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  • How much do you need to know about a person

    你要多瞭解一個人,

  • before you'd feel comfortable making a loan?

    才能夠放心地借他錢?

  • Suppose you wanted to lend 1,000 dollars

    假如要你出借 1,000 美金

  • to the person sitting two rows behind you.

    給坐你後兩排的人。

  • What would you need to know about that person

    你需要先知道哪些資訊,

  • before you'd feel comfortable?

    才能夠放心呢?

  • My mom came to the US from India in her late thirties.

    我的母親在快四十歲時 從印度來到美國。

  • She's a doctor in Brooklyn,

    她是布魯克林的醫生。

  • and she often lets friends and neighbors come to see her for health services,

    她經常為朋友、 街坊鄰居提供健康服務,

  • whether they can pay right away or not.

    無論他們是否有能力當場付錢。

  • I remember running into her patients with her at the grocery store

    記得曾和她在路上 遇到病人──在雜貨店

  • or on the sidewalk,

    或人行道上──

  • and sometimes they would come and pay her right on the spot

    有時候他們會當場掏錢,

  • for previous appointments.

    付上次看病的費用。

  • She would thank them,

    她會說謝謝,

  • and ask them about their families and their health.

    然後聊聊對方的家庭和健康。

  • She gave them credit because she trusted them.

    她讓他們賒帳,因為她信任他們。

  • Most of us are like my mom.

    多數人就跟我母親一樣。

  • We would give credit to someone we know

    我們會借錢給熟識的人,

  • or that we live next to.

    或身邊的人。

  • But most of us are probably not going to lend to a stranger

    但大部分的人大概 不會借錢給陌生人,

  • unless we know a little something about them.

    除非我們某種程度地瞭解對方。

  • Banks, credit card companies and other financial institutions

    銀行、信用卡公司和其他金融機構

  • don't know us on a personal level,

    並不認識我們個人,

  • but they do have a way of trusting us,

    但他們有種信任機制,

  • and that's through our credit scores.

    便是透過我們的信用積分。

  • Our credit scores have been created

    信用積分的建立,

  • through an aggregation and analysis of our public consumer credit data.

    是透過彙整與分析公開消費資訊所得到的結果。

  • And because of them, we have pretty much easy access

    因為有它,我們有了方便的管道

  • to all of the goods and services that we need,

    獲得各式各樣的商品和服務,

  • from getting electricity to buying a home,

    從獲取電力到購買房子,

  • or taking a risk and starting a business.

    或是冒點風險創立事業。

  • But ...

    然而,

  • there are 2.5 billion people around the world

    全球約有 25 億人

  • that don't have a credit score.

    沒有信用積分。

  • That's a third of the world's population.

    這佔了世界三分之一的人口。

  • They don't have a score

    他們沒有積分,

  • because there are no formal public records on them --

    因為缺乏正式的公開紀錄──

  • no bank accounts,

    沒有銀行帳戶、

  • no credit histories

    沒有信用記錄、

  • and no social security numbers.

    沒有社會保險號碼。

  • And because they don't have a score,

    因為他們沒有積分,

  • they don't have access to the credit or financial products

    他們沒機會接觸信用或金融商品,

  • that can improve their lives.

    也無從以此改善生活。

  • They are not trusted.

    他們不被信任。

  • So we wanted to find a way to build trust

    所以我們想要找到建立信任的方法,

  • and to open up financial access for these 2.5 billion.

    對這25億人打開金融的大門。

  • So we created a mobile application

    我們做了一個手機應用程式,

  • that builds credit scores for them using mobile data.

    利用手機資料 來創造他們的信用積分。

  • There are currently over one billion smartphones in emerging markets.

    目前在新興市場, 有超過 10 億支智慧型手機。

  • And people are using them the same way that we do.

    使用方式和我們沒什麼不同。

  • They're texting their friends, they're looking up directions,

    他們傳訊給朋友、查地圖、

  • they're browsing the Internet

    瀏覽網頁,

  • and they're even making financial transactions.

    甚至用手機進行交易。

  • Over time, this data is getting captured on our phones,

    這些資料會不斷地 被擷取、紀錄下來,

  • and it provides a really rich picture of a person's life.

