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  • I'm an American, which means, generally,

    身為美國人,意味著一般而言,

  • I ignore football unless it involves

    我不關心足球,除非涉及到

  • guys my size or Bruno's size

    和我或Bruno身材相當的人

  • running into each other at extremely high speeds.

    用飛快的速度朝對方奔去

  • That said, it's been really hard

    也就是說,到目前為止非常難

  • to ignore football

    不關注足球

  • for the last couple of weeks.

    在過去的幾週時間

  • I go onto Twitter, there are all these strange words that I've never heard before:

    我上了Twitter,看到好多我從來沒見過的字

  • FIFA, vuvuzela,

    FIFA, vuvuzela,

  • weird jokes about octopi.

    關於章魚的奇怪笑話

  • But the one that's really been sort of stressing me out,

    但是其中真正讓我感到壓力的

  • that I haven't been able to figure out,

    我沒辦法了解意思的

  • is this phrase "Cala a boca, Galvao."

    是這個詞:"Cala a boca, Galvao."

  • If you've gone onto Twitter in the last couple of weeks,

    如果你在過去幾週上過Twitter

  • you've probably seen this.

    你應該看過這個詞

  • It's been a major trending topic.

    這個詞已經變成主要的流行話題

  • Being a monolingual American, I obviously don't know what the phrase means.

    身為一個只會講英文的美國人,我當然不了解這個詞的涵意

  • So I went onto Twitter,

    所以我上了Twitter

  • and I asked some people if they could explain to me "Cala a boca, Galvao."

    請人向我解釋"Cala a boca, Galvao."的意思

  • And fortunately, my Brazilian friends

    很幸運地,我的巴西朋友們

  • were more than ready to help.

    非常樂意幫忙

  • They explained that the Galvao bird

    他們向我解釋,高爾文鳥

  • is a rare and endangered parrot

    是一種稀有且瀕臨絕種的鸚鵡

  • that's in terrible, terrible danger.

    正處於非常非常危急的境地

  • In fact, I'll let them tell you a bit more about it.

    我讓他們來向你們更詳細的說明

  • Narrator: A word about Galvao, a very rare kind of bird

    旁白:用一句話來描述高爾文鳥,就是這是一種即為稀少的鳥類

  • native to Brazil.

    原生於巴西

  • Every year, more than 300,000 Galvao birds

    每年,有超過三十萬隻的的高爾文鳥

  • are killed during Carnival parades.

    在嘉年華會的遊行中被殺害

  • Ethan Zuckerman: Obviously, this is a tragic situation,

    顯然,這是一個悲慘的局面

  • and it actually gets worse.

    而且還正在惡化當中

  • It turns out that, not only is the Galvao parrot

    事實證明,高爾文鸚鵡不僅是

  • very attractive, useful for headdresses,

    非常迷人,可以用做頭飾

  • it evidently has certain hallucinogenic properties,

    它顯然還具有讓人產生幻覺的特質

  • which means that there's a terrible problem

    這意味著產生了一個嚴重的問題

  • with Galvao abuse.

    就是高爾文的濫用

  • Some sick and twisted people have found themselves snorting Galvao.

    有些病態扭曲的人會吸食高爾文鳥

  • And it's terribly endangered.

    而這樣非常危險

  • The good news about this is that the global community --

    好消息是全球的社群

  • again, my Brazilian friends tell me --

    我的巴西朋友們接著告訴我

  • is pitching in to help out.

    正在設法對此伸出援手

  • It turns out that Lady Gaga

    而且Lady Gaga

  • has released a new single --

    已經發行了一首新單曲

  • actually five or six new singles, as near as I can tell --

    實際上,就我所知是五到六首新單曲

  • titled "Cala a boca, Galvao."

    以"Cala a boca, Galvao."作為歌名

  • And my Brazilian friends tell me that

    接著我的巴西朋友們告訴我

  • if I just tweet the phrase "Cala a boca, Galvao,"

    只要我在Twitter上發佈 "Cala a boca, Galvao,"

  • 10 cents will be given

    就會有十分美金捐贈

  • to a global campaign

    給一個全球的活動

  • to save this rare and beautiful bird.

    以協助拯救這些稀少且美麗的鳥類

  • Now, most of you have figured out that this was a prank,

    現在,你們多數已經發現這是一個騙局

  • and actually a very, very good one.

    而且是非常非常好的一個騙局

  • "Cala a boca, Galvao" actually means something very different.

    "Cala a boca, Galvao"實際上是有著完全不同的意思

  • In Portugese, it means "Shut your mouth, Galvao."

    在葡萄文中,意謂著「Galvao,閉上你的嘴!」

  • And it specifically refers to this guy, Galvao Bueno,

    而且特指這個人,Galvao Bueno

  • who's the lead soccer commentator

    巴西環球電視台

  • for Rede Globo.

