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  • When I was 27 years old,

    我27歲的時候,

  • I left a very demanding job in management consulting

    辭去了一份很費心血的管理諮詢工作,

  • for a job that was even more demanding: teaching.

    而接受了一份更辛苦的工作:教書。

  • I went to teach seventh graders math

    我在紐約的公立學校

  • in the New York City public schools.

    教七年級學生數學。

  • And like any teacher, I made quizzes and tests.

    和其他老師一樣,我出小測、考試題目,

  • I gave out homework assignments.

    也佈置回家作業。

  • When the work came back, I calculated grades.

    作業上交後,我批改、計分。

  • What struck me was that I.Q. was not the only difference

    我發現,我最好和最差的學生之間的差異

  • between my best and my worst students.

    並不僅僅是智商。

  • Some of my strongest performers

    有些非常優秀的學生

  • did not have stratospheric I.Q. scores.

    智商並非特別得高

  • Some of my smartest kids weren't doing so well.

    有些非常聰明的學生,學業也並非很好。

  • And that got me thinking.

    這引發了我的思考。

  • The kinds of things you need to learn in seventh grade math,

    七年級數學要學的東西

  • sure, they're hard: ratios, decimals,

    確實挺難:比例、小數、

  • the area of a parallelogram.

    平行四邊形的面積。

  • But these concepts are not impossible,

    但這些概念並不是不能理解,

  • and I was firmly convinced that every one of my students

    我也堅信我的每一位學生

  • could learn the material

    都能學會這些知識,

  • if they worked hard and long enough.

    只要他們足夠認真、堅持用功。

  • After several more years of teaching,

    教了幾年以後,

  • I came to the conclusion that what we need in education

    我得出一個結論:我們的教育所需要的

  • is a much better understanding of students and learning

    是一種對學生、對學習更好的理解——

  • from a motivational perspective,

    從動機的角度、

  • from a psychological perspective.

    從心理的角度去理解。

  • In education, the one thing we know how to measure best

    在教育領域,我們最擅長測試的指標

  • is I.Q., but what if doing well in school and in life

    是智商,但如果說在學校和生活中的表現好壞

  • depends on much more

    不僅僅取決於

  • than your ability to learn quickly and easily?

    你是否能又好又快地學習呢?

  • So I left the classroom,

    於是,我離開了課堂,

  • and I went to graduate school to become a psychologist.

    來到了研究所,成為了一名心理學家。

  • I started studying kids and adults

    我開始研究兒童與成人

  • in all kinds of super challenging settings,

    處於各種艱巨挑戰中的表現。

  • and in every study my question was,

    在每次研究中,我關注的是:

  • who is successful here and why?

    誰會成功?爲什麽會成功?

  • My research team and I went to West Point Military Academy.

    我和我的研究團隊去了西點軍校。

  • We tried to predict which cadets

    我們試著預測哪些學員

  • would stay in military training and which would drop out.

    能通過軍事訓練,哪些會放棄。

  • We went to the National Spelling Bee

    我們去看全國拼字比賽,

  • and tried to predict which children would advance

    試著預測哪些孩子能在比賽中

  • farthest in competition.

    留到最後。

  • We studied rookie teachers

    我們研究在非常艱苦的環境下

  • working in really tough neighborhoods, asking

    工作的新教師,

  • which teachers are still going to be here in teaching

    預測哪些教師在學年末時

  • by the end of the school year,

    還能堅持在崗位上。

  • and of those, who will be the most effective

    當然還有,哪些教師教出的學生

  • at improving learning outcomes for their students?

    成績的提高最為顯著?

  • We partnered with private companies, asking,

    我們和私人公司合作,

  • which of these salespeople is going to keep their jobs?

    預測哪些銷售人員能保住工作?

  • And who's going to earn the most money?

    誰能賺最多錢?

  • In all those very different contexts,

    在這些非常不同的背景下,

  • one characteristic emerged

    我們發現有一個特質

  • as a significant predictor of success.

    能夠很好地預測成功。

  • And it wasn't social intelligence.

    它不是社交能力。

  • It wasn't good looks, physical health, and it wasn't I.Q.

    不是美麗的外貌,不是健康的身體,也不是智商。

  • It was grit.

    而是意志力。

  • Grit is passion and perseverance for very long-term goals.

    意志力是面對長遠目標時的熱情和毅力。

  • Grit is having stamina.

    意志力是有耐力的表現。

  • Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out,

    意志力是日復一日依然對未來堅信不已

  • not just for the week, not just for the month,

    不只是這週、 不只是這個月,

  • but for years, and working really hard

    而是年復一年。用心、努力工作

  • to make that future a reality.

    來實現所堅信的那個未來。

  • Grit is living life like it's a marathon, not a sprint.