    並活靈活現地描繪出 一個人生活的樣貌。

  • Our customers give us access to this data

    客戶授權我們取用這些資料,

  • and we capture it through our mobile application.

    讓我們用手機程式記錄下來。

  • It helps us understand the creditworthiness

    它幫助我們瞭解一個人的信譽。

  • of people like Jenipher, a small-business owner in Nairobi, Kenya.

    例如:珍妮佛── 一位在肯亞奈洛比的小企業主。

  • Jenipher is 65 years old, and for decades has been running a food stall

    珍妮佛 65 歲,幾十年來 都經營著一家食物攤,

  • in the central business district.

    就位於中心商業區。

  • She has three sons who she put through vocational school,

    她有三個讀了職校的兒子,

  • and she's also the leader of her local chama,

    她同時也領導著當地的

  • or savings group.

    地區性儲蓄團體。

  • Jenipher's food stall does well.

    珍妮佛的食物攤經營得不錯。

  • She makes just enough every day to cover her expenses.

    她每天的收入恰好能應付支出。

  • But she's not financially secure.

    但她經濟上並不安全。

  • Any emergency could force her into debt.

    突發事件可能把她打入負債。

  • And she has no discretionary income

    而她沒有多餘的收入,

  • to improve her family's way of living,

    來改善家裡的生活、

  • for emergencies,

    應付突發狀況,

  • or for investing into growing her business.

    或是投資、擴展自己的事業。

  • If Jenipher wants credit, her options are limited.

    若珍妮佛想要積分,她沒什麼選擇。

  • She could get a microloan,

    她可以申請小額貸款,

  • but she'd have to form a group that could help vouch for her credibility.

    但她必須先找一群人 來做她的保證人。

  • And even then, the loan sizes would be way too small

    即便成功,貸款金額還是太低,

  • to really have an impact on her business,

    無法對事業有實質上的幫助──

  • averaging around 150 dollars.

    放款金額平均 150 美金。

  • Loan sharks are always an option,

    地下錢莊當然是個選擇,

  • but with interest rates that are well above 300 percent,

    但遠超過 300% 的利率,

  • they're financially risky.

    風險實在太高了。

  • And because Jenipher doesn't have collateral or a credit history,

    且因為珍妮佛沒有 抵押品或信用記錄,

  • she can't walk into a bank and ask for a business loan.

    她無法向銀行申請企業貸款。

  • But one day,

    但某天,

  • Jenipher's son convinced her to download our application

    珍妮佛的兒子說服她 下載了我們的應用程式

  • and apply for a loan.

    並申請貸款。

  • Jenipher answered a few questions on her phone

    珍妮佛在手機上回答了幾個問題,

  • and she gave us access to a few key data points on her device.

    然後授權我們取用 一些手機上的關鍵資料。

  • And here's what we saw.

    這是我們看到的。

  • So, bad news first.

    先說壞消息。

  • Jenipher had a low savings balance and no previous loan history.

    珍妮佛存款偏低, 沒有過往的借貸紀錄。

  • These are factors

    這些因素

  • that would have thrown up a red flag to a traditional bank.

    在傳統銀行就很不樂觀。

  • But there were other points in her history that showed us

    但她紀錄中的其他部分,

  • a much richer picture of her potential.

    顯現出了她的潛力。

  • So for one,

    首先,

  • we saw that she made regular phone calls to her family in Uganda.

    她很有規律地打電話 給在烏干達的家人。

  • Well, it turns out that the data shows

    而統計資料顯示,

  • a four percent increase in repayment

    還款機率將有 4% 的提升──

  • among people who consistently communicate with a few close contacts.

    如果這個人跟親近的人 有持續性的聯絡。

  • We could also see

    我們還發現,

  • that though she traveled around a lot throughout the day,

    儘管她整天會在各處奔走,

  • she actually had pretty regular travel patterns,

    她的行動模式其實蠻固定的,

  • and she was either at home or at her food stall.

    不是在家就是在她的攤位。

  • And the data shows a six percent increase in repayment

    資料顯示, 還款機率將有 6% 的提升──

  • among customers who are consistent

    如果這個人

  • with where they spend most of their time.

