題、上課日期 date of the lesson, you have a square or a rectangle here, you have a rectangle here, 你會看到有一個正方形或長方形表格，這邊也是一個長方形， and you have a rectangle at the bottom. Okay? So, in total you have-one, two, three, four 最後，在底部也有一個長方形，好了嗎?那麼你總共有-一、二、三、四， -four different rectangles. 四個不同的長方形 Now, what do you do? So, I already said you write the title here and the date here. In 那麼現在應該怎麼做? 我已經告訴過你們要將標題和日期寫在這個區塊 this column, you're going to write the main idea or the keyword a professor is using. 在這個表格內，你必須寫下主旨，或是教授說出的重點句 Now, if this is confusing, that's okay because I will show you an example of a finished note. 如果你覺得很困惑，沒關係，因為我給你們看的是一個完成的筆記 Okay? But for now, just to explain, in this column we're going to write any big, important 懂嗎? 但為了方便解釋，在這個表格內我們只會寫下最重要的字，好嗎? words. Okay? So if you're learning about, you know, gravity, you might write the word: 所以如果你正在學重力，你可能必須寫下的單字就有： "gravity" here. Okay? You can also write questions here. "What is gravity?" Or you can write 「重力」，可以嗎? 你也可以寫下一些問句，例如「重力是什麼?」 the main idea. So this is just almost like the big ideas that you're listening to. 或者你也可以寫出主旨。因此大致來說，這個欄位是讓你寫下課堂大重點的 This is where we write the smaller ideas, the details. So if you're learning about history 而這個部分，我們可以寫下小提醒，以及細節內容。那如果你在學歷史相關的東西， or, you know, something like that, you can write the dates here. Okay? Maybe you're learning 你可以在這邊寫下日期，可以嗎? 或許你正在學關於莎士比亞的東西， about Shakespeare, so you might write, you know: "Shakespeare" here and when he was born, 因此你就可能會在這邊寫下「莎士比亞」，並且記錄他的出生、死亡日期 when he died. You can write details, details about what you're learning. Definitions. If 你可以寫下所有你學到與他相關的細節，接下來是定義 you're learning a new word, you can write the meaning here. If you're taking a science 如果你學到了一個新的單字，你可以把他的意思寫在這邊 class, you can write your formulas here. You can write examples here. Maybe if they're 如果你在上自然科學，你可以把公式、或是解釋寫在這裡 explaining, you know, something about science and something about, you know, planets, you 他們可以是對星球的解釋，或者你也可以寫關於有關水星的內容 can write an example here about Mercury. And you can also draw pictures here. A lot of 你也可以在這一個格子裡面畫圖 students, they don't put pictures in their notes, but it actually is a great idea to 很多學生不習慣在筆記上畫畫，但它能夠幫助我們更理解、 help with understanding and to also help you remember what you're... What you're learning. 有效記住我們所學的內容 So here you write the big ideas or the keywords, here is the detail, and finally at the bottom, 所以在左邊是寫下主旨、大重點，右方欄位是寫下細節、內容，接下來是底部， after, you know, you've gone through the notes... So while you're listening to your professor 在你看完了筆記之後...記得，當你在課堂上聽講的時候， or your teacher, you're writing here and here. And then once the class is over, you think 你使用的是這兩個欄位。課程結束之後，你必須思考自己學到了什麼，並且複習課堂上的筆記 about what you learned, and you look. You look here, you look here, and then you can 看一下左邊欄位，接著再看看右邊來為，接著你可以寫下4到5項今天所學的內容 write maybe four or five things that you learned today. Just by thinking about that at the 只要靠這樣思考， end of each class will really, really help you to remember, you know, the material. 真的可以幫助自己有效記憶上課所學 So this is a very active way to take notes because you're organizing things, you're using 這是以主動思考的方式去做筆記，因為你會整理事件，你有效運用了大腦， a lot of brain power which is good, and you're going to remember a lot more than if you just 因此，你能夠記住的東西將比只是把所有資訊輸入電腦， type up everything the professor says on the computer or if you just write everything the 或是記下教授所有上課內容還要豐富，多元 professor says on the computer. The other great thing about this method is it's so easy 這個方法的另一個優點是，你很容易運用這個筆記為考試做準備 when you're studying for a test or an exam. You can find ideas very quickly. So, if you 你可以快速複習 want to go back to about gravity, you can look for: 舉例來說，如果你想要複習有關重力的東西，你可以看： "Okay, where is gravity? Oh, here's gravity." 