Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Around the globe, there are approximately 60 million people who have been forced to leave their homes to escape war, violence, and persecution.

    全世界大約有六千萬人因為戰亂、 暴力以及迫害,而流離失所。

  • The majority of them have become internally displaced persons, which means they have fled their homes but are still within their own countries.

    一大部分的人成為國內流離失所者,雖然無家可歸,但仍身在祖國。

  • Others have crossed a border and sought shelter outside of their own countries.

    也有的人跨越了國界, 在他國找到了容身之處。

  • They are commonly referred to as refugees.

    這種人被通稱為「難民」。

  • But what exactly does that term mean?

    但「難民」這個詞的真正含義是什麼呢?

  • The world has known refugees for millennia, but the modern definition was drafted in the UN's 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees in response to mass persecutions and displacements of the Second World War.

    千百年來,世界各地都曾出現難民,但「難民」一詞的現代定義則要等到二戰以後,為回應戰爭期間的迫害行為和出現的難民,聯合國起草的 1951年《難民地位公約》才出現。

  • It defines a refugee as someone who is outside their country of nationality, and is unable to return to their home country because of well-founded fears of being persecuted.

    公約文件定義「難民」為: 國民離鄉背景、無法回歸家園,是出於有充足證據證明可能被迫害的恐懼。

  • That persecution may be due to their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, and is often related to war and violence.

    迫害的起因可能是種族、宗教、國籍、參與的社團,或政治立場不同,通常涉及戰爭和暴力。

  • Today, roughly half the world's refugees are children, some of them unaccompanied by an adult, a situation that makes them especially vulnerable to child labor or sexual exploitation.

    現今,有將近半數的難民是兒童,他們有的沒有大人依靠,這種情況下的難民兒童特別容易淪為童工,或遭受性剝削。

  • Each refugee's story is different, and many must undergo dangerous journeys with uncertain outcomes.

    每個難民的故事都不盡相同,多數難民的逃難過程都險象環生,即使到了外國也是去留未卜。

  • But before we get to what their journeys involve, let's clear one thing up.

    但在我們開始探討他們的逃難過程之前,讓我們先來釐清一件事。

  • There's a lot of confusion regarding the difference between the terms "migrant" and "refugee."

    「移民」、「難民」這兩個詞,還是會讓許多人混淆不清。

  • "Migrants" usually refers to people who leave their country for reasons not related to persecution, such as searching for better economic opportunities or leaving drought-stricken areas in search of better circumstances.

    「移民」通常是指 一個人離開他們的祖國,但不是為了逃離暴行迫害,而是為了其他種種原因, 例如尋找更好的就業前景、或是離開飽受旱災之苦的地區尋找更好的生活環境。

  • There are many people around the world who have been displaced because of natural disasters, food insecurities, and other hardships, but international law, rightly or wrongly, only recognizes those fleeing conflict and violence as refugees.

    這個世界上有許多人,因為自然災害、糧食短缺或其他困境而流離失所,但國際法上,無論這是對的或錯的,只會將逃離衝突與暴行的人們視為「難民」。

  • So what happens when someone flees their country?

    那麼,難民逃離祖國後會發生什麼事呢?

  • Most refugee journeys are long and perilous with limited access to shelter, water, or food.

    絕大多數的逃難歷程漫長又艱辛,無論是棲身之所、水和食物, 都十分有限。

  • Since the departure can be sudden and unexpected, belongings might be left behind, and people who are evading conflict often do not have the required documents, like visas, to board airplanes and legally enter other countries.

    因為逃難可能突如其來,一些身外物帶不走,逃難的人通常都不會持有正規的出國文件,例如他們沒有簽證, 無法搭上飛機、合法入境他國。

  • Financial and political factors can also prevent them from traveling by standard routes.

    再者,他們可能因為經濟問題或政治因素,所以不循正規途徑逃難。

  • This means they can usually only travel by land or sea, and may need to entrust their lives to smugglers to help them cross borders.

    這表示他們只能循陸路或是海路逃難,可能須將自身安全託付給走私販,期望他們能帶自己跨境。

  • Whereas some people seek safety with their families, others attempt passage alone and leave their loved ones behind with the hopes of being reunited later.

