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  • One of the things that's the most peculiar about life in the developed economies in our own time

    在我們這個經濟發展的時代,其中一個最奇特的生活現象

  • is the way we look at work and in particular, the way we think that work should be about two things:

    就是我們看待工作的方式,尤其我們認為工作應該為了兩件事:

  • Making money of course. But also in far more strangely:

    一個當然是賺錢,但更耐人尋味的是:

  • Finding fulfillment, creativity and meaning

    為了追求成就感、創造力以及生活的意義。

  • It's a beautiful idea, of course. But it's also a highly unusual one

    這當然是個很好的想法,

  • which causes us quite a few headaches as well

    但這也是讓我們有點傷腦筋且最不尋常的一個

  • It's worth taking a look into the history of work...

    這值得讓我們一窺工作的歷史...

  • The garden of Eden 3,900BC

    西元前3900年的伊甸園

  • According to Christian doctrine

    根據基督教條

  • when Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden for eating an apple

    當亞當和夏娃因為吃了禁果被逐出伊甸園

  • that punishment for defying God's wishes is work.

    違抗上帝期望的懲罰就是工作

  • "By the sweat of your brow, you'll lead your food until you return to the ground"

    「你必汗流滿面,才有飯吃,直到你歸回地土」

  • the Lord informs them

    上帝這樣告訴他們

  • Work is what distinguishes life in paradise from the world we know.

    工作就是區分天堂以及我們所熟悉的世界

  • Adam will have to work

    亞當必須工作到

  • until his 930 years old

    930歲

  • Athens 335 BC

    西元前335年的雅典

  • Aristotle opens his public school: the Lyceum

    亞里斯多德開設了公立學校: 萊森學園

  • a central learning for wealthy in cultured young Athenians

    一個供富裕又有受教育的年輕雅典學子學習的中心

  • Aistotle make a bold claim:

    亞里斯多德有個大膽的主張:

  • The life of the mind is only open to rich people.

    「精神層面的生活是只屬於有錢人家的,

  • Anyone who has actually to earn money to live is a slave." Aristotle tells us.

    那些實際上為了生活而賺錢的人都是奴隸。」亞里斯多德說。

  • However, outwardly grand their life might be,

    他們的生活或許表面上看起來很快樂,

  • the pursuit of money and good intellectual work is simply impossible, the philosopher declares.

    但金錢的追求和高階的腦力工作是不可能的,這位哲學家宣稱。

  • and he's widely believed for hundred of years.

    幾百年來,他廣受人民的信任。

  • Hippo, Roman Africa, 396 AD

    西元396年,在羅馬帝國統治下的北非希波城

  • Saint Augustine becomes the Bishop of Hippo

    聖奧古斯丁成為希波城的主教

  • and in his sermons resurrects the Christian notion of work

    在他的教條中,他再次主張:

  • as a result of original sin.

    基督教徒工作是因為原罪

  • In his sermon of the New Testament,

    在新約聖經他的教條中,

  • Augustine tells his audience:

    奧古斯丁告訴他的聽眾:

  • Many of whom is slave, the work is always going to be miserable.

    很多人都是奴隸,工作都是令人痛苦的

  • From this cup of sorrow, no one may be excused.

    沒有人能從那悲傷的事當中被拯救

  • The cup that Adam has pledged must be drunk.

    亞當所作的工作一定是因為他醉了

  • The only relieve is to look forward to the next life in God's kingdom.

    唯一的救贖就是期待在天國的來生

  • Rome 1508,

    西元1508年的羅馬,

  • The Florentine painter, sculptor, architect and poet Michelangelo

    身為佛羅倫斯的畫家、雕刻家、建築師以及詩人的米開朗基羅

  • begins painting the ceiling of the Sixtine Chapel

    受到教宗朱利歐二世的委託,開始在西斯汀教堂的天花板上作畫

  • commissioned by Pope Julius the 2nd.

    受到教宗朱利歐二世的委託,開始在西斯汀教堂的天花板上作畫

  • He's given complete freedom to design the work and promised a lot of money in return.