    的體育主持人

  • And what I understand from my Brazilian friends

    而就我從我巴西朋友們的了解

  • is that this guy is just a cliche machine.

    這個人就只會講些陳腔爛調

  • He can ruin the most interesting match

    能把比賽的樂趣完全抹煞掉

  • by just spouting cliche again and again and again.

    只會不斷地說著一樣的東西

  • So Brazilians went to that first match

    所以巴西人去看了他們的第一場

  • against North Korea,

    對戰北韓的球賽

  • put up this banner, started a Twitter campaign

    拉起了這面旗幟,開始了Twitter的活動

  • and tried to convince the rest of us

    然後試著說服其他的人

  • to tweet the phrase: "Cala a boca, Galvao."

    去Twitter上發"Cala a boca, Galvao."

  • And in fact, were so successful at this

    而且,這個活動非常成功

  • that it topped Twitter for two weeks.

    甚至在Twitter上稱霸了兩個禮拜

  • Now there's a couple --

    現在,這裡有一些

  • there's a couple of lessons that you can take from this.

    有一些我們可以從中學習的啟示

  • And the first lesson, which I think is a worthwhile one,

    首先,我覺得值得學習的是

  • is that you cannot go wrong

    呼籲人們在網路上活躍

  • asking people to be active online,

    是不會錯的

  • so long as activism just means retweeting a phrase.

    只要活躍意指著僅需要在Twitter上轉發

  • So as long as activism is that simple,

    只要所要求的活躍程度這麼的簡單

  • it's pretty easy to get away with.

    就很容易成功

  • The other thing you can take from this, by the way,

    另外一件我們可以學到的

  • is that there are a lot of Brazilians on Twitter.

    是Twitter上有很多巴西人

  • There's more than five million of them.

    有超過五百萬的巴西人在上面

  • As far as national representation,

    就國家的總人口來算

  • 11 percent of Brazilian internet users are on Twitter.

    有百分之十一有上網的巴西人在使用Twitter

  • That's a much higher number than in the U.S. or U.K.

    這個數字比美國或英國都高得多

  • Next to Japan,

    僅次於日本

  • it's the second most represented by population.

    是人口比例第二高的

  • Now if you're using Twitter or other social networks,

    現在你可能正在使用Twitter或其他的社群網絡

  • and you didn't realize

    但你可能從未意識到

  • this was a space with a lot of Brazilians in it,

    巴西人在其中佔了一席之地

  • you're like most of us.

    就像大多數的我們都沒有意識到一樣

  • Because what happens on a social network

    因為在社群網站裡

  • is you interact with the people

    你所互動的這些人

  • that you have chosen to interact with.

    是你選擇要和他們互動的人

  • And if you are like me, a big, geeky, white, American guy,

    如果你和我一樣,是個魁武熱愛科技、美國的白人

  • you tend to interact with a lot of other geeky, white, American guys.

    偏好和一群一樣熱愛科技的美國白人進行互動

  • And you don't necessarily have the sense

    那麼你就不會發現

  • that Twitter is in fact a very heavily Brazilian space.

    Twitter其實是個充斥著巴西人的地方

  • It's also extremely surprising to many Americans,

    另外也讓很多美國人感到吃驚的是

  • a heavily African-American space.

    Twitter也是個充斥著美國黑人的地方

  • Twitter recently did some research.

    Twitter最近做了一些調查

  • They looked at their local population.

    研究使用者的地域分布情況

  • They believe that 24 percent

    調查結果表示,24%的

  • of American Twitter users are African-American.

    美國Twitter使用者是黑人

  • That's about twice as high as African-Americans

    以黑人在美國總人口數的比例來看

  • are represented in the population.

    這個數字是其比例的兩倍

  • And again, that was very shocking to many Twitter users,

    又一次的,這對多數Twitter使用者來說非常震驚

  • but it shouldn't be.

    但其實不該如此的

  • And the reason it shouldn't be is that on any day

    而不該感到震驚的原因,是因為每一天

  • you can go into Trending Topics.

    你都可以在熱門話題排行榜中

  • And you tend to find topics

    找到排行在前的話題

  • that are almost entirely African-American conversations.

    幾乎都是黑人的對話

  • This was a visualization done by Fernando Viegas

    這是Fernando Viegas和Martin Wattenberg

  • and Martin Wattenberg,

    所做數據視覺化

  • two amazing visualization designers,

    兩個優秀的視覺化設計家

  • who looked at

    針對

  • a weekend's worth of Twitter traffic

    一週的Twitter流量所做的研究

  • and essentially found that a lot of these trending topics

    發現了很多排行榜中的熱門話題

  • were basically segregated conversations --

    都是種族區隔類的話題

  • and in ways that you wouldn't expect.