    有人選擇和家人共進退,有人選擇孤身上路,以期有朝一日能和心愛的家人團聚。

  • This separation can be traumatic and unbearably long.

    與家人分離的時日,既痛苦又難熬。

  • While more than half the world's refugees are in cities, sometimes the first stop for a person fleeing conflict is a refugee camp, usually run by the United Nations Refugee Agency or local governments.

    雖然全球超過半數的難民身處於城市之中,但有時難民所抵達某國的第一站, 就是難民營,難民營通常由聯合國難民署或是當地政府所營運。

  • Refugee camps are intended to be temporary structures, offering short-term shelter until inhabitants can safely return home, be integrated to the host country, or resettle in another country.

    旨在短期內收容難民,直到他們可以安全返家,或是獲准在當地生活、成為該國一份子,又或是直到遷居另一處為止。

  • But resettlement and long-term integration options are often limited.

    但是,遷居或長期融入當地社會這兩項選擇並不常見。

  • So many refugees are left with no choice but to remain in camps for years and sometimes even decades.

    許多的難民在別無選擇之下, 只得在難民營裡待上好幾年,有時候甚至是好幾十年。

  • Once in a new country, the first legal step for a displaced person is to apply for asylum.

    一旦入境他國,法律上他們首先得申請該國的庇護。

  • At this point, they are an asylum-seeker and not officially recognized as a refugee until the application has been accepted.

    在這個點上,他們只是尋求庇護者,在申請被通過以前, 他們都還不具合法難民身分。

  • While countries by and large agree on one definition of refugee, every host country is responsible for examining all requests for asylum and deciding whether applicants can be granted the status of refugee.

    雖然多數國家一致認同 「難民」的定義,各國仍自行負責審查所有尋求庇護者的申請,再決定申請者是否符合得到難民身分的條件。

  • Different countries guidelines can vary substantially.

    不同國家的審核準則差異也許會很大。

  • Host countries have several duties towards people they have recognized as refugees, like the guarantee of a minimum standard of treatment and non-discrimination.

    收容國對接收的難民有一些基本義務,例如給予他們最低標準待遇和無差別待遇。

  • The most basic obligation towards refugees is non-refoulement, a principle preventing a nation from sending an individual to a country where their life and freedom are threatened.

    對待難民最基本的義務為「不遣返原則」,該原則防止任何國家遣送難民至其人身安全和自由有可能受到威脅的國家。

  • In reality, however, refugees are frequently the victims of inconsistent and discriminatory treatment.

    但在現實生活當中, 難民通常都遭受到不一致且帶有歧視的對待。

  • They're increasingly obliged to rebuild their lives in the face of xenophobia and racism.

    他們越來越常被迫在有仇外情緒、種族歧視的氛圍中重建自己的人生。

  • And all too often, they aren't permitted to enter the workforce and are fully dependent on humanitarian aid.

    而且難民經常不被允許在當地求職謀生,他們得完全依靠人道救濟度日。

  • In addition, far too many refugee children are out of school due to lack of funding for education programs.

    再者,有太多的難民兒童因為缺乏教育基金而無法入學就讀。

  • If you go back in your own family history, chances are you will discover that at a certain point, your ancestors were forced from their homes, either escaping a war or fleeing discrimination and persecution.

    如果你回溯自己的家族史,也許就會發現,在某個時間點上你的祖先也曾被迫離鄉背井,無論是逃離戰亂,或是歧視與迫害。

  • It would be good of us to remember their stories when we hear of refugees currently displaced, searching for a new home.

    所以,若每當我們耳聞難民顛沛流離、尋找新居所時能憶起我們祖先的故事就好了。

Around the globe, there are approximately 60 million people who have been forced to leave their homes to escape war, violence, and persecution.

全世界大約有六千萬人因為戰亂、 暴力以及迫害,而流離失所。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 難民 迫害 難民營 祖國 逃離

【TED-Ed】難民的定義 (What does it mean to be a refugee? - Benedetta Berti and Evelien Borgman)

  • 26577 2516
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2016 年 10 月 17 日
影片單字