    他被賦予完全的自由去設計並會得到許多錢做為回報

  • Michelangelo, along with his fellow Italian genius, Leonardo da Vinci

    米開朗基羅和他的夥伴義大利天才達文西

  • embodied a new approach to work:

    將工作詮釋到一個新的層面

  • They work for money; hiring out the talents to the highest bidders in the Courts of Europe

    他們為了錢工作;在歐洲宮廷中聘請各界的長才給出價最高的投標人

  • but they're evidently not slave.

    但他們很明顯的不是奴隸

  • At the same time they do not work just for the money,

    同時他們不只是為了錢工作

  • They do it for the inherent fulfillment that the work brings.

    他們為了工作本身帶來的成就感而工作

  • Our modern ideas of work are a lot the Renaissance idea of the remunerative creative genius.

    我們現代對工作的想法很多都是那些文藝復興的創意天才的點子

  • Our own ambitions are now democratized versions

    我們的野心是將米開朗基羅和達文西的抱負民主化的樣子

  • of the aspiration of men like Leonardo and Michelangelo.

    我們的野心是將米開朗基羅和達文西的抱負民主化的樣子

  • We too, wish to be paid and creative.

    我們也是,期望有酬勞並富有創造力

  • ttemberg, Holy Roman Empire 1520

    西元1520年在神聖羅馬帝國的維滕貝格城

  • Martin Luther, the founder of Protestantism, makes mementos point

    新教的創立者馬丁路德建立了歷史性的論點

  • That one could serve God through work of many different kinds

    每個人可以藉由從事各種不同的工作,來稱頌上帝的恩典

  • and not just what had previously been occupied by Catholicism,

    而不再像之前被天主教

  • simply by and trained the priesthood.

    和受訓過的神職人員控制壟斷

  • He proposes that, the common workers like the servant of handmaiden, can be more acceptable to God

    他主張:像是侍女、佣人的一般工作者更能受到上帝的接納

  • than all the fasting and works of a monk or a priest.

    相較於和尚或是神父的禁食和工作

  • God is milking the cows through the vocation of the milkmaid

    上帝透過牧場上婦女的工作擠取牛奶

  • For Luther, God has endowed each one of us with talents

    對馬丁路德來說,上帝賦予每個人才能

  • that can be used to help another out, which is how work becomes moral.

    來幫助他人,這也讓工作成為有道德的天職

  • Everyone undertaking essential tasks, he mentions cleaning, milking, darning, teaching

    每個從是必要工作的人,他提到清潔、擠奶、縫補、教導

  • is wearing what you've call the mask of God, since God is behind each task.

    都帶著所謂上帝的面具,因為上帝是每個工作和任務的後盾

  • This, Luther says, demonstrates God's love. He ensures that we're endowed with the qualities to look after one another through our work.

    馬丁路德說,這是上帝愛的表現。他確信我們都被賦予透過工作來照顧他人的任務

  • Work for Luther, is the best means to employ the doctrine of "Love thy neighbor".

    工作對馬丁路德來說,是對教條「愛你的鄰居」最好的詮釋

  • Protestantism is responsible for a momentous reevaluation of the worth and dignity of ordinary labor.

    新教教條讓大家重新審視對於平凡的工作的價值和尊嚴

  • Paris, France 1750,

    西元1750年法國巴黎,

  • Diderot and d'Alembert published the first volume of the Encyclopédie

    德尼·狄德羅和讓·勒朗·達朗貝爾出版的第一本百科全書

  • which sets out to cover each and every branch of human work

    記載了每一個人類工作的分支

  • As one chapter in which Diderot writes a particular admiration about bakers

    德尼·狄德羅在第一章寫道對麵包師傅的讚頌

  • There are others on the work of farmers, bellmakers, locksmiths, and cloth weavers.

    還有其他針對農夫、製鐘師、鎖匠和織布師的內容。

  • In his longest illustrative poem "In praise of ordinary work" ever written and has a huge impact

    在他最長並用來解說的詩「對工作的稱頌」甚至有記載,

  • on how people perceive the prestige of work.