「什麼是重力呢....? 啊，找到了，有關重力的筆記!」 And then you can read up on some of the details about gravity. So it's very, 接下來，你可以閱讀以下之前自己記下有關重力的細節 very good for organizing your notes, which will help you in terms of your test. So now 所以，這實在是一個很有用的筆記術，也能讓你有效準備考試 I'm going to show you an actual example of the Cornell Method with actual notes in them. 那麼現在，我要讓你們看一下利用康乃爾比技術所做出的筆記 Okay, so imagine I'm actually listening to a teacher talk about the history of English, 那現在請你們想像，我正在上一堂講解英文發展歷史的課程， and I've just written my notes. Okay? So now I'm going to talk about what I wrote. So here 而我也已經將筆記寫好了，好嗎? 那我現在要和你們討論我寫了什麼東西 is the title. The lesson I listened to is called "English 101". Whenever you see "101" 這邊是寫下標題，課程名稱是「英文101」。只要你看到「101」， that usually means it's an introduction to something. I've written the date here. This 通常都代表這是對某項事情的介紹。那這個部份我寫下了日期 isn't the real date. It's not 2060, but I have no idea when you're going to watch this, 這不是真的日期，現在不是2060，但我不知道你什麼時候才會看到這個影片， so I've decided to just make up a date. So, here, again, are the key ideas or main words. 所以我就隨邊挑了一個時間。接下來，這的地方，我再一次強調，是要寫下大意、主旨 So... Or questions. I have here: "What is English?", "Dialects", and "American vs. British". 呃..或者是問題。我這邊寫的是：「英文是什麼?」「方言」「美式vs英式」 So, the beauty about this is when I'm studying for my test, I can quickly find the material. 那麼，這邊的優點就是，如果我需要準備考試，我可以迅速找到自己想複習的內容 If I need to find out: What's the difference between America vs. British, I can just scan 如果我想要讀：美式英語和英式英語有什麼不同，我可以找到關鍵字， and go right here. Okay? 就開始閱讀細節，了解嗎? Here I have all the details. So, notice this has a lot more words than this. This is just 我在這裡寫下了詳盡內容，那麼，注意一下，右方表格內的文字比左方多上許多 one or two words, whereas this is a lot more information. So, here under the question: 左邊只有一兩個關鍵字，然而右方欄位我們可以寫下很多資訊 "What is English?" I wrote: It's official... It's the official language in 60 countries. 那看一下這邊，「英文是什麼?」 我寫的是：「他再60個國家裡被當作官方語言使用」 It's the most widely learned second language, and it's an Indo-European language. Okay? 「這是世界上第二大語言，屬於印歐語系」了解嗎? So you'll notice I didn't write full sentences here. There's no point. You're trying to write 你會注意到我沒有寫下所有句子。那樣做並沒有重點，你必須盡你所能的快速寫下 as quickly as you can. So instead of, you know, writing: 上課內容。所以與其寫下： "It's the official language of 60 countries", I just put: "60 countries = official", 「它在60個國家是官方語言」，我只有寫：「60個國家=官方」， and I could write "lang" here. 我可以在這邊寫下「lan」， This is short for "language". If you can and you keep hearing the same words again and 也就是「language」的縮寫。如果在一堂課中，你持續聽到某一個單字， again in your lecture, you don't have to write them out fully. You can find a short form 你就不需要將他們完整的寫下，你可以寫下那個單字的縮寫 to write. Any time I see this, I know: "Okay, language." Just like down here: "diff", for 每次我只要看到這個所寫，我就知道：「好的，這是關於語言」。那下面這個「diff」， me that's "difference". So I don't have to waste time writing it all out. Okay, so this 對我來說就是「difference」的縮寫。這樣一來我就不用浪費時間把他們完整的寫下 is: "What is English?" 那麼接下來「什麼是英文?」 And then I have dialects: Jamaican, Indian, Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, etc. A 我就註記了一些方言：雅買加、印度，澳洲、紐西蘭、加拿大等等 dialect is a type of English. There are many different types of English. And maybe the 各個方言都是英文的一種。而世界上有很多不同形式的英文 professor talks too quickly and you have no idea: "What is a dialect? I don't understand." 或許教授講太快，你也沒有聽清楚：「什麼是方言?