    把大部分時間花在固定地方。

  • We could also see that she communicated a lot

    我們也能看到她的互動很多,

  • with many different people throughout the day

    在生活中和不同的人接觸,

  • and that she had a strong support network.

    擁有強健的社群支持。

  • Our data shows

    資料顯示,

  • that people who communicate with more than 58 different contacts

    和超過 58 人有互動的人,

  • tend to be more likely to be good borrowers.

    較有可能是好的借款人。

  • In Jenipher's case,

    珍妮佛的案例中,

  • she communicated with 89 different individuals,

    她和 89 人有過互動,

  • which showed a nine percent increase in her repayment.

    還款機率因此有 9% 的提升。

  • These are just some of the thousands of different data points

    這只是資料滄海中之一粟。

  • that we look at to understand a person's creditworthiness.

    我們用大量的資料 深入瞭解一個人的信譽。

  • And after analyzing all of these different data points,

    分析完所有的資料後,

  • we took the first risk

    我們跨出冒險的第一步,

  • and gave Jenipher a loan.

    給了珍妮佛一筆貸款。

  • This is data that would not be found on a paper trail

    這樣的資訊無法在書面上,

  • or in any formal financial record.

    或是金融紀錄裡面找到。

  • But it proves trust.

    但它構築出信任。

  • By looking beyond income,

    將目光放遠不侷限於收入,

  • we can see that people in emerging markets

    我們看見新興市場中的人們,

  • that may seem risky and unpredictable on the surface

    他們表面上看起來 放款風險高、難以預測,

  • are actually willing and have the capacity to repay.

    但事實上具有還款意願及能力。

  • Our credit scores have helped us deliver over 200,000 loans in Kenya

    我們的信用積分,已幫我們 在肯亞釋放出 200,000 份貸款──

  • in just the past year.

    僅僅在去年。

  • And our repayment rates are above 90 percent --

    我們的還款率超過了 90%──

  • which, by the way, is in line with traditional bank repayment rates.

    和傳統銀行的還款率並駕齊驅。

  • With something as simple as a credit score,

    信用積分看似微不足道,

  • we're giving people the power to build their own futures.

    卻賦予人們建構自己未來的力量。

  • Our customers have used their loans for family expenses,

    我們的客戶把這些貸款 拿來支付家庭開銷、

  • emergencies, travel

    突發狀況、旅遊,

  • and for investing back into growing their businesses.

    以及投資發展他們的事業。

  • They're now building better economies and communities

    他們正打造更好的經濟及社區,

  • where more people can succeed.

    讓更多的人能夠成功。

  • Over the past two years of using our product,

    採用我們產品的過去兩年,

  • Jenipher has increased her savings by 60 percent.

    珍妮佛的存款增加了 60%。

  • She's also started two additional food stalls

    她還開了另外兩個食物攤,

  • and is now making plans for her own restaurant.

    並打算開自己的餐廳。

  • She's applying for a small-business loan from a commercial bank,

    她正向商業銀行申請小型企業貸款,

  • because she now has the credit history to prove she deserves it.

    因為如今她已經有 信用記錄證明她具備資格。

  • I saw Jenipher in Nairobi just last week,

    上週我在奈洛比見到了珍妮佛,

  • and she told me how excited she was to get started.

    她向我表達她當初的興奮之情。

  • She said,

    她說:

  • "Only my son believed I could do this. I didn't think this was for me."

    「只有我兒子相信我能做到。 我不敢相信這一切屬於我。」

  • She's lived her whole life

    她活著的大半生,

  • believing that there was a part of the world that was closed off to her.

    都認為某部分的世界並不屬於她。

  • Our job now is to open the world to Jenipher

    我們的使命便是向珍妮佛,

  • and the billions like her that deserve to be trusted.

    還有許許多多值得相信的人, 敞開世界的大門。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

How much do you need to know about a person

你要多瞭解一個人,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 TED 珍妮佛 信用 貸款 資料 手機

【TED】為無信用人士提供的智能新商業貸款|Shivani Siroya。 (【TED】A smart new business loan for people with no credit | Shivani Siroya)

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    victor 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字