    並對於人如何獲得在工作中的聲望有很大的影響

  • Paris, France, 1844

    西元1844年法國巴黎,

  • the exiled Karl Marx finishes his economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844:

    遭到流放的馬克思完成了他對於經濟和哲學思想的草稿

  • A series of notes on capitalism containing some of his most interesting thinkings about work.

    是對於資本主義當中包含一些他很感興趣的,關於工作思想的一系列筆記

  • He attacks capitalism not because workers don't get paid enough or are exploited

    他抨擊資本主義,不是因為勞工沒拿到應有的薪資或是遭到剝削,

  • but for a far more interesting reason: because too often, their work is boring.

    而是因為更有趣的理由: 因為他們反覆的工作太無趣煩人了

  • And it doensn't allow them to develop their characters.

    而且這讓他們無法發揮自己的特質

  • That's the true problem with capitalism in Marx's eyes.

    在馬克斯眼中,這才是資本主義真正的問題

  • Marx, who worked 12 hours a day most days is no enemy of work.

    馬克斯一天工作12小時,大部分時間都沒工作上的仇人

  • What infuriates him about capitalism, is that it seems to prevent us from enjoying our work, as much as he enjoyed his.

    資本主義中,激怒他的點就是: 這似乎在妨礙我們享受工作,即使他享受他的工作,

  • because it encourages the production of goods, disconnected from the talents and aspirations of the workers.

    因為資本主義促使生產,使勞工無法發揮他們的才能和對事物的渴望

  • that's what he so desperately wishes to correct.

    這就是他拼命想去矯正的地方。

  • Communism isn't a project for getting rid of work, it's about making work more enjoyable.

    共產主義並不是擺脫工作的方法,是關於如何讓工作變得愉快享受

  • University of Chicago, USA, 1899,

    西元1899年美國芝加哥大學,

  • An irritable American academic publishes his first book: The Theory of the leisure class

    一位暴怒的美國學者出版他的第一本書: 有閒階級論

  • In this Thorstein Veblen captures very clearly an idea of upper-class that's about to die out forever

    托斯丹·范伯倫在書中清楚闡述應該要永遠消滅上層社會的想法

  • Veblen argues that as soon as people make it in society, they try to show that superiority by displaying signs

    托斯丹認為,只要社會有這群人在,他們就會用一些悠閒從容的行為

  • of what leisurely and idle people they are

    表現出他們優越的地位

  • Veblen writes that:The characteristic feature of the rich is a conspicuous exemption from useful employment.

    托斯丹寫道: 有錢人的特徵就是因為有用的受雇者而受到解脫

  • Veblen might be right for his old day...

    在他那破舊的年代,托斯丹或許是對的

  • but everything is about to change.

    但事情瞬息萬變

  • Within a few decades, everyone falls prey to a new cult: the culture of working hard and being very very busy all the time

    幾十年之內,每個人轉而相信一個新的理念: 努力工作並且在每個時段都讓自己非常忙碌的文化

  • Soon, only the unemployed are idle. Everyone else is working way furiously.

    不久,只剩無業的人是悠閒的,其他人則是瘋狂的工作

  • The richer you are, the more you keep working to show that you're good and serious.

    你越富有,你越要持續工作以顯示你很優秀和認真

  • Be idle is the new taboo.

    悠閒度日成為新的禁忌

  • Washington DC, USA, 1945,

    西元1945年美國華盛頓特區,

  • With work newly prestigious, one of the major challenges of the society becomes that of correctively mining the talents of everyone.

    隨著對工作的新價值觀,社會其中一個主要挑戰就是要正確挖掘每人的才能

  • and helping them to find their way into the right job, that is job that fulfills them and makes money.

    幫助他們找到適合、滿足他們並且可以賺錢的工作

  • Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers run the first Briggs Myers indicated test

    Katharine Cook Briggs 和她女兒 Isabel Briggs Myers參加第一次 Briggs Myers標準考試

  • On George Washington medical school students.

    成為喬治華盛頓醫學院的學生

  • This test developed throughout the second World war, indicates personality types, who try to pair people up

    這項考試發展於二次世界大戰,顯示人的性格種類,試著將人分類到適合的工作

  • with ideal job. The test uses 93 questions to figure out which one of 4 main personality types you might be.