    意志力是將生活看作是一場馬拉松,不是短跑。

  • A few years ago, I started studying grit

    幾年前,我在芝加哥公立學校

  • in the Chicago public schools.

    開始研究意志力。

  • I asked thousands of high school juniors

    我請數以千計的高中生

  • to take grit questionnaires,

    填寫關於意志力的問卷。

  • and then waited around more than a year

    然後等了大約一年多

  • to see who would graduate.

    看看誰會畢業。

  • Turns out that grittier kids

    結果發現,意志力越堅定的孩子

  • were significantly more likely to graduate,

    畢業的可能性明顯越高,

  • even when I matched them on every characteristic I could measure,

    其他所有可能的影響因素都被考慮並排除了

  • things like family income,

    比如家庭收入,

  • standardized achievement test scores,

    標準化測驗的分數,

  • even how safe kids felt when they were at school.

    甚至孩子們在學校時的安全感。

  • So it's not just at West Point or the National Spelling Bee

    所以意志力並不只是在西點軍校或全國拼字比賽中

  • that grit matters. It's also in school,

    非常重要。在學校,

  • especially for kids at risk for dropping out.

    尤其是對有輟學危險的孩子來說,意志力同樣重要。

  • To me, the most shocking thing about grit

    關於意志力,最令我吃驚的事情

  • is how little we know,

    是我們以及科學界

  • how little science knows, about building it.

    對於如何鍛煉意志力知之甚少。

  • Every day, parents and teachers ask me,

    每天,家長和老師都會問我,

  • "How do I build grit in kids?

    "如何鍛煉孩子們的意志力?

  • What do I do to teach kids a solid work ethic?

    我怎麼教會孩子堅實的職業道德?

  • How do I keep them motivated for the long run?"

    怎樣才能讓他們有長遠的動力?”

  • The honest answer is, I don't know. (Laughter)

    最誠實的回答是,我不知道。(笑聲)

  • What I do know is that talent doesn't make you gritty.

    我所知道的是,有才華不意味著就有意志力。

  • Our data show very clearly

    我們的資料非常清楚地揭示

  • that there are many talented individuals

    有很多才華橫溢的人

  • who simply do not follow through on their commitments.

    並不能堅持到底,實現承諾。

  • In fact, in our data, grit is usually unrelated

    事實上,我們的研究發現,意志力通常與才華無關,

  • or even inversely related to measures of talent.

    有時甚至成反比。

  • So far, the best idea I've heard about building grit in kids

    關於鍛煉孩子們的意志,到目前為止,我聽過的最好的方法

  • is something called "growth mindset."

    叫做“成長型思維模式”理論。

  • This is an idea developed at Stanford University

    這是史丹福大學的

  • by Carol Dweck, and it is the belief

    Carol Dweck 的研究的成果。這個理論相信

  • that the ability to learn is not fixed,

    學習的能力不是一成不變的,

  • that it can change with your effort.

    它會由於你的努力發生變化。

  • Dr. Dweck has shown that when kids read and learn

    Dweck 博士已證明,當孩子們閱讀和學習大腦的相關知識

  • about the brain and how it changes and grows

    以及大腦在面對挑戰時

  • in response to challenge,

    會怎樣變化和成長時,

  • they're much more likely to persevere when they fail,

    他們更有可能在失敗時繼續堅持,

  • because they don't believe that failure

    因為他們不相信

  • is a permanent condition.

    他們永遠會失敗。

  • So growth mindset is a great idea for building grit.

    所以,成長型思維模式是一種鍛煉意志力的好方法。

  • But we need more.

    但我們還需要更多這樣的理念。

  • And that's where I'm going to end my remarks,

    而今天我的演講就到此為止,

  • because that's where we are.

    因為這就是我們當下的認知。

  • That's the work that stands before us.

    這就是擺在我們面前的任務。

  • We need to take our best ideas, our strongest intuitions,

    我們需要拿出我們最好的想法、最強的直覺

  • and we need to test them.

    對他們進行檢驗。

  • We need to measure whether we've been successful,

    我們需要衡量我們是否取得了成功,

  • and we have to be willing to fail, to be wrong,

    我們必須願意失敗、願意犯錯、

  • to start over again with lessons learned.

    願意吸取教訓並從頭開始。

  • In other words, we need to be gritty

    換句話說,在加強我們孩子意志力這件事上,

  • about getting our kids grittier.

    我們自己也要有不懈的意志。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

When I was 27 years old,

我27歲的時候,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 意志力 鍛煉 智商 學生 預測

【TED】Angela Lee Duckworth: 成功的要訣是什麽?是意志力 (Grit: the power of passion and perseverance | Angela Lee Duckworth)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 13 日
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