我不了解」 That's... That's good. What you can do with that is down here you can also write questions 這是很好的，你可以在左方欄位寫下問題 you have about the material. You know: "I don't know what a dialect is. Look up later." 並且寫下：「我不知道什麼是方言，等一下要查」 Or something like this. So this can also help you see what you need to look into or what 或者用任何類似的句子。 這樣一來，你就能記得你等一下應該要查什麼資料， you can ask your teacher or professor about. Okay. 或是下課要問教授或老師什麼問題，好的。 And then over here I have: "American vs. British". So, the teacher was talking about American 那在這邊，我又寫了：「美式vs英系」。也就是說，老師那時候在討論美式跟英式英文的不同 vs. British English. So I wrote: "er" pronunciation, it's different between American and British 所以我就寫下「er」的發音，因為在兩種方式內發音方式不一樣 English. The vocabulary can be different. And again, I would write a bunch of examples 運用用的單字可能也會不一樣，所以我會寫下很多不同的範例 here. You know, maybe I might write: "lift vs. elevator is different", or you know, real 我可能會寫「lift跟elevator的不同」，或者，一些實際的範例 examples. This is just an example. It's not totally filled out. You would have a lot more 這都只是舉例，不是從課堂中聽來的。 detail when you listen to a lecture or a lesson. 上課的時候你可能會有更多的細節要補充 So if you're actually interested in American vs. British English 因此，如果你真的對美式以及英式英文之間的比較很有興趣 and the differences, we do have a video on that at www.engvid.com. 我們有一個關於這類比較的影片在www.engvid.com上 And what I actually highly recommend is for you to try to listen to that video, 我也很建議你們可以去看看那個影片， and you know, practice this method. Write the title of the video, the date, write some of the 並且同時練習這個筆記術，寫下影片標題，日期，還有一些老師提到的關鍵字， key points the teacher is going to talk about, and some of the details. You can do that with 最後在填齊一些細節內容 any videos on our website and, you know, for practice and it will actually help you learn 你可以利用我們網站的所有影片練習這個技巧，它也能夠幫你更有效率的學系，並且背誦 the material better and remember the material more. And then you can use this again 而且這個方法適用於大學、學院、中學、公司會議， in high school, in university, in college, in business meetings, wherever you need to take notes. 或者任何你需要做筆記的場合 The last thing I wanted to say is: "Today I learned". Once you have listened to the 最後一個我想補充的是「今天我學了什麼」。在你上完課之後， lecture, think about the material and think about: "What did I learn today?" So maybe 想想上課內容，並思考「我今天學到什麼?」 today I learned that there are many types of English. There's Jamaican, Indian, Australian, 或許我今天學到了英文的種類。有雅買加、印度、澳洲，或各種其他的方言 there's so many different types. Maybe today I learned there's a difference between American 又或者我今天學到了美式以及英式英文「er」發音的相異之處 English and British English in terms of "er" pronunciation. I recommend writing, you know, 我建議你可以寫下各種不同的例子 multiple things here. You usually learn at least four or five things in a lesson, probably 一堂課的時間，通常最少都能學到4到5件事情，或者還能更多 more. But what you can do is think about: What are the four most important things I 而你可以思考的是：「今天我學到最重要的事情是什麼?」 learned today? And write those four of the most important things down. This will really, 並且寫下最重要的四點下來 really help you to remember the material. 你一定會從這個方法中獲益良多 So, I'd like you to come visit our website at www.engvid.com. 那麼，我非常希望你可以造訪我們的網站：www.engvid.com There, we have a lot more resources on all sorts of different topics 我們有各式各樣不同的學習影片公布在上面， where you can practice using this method while you watch our videos. 你可以透過觀看我們的影片，來練習怎麼做這樣的筆記 You can also subscribe to my YouTube channel where you'll find a lot of other resources, 你也可以訂閱我在YouTube的頻道， a lot of great resources on all sorts of different topics about English. 並且從各種不同主題的影片挑選一個自己喜歡的來看 So until next time, thank you for watching and take care. 那麼，下次見了，謝謝你們的觀賞，大家保重 !