    這項考試用93個問題測出你在四個主要人格類型當中可能屬於哪一個

  • Introvert/Extrovert; Thinkers/Feelers; Sense/Intuition; Judgment/Perceivance

    內向型/外向型;思維型/感覺型;觀察型/直覺型;判斷型/探索型

  • So for example, an introvert will enjoy thinking and working alone in small peaceful group, and will be suited to work as an accountant, a dentist or librarian.

    例如,一位內向者喜歡思考並在一個和善的團隊中獨立工作,這種類型的人將適合會計師、牙醫或是圖書館員的工作

  • but an extrovert will enjoy action-dominated, high-acting work and might go for acting, salesmanship or trading in financial institutions

    一位外向者喜歡支配和表現的工作,可能適合演戲、推銷或在金融機構交易的工作

  • The goal, Briggs Myers said: is to find the type of work that suits you best, work is about making correct lifestyle choice

    Briggs Myers宣稱: 目標是尋找最適合你的工作,而工作是為了符合你的生活習慣

  • that suits your personnality. It's not about arbitrary aims, such as money.

    並與你的個性相配,這沒有像是薪資的針對性

  • Living rooms, USA, January 22nd 1984,

    西元1984年1月22日在美國每個人家中的客廳,

  • Apple computer launches his only national airing of his famous 1984 advert during the halftime commercials of the Super Bowl.

    在美式足球超級盃半場休息時間,蘋果電腦發佈了唯一的國內廣告廣播

  • The 62nd advert sees a heroine, dressed in bright running gear, saving army of soulless workers

    第62次的廣告中,可以看到一位身穿亮色運動衣的女中豪傑將洩氣的勞工們

  • from the conformity of standardized work, by destroying their Big Brother-like leader

    從制式化的工作當中拯救出來,摧毀他們像是老大哥的領導者

  • It's an idea as old as Renaissance, with the good work and bad work

    這是一個表達工作好壞、如同文藝復興一樣古老的點子

  • And the good work is the creative kind, except now, unlike Michelangelo's day, thanks to technology, this is for everyone.

    除了現在以外,不像米開朗基羅的年代,好工作就是有創意的,拜科技所賜,這是獻給各位的

  • The advert carries the famous tagline "You'll see why 1984 won't be like 1984"

    這個廣告有個有名的標語:「你會看到1984為何不像『1984』」

  • The advert underlines deliberating colorful and energetic Mac as the deliverance from the technophobic drudgery of industrial labor.

    廣告出現了色彩繽紛且有力的麥金塔電腦字幕,比喻將人類從工業科技勞力下解救出來的救星

  • The future of work is going to be fun, original and expressive in Apple's hands.

    只要有蘋果電腦,未來的工作將會變得有趣、獨特和精彩

  • But, for millions of the unemployed or the unhappily employed,

    但這對幾百萬失業者及工作不愉快的人來說,

  • the dream has not turned out to be so easy. It can be doubly painful, when you meant to having such fun at work

    達成夢想並沒有變得更容易,當你再也找不到工作時,

  • to find no work at all. All work that doesn't fulfill your soul.

    那可能會加倍痛苦,所有工作都不能滿足你的靈魂

  • The modern world has made the career crisis, one of the central difficulties of existence.

    現代世界造成了職業生涯危機,這是生存的主要難題之一

  • We're asking so much of our working lives. So no wonder they sometimes don't deliver against the expectations that we now have of them.

    我們對工作生活要求很多,難怪每份工作都無法滿足我們預期

  • Too often our jobs are closer to the toil of Adam

    我們的工作大多是像亞當所做的苦工

  • than the life-enhancing creativity of Michelangelo. That remains the challenge for the future of work.

    而非米開朗基羅那樣提升生命層次的工作,即使在未來,這種問題可能仍然存在。

One of the things that's the most peculiar about life in the developed economies in our own time

在我們這個經濟發展的時代,其中一個最奇特的生活現象

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 工作 米開朗基羅 上帝 資本主義 教條 亞里斯多德

思想史 - 作品 (HISTORY OF IDEAS - Work)

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    Yi Han Chen 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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