    你應該想不到

  • It turns out that oil spill is a mostly white conversation,

    像是「石油外洩」就是偏白人的對話內容

  • that cookout

    而「野炊」

  • is a mostly black conversation.

    則是偏黑人的對話內容

  • And what's crazy about this is that

    其中最瘋狂的是

  • if you wanted to mix up who you were seeing on Twitter,

    如果你想在Twitter參與不同的討論

  • it's literally a quick click away.

    只要點一下滑鼠就能做到

  • You click on that cookout tag, there an entirely different conversation

    你點「野炊」的標籤,然後就會出現一個完全不同的對話系列

  • with different people participating in it.

    包括有很多不同的人參與討論

  • But generally speaking, most of us don't.

    但一般而言,我們多數人都不會這麼做

  • We end up within these filter bubbles, as my friend Eli Pariser calls them,

    我們會用一個個的過濾泡泡(我朋友Eli Pariser取的)

  • where we see the people we already know

    我們只和已認識的人互動

  • and the people who are similar to the people we already know.

    或是有相同話題的朋友的朋友

  • And we tend not to see that wider picture.

    我們的視野常被侷限住

  • Now for me, I'm surprised by this,

    我對這種現象感到吃驚

  • because this wasn't how the internet was supposed to be.

    因為這不應該是網路

  • If you go back into the early days of the internet,

    如果回到過去網路剛興起的時代

  • when cyber-utopians like Nick Negroponte

    當像是Nick Negroponte這樣的網路烏托邦者

  • were writing big books like "Being Digital,"

    撰寫像是《數位革命》這樣的大作

  • the prediction was that the internet

    預測網路會成為

  • was going to be an incredibly powerful force

    不可限量的強大力量

  • to smooth out cultural differences,

    來化解文化間的隔閡

  • to put us all on a common field of one fashion or another.

    讓所有人處在一個共同的平台

  • Negroponte started his book with a story

    Negroponte以一個故事作為書的開頭

  • about how hard it is to build connections

    講述在一個原子構成的世界中

  • in the world of atoms.

    建立彼此的連接是多麼地困難

  • He's at a technology conference in Florida.

    他在佛羅里達參加一個關於科技的會議

  • And he's looking at something really, truly absurd,

    然後他發現了

  • which is bottles of Evian water on the table.

    放在桌上的Evian礦泉水

  • And Negroponte says this is crazy.

    接著Negroponte說這實在是太瘋狂了

  • This is the old economy.

    這根本是舊經濟體系

  • It's the economy of moving these

    這種經濟體系是把這些沈重又緩慢的原子

  • heavy, slow atoms over long distances that's very difficult to do.

    在遙遠的距離下,非常困難地進行運輸

  • We're heading to the future of bits,

    我們正邁向位元時代

  • where everything is speedy, it's weightless.

    所有的東西會變得很快速、沒有重量

  • It can be anywhere in the world at any time.

    可以在任何時間出現在世界的任何地方

  • And it's going to change the world as we know it.

    像我們所知的,將改變整個世界

  • Now, Negroponte has been right about a lot of things.

    現在來看,很多Negroponte的預測都實現了

  • He's totally wrong about this one.

    但在一件事上他完全錯了

  • It turns out that in many cases

    實際上在很多情況下

  • atoms are much more mobile than bits.

    原子其實比位元的移動性更好

  • If I walk into a store in the United States,

    當我走進美國的一家商店

  • it's very, very easy for me to buy water

    要買一瓶水非常容易

  • that's bottled in Fiji,

    這瓶水是在斐濟裝瓶的

  • shipped at great expense to the United States.

    以極高的運費運到了美國

  • It's actually surprisingly hard

    相對的,要我去看斐濟拍製的電影

  • for me to see a Fijian feature film.

    卻非常地難

  • It's really difficult for me to listen to Fijian music.

    要我聽斐濟的音樂,也很困難

  • It's extremely difficult for me to get Fijian news,

    要看到斐濟的新聞,對我來說就更難了

  • which is strange, because actually there's an enormous amount going on in Fiji.

    但這是很奇怪的,因為斐濟其實發生了很多事件

  • There's a coup government. There's a military government.

    有政府政變、有軍事政府

  • There's crackdowns on the press.

    有對媒體的掃蕩行動

  • It's actually a place that we probably should

    斐濟其實是一個

  • be paying attention to at the moment.

    我們現在應該關注的地方

  • Here's what I think is going on.

    我覺得是這麼回事

  • I think that we tend to look a lot

    但我們通常只看見

  • at the infrastructure

    全球化的

  • of globalization.

    大架構

  • We look at the framework that makes it possible

    我們看見在這個相互連接的世界中

  • to live in this connected world.

    讓連接成為可能的大架構

  • And that's a framework that includes things like airline routes.

    這個架構包括像是飛機航線

  • It includes things like the Internet cables.

    包括網路電纜

  • We look at a map like this one,

    我們用這種方式看地圖

  • and it looks like the entire world is flat

    看起來世界好像是平的

  • because everything is a hop or two away.

    因為每個點只要跳個一、兩次

  • You can get on a flight in London,

    你可以從倫敦搭飛機

  • you can end up in Bangalore later today.

    當晚的就能到印度

  • Two hops, you're in Suva, the capitol of Fiji.

    再跳一次,你就到了斐濟的首都蘇瓦

  • It's all right there.

    就是這麼的近

  • When you start looking at what actually

    但當你再仔細看

  • flows on top of these networks,

    究竟這些網絡如何流動的

  • you get a very different picture.

    會發現非常不一樣的情況

  • You start looking at how

    從觀察

  • the global plane flights move,

    全球班機的移動路線開始

  • and you suddenly discover that the world isn't even close to flat.

    你會突然發現,世界根本談不上是平的

  • It's extremely lumpy.

    而是極端集中分布的

  • There are parts of the world that are very, very well connected.

    世界的有些地方的連接是非常方便的

  • There's basically a giant pathway in the sky

    像倫敦跟紐約之間

  • between London and New York.

    基本上就是有一個在空中的巨大通道

  • but look at this map, and you can watch this

    但再看這個地圖

  • for, you know, two or three minutes.

    你可以看它個兩三分鐘

  • You won't see very many planes

    你會發現從南美洲到非洲

  • go from South America to Africa.

    並沒有很多班機

  • And you'll discover that there are parts of the globe

    而且你會發現,世界上有些地方

  • that are systematically cut off.

    被切斷了連結

  • When we stop looking at the infrastructure that makes connection possible,

    當我們將眼光從促使連結發生的大架構

  • and we look at what actually happens,

    轉移到實際發生的情況

  • we start realizing that the world doesn't work quite the same way

    我們會開始發現,世界其實並不是

  • that we think it does.

    以我們想像的方式在運作

  • So here's the problem that I've been interested in

    所以這就是我在過去的近十年

  • in the last decade or so.

    很感興趣的問題

  • The world is, in fact, getting more global.

    世界其實變得更加全球化

  • It's getting more connected.

    更緊密地連接

  • More of problems are global in scale.

    更多問題以全球的規模出現

  • More of our economics is global in scale.

    我們的經濟更加全球化

  • And our media is less global by the day.

    我們的媒體則越來越不全球化

  • If you watched a television broadcast in the United States in the 1970s,

    當你看1970年代的美國電視節目

  • 35 to 40 percent of it would have been international news

    晚間新聞裡,會有35%-40%的內容

  • on a nightly new broadcast.

    會是國際新聞

  • That's down to about 12 to 15 percent.

    現在則降到百分之12到15了

  • And this tends to give us a very distorted view of the world.

    而這扭曲了我們的世界觀

  • Here's a slide that Alisa Miller showed at a previous TED Talk.

    這裡有一張Alisa Miller在TED Talk用的投影片

  • Alisa's the president of Public Radio International.

    Alisa是國際公共廣播的執行長

  • And she made a cartogram, which is basically a distorted map

    她做了一個示意圖,基本上就是

  • based on what American

    根據美國電視新聞

  • television news casts

    一個月內所播報的內容

  • looked at for a month.

    做的變形地圖

  • And you see that when you distort a map based on attention,

    然後你可以發現,當根據新聞內容量來調整地圖

  • the world within American television news

    美國電視新聞的世界

  • is basically reduced to

    基本上可以簡略成

  • this giant bloated U.S.

    這個巨大膨脹的美國

  • and a couple of other countries which we've invaded.

    還有一些我們侵略的國家

  • And that's basically what our media is about.

    這基本上就是我們媒體的現狀

  • And before you conclude that this is just a function of American TV news --

    這大概就是美國電視新聞的作用

  • which is dreadful, and I agree that it's dreadful --

    這很可怕,我同意,下結論前

  • I've been mapping elite media like the New York Times,

    我也做了像是紐約時報這種主流媒體的地圖

  • and I get the same thing.

    然後我發現一樣的結論

  • When you look at the New York Times, you look at other elite media,

    在你看紐約時報或其他主流媒體時

  • what you largely get are pictures of very wealthy nations

    大部分能看見的就是非常富有國家的部分

  • and the nations we've invaded.

    還有我們所侵略的國家

  • It turns out that new media

    而這些新媒體

  • isn't necessarily helping us all that much.

    並沒有幫忙什麼忙

  • Here's a map made by Mark Graham

    這是Mark Graham做的地圖

  • who's down the street at the Oxford Internet Institute.

    他就在這附近的牛津網際網路研究中心