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  • Alice: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Alice.

    愛麗絲:你好,歡迎來到6分鐘英語。我'是愛麗絲。

  • Neil: And I'm Neil.

    而我'是尼爾。

  • So Alice, can you think of an example of how the English we speak is changing?

    那麼愛麗絲,你能不能舉個例子,說明我們說的英語是如何變化的?

  • Alice: Yes, I can.

    是的,我可以。

  • Teenagers saying 'like' all the time.

    少年們說'喜歡&39;的時候。

  • Neil: Oh, that's, like, really like annoying, like?

    哦,那'的,像,真的像煩人的,像?

  • Alice: Well, the subject of today's show is how and why the English language is changing.

    愛麗絲。好了,今天的主題'的節目 是如何以及為什麼 英語語言正在發生變化。

  • And teenagers definitely have their own code

    而青少年絕對有自己的準則

  • including text speak when they're on the internet or using their phones.

    包括當他們'在互聯網上或使用手機時的文字說話。

  • Fomo, bae, plos

    Fomo, bae, plos

  • do you have any idea what those terms mean, Neil?

    你知道這些術語是什麼意思嗎,尼爾?

  • Neil: I've got no idea what you're talking about, Alice.

    我不知道你在說什麼,愛麗絲。

  • They're pretty bafflingand that means 'hard to understand'.

    他們'很令人費解--這意味著'難以理解'。

  • But that's the idea, isn't it? We oldies aren't supposed to understand!

    但這就是我們的想法,不是嗎?我們這些老傢伙不應該理解!

  • Alice: Yes, exactly! Apparently, 'plos' means 'parents looking over shoulder'

    愛麗絲是的,沒錯!很顯然,'plos'的意思是'父母在肩上看&39。

  • which proves your point!

    這證明了你的觀點

  • Text speak is a lot to do with inventing cool new termsand these change quickly.

    文字講究的是發明酷炫的新名詞--而這些名詞變化很快。

  • In a year, or even six months time, words that were once popular, have disappeared completely.

    一年,甚至半年的時間,曾經流行的詞語,已經完全消失了。

  • Neil: OK, I have a quiz question forming in my mind, Alice

    尼爾:好的,我的腦海裡形成了一道問答題,愛麗絲。

  • so I hope you're feeling up to the challenge, Alice.

    所以,我希望你'感覺到了挑戰,愛麗絲。

  • Can you tell me, what kinds of words are slow to change?

    你能告訴我,什麼樣的詞變化慢?

  • Is it... a) nouns? b) pronouns?

    是......a)名詞? b)代詞?

  • Or c) adjectives?

    或c)形容詞?

  • Alice: I think it's a) nouns.

    愛麗絲:我認為是'a)名詞。

  • The way we name things probably doesn't change that quickly.

    我們命名事物的方式可能不會那麼快就改變。

  • Neil: We shall find out if you are right or wrong later on in the show.

    尼爾:你說的是對是錯,稍後的節目中我們會知道。

  • But let's think about English grammar for a minute, and what changes are occurring here.

    但我們先來思考一下英語語法,這裡發生了哪些變化。

  • Alice: I noticed you said 'shall' there, Neil.

    愛麗絲:我注意到你說了'應&39;有,尼爾。

  • And to my ear, that sounds pretty old fashioned.

    而在我聽來,這聽起來很老套。

  • Neil: And you're very right, Alice.

    尼爾:而且你'很對,愛麗絲。

  • The modal verb 'shall' is on the way outmeaning it's disappearing.

    情態動詞'shall'正在消失--意思是它'正在消失。

  • Why do you think that is?

    你覺得為什麼會這樣?

  • Alice: Well, perhaps it's because 'will' sounds more natural these days.

    愛麗絲。好吧,也許是因為'意志&39;現在聽起來比較自然。

  • Let's listen to linguist Bas Aarts,

    讓我們來聽聽語言學家巴斯-阿特的意見。

  • talking to writer and presenter, Michael Rosen on the BBC Radio 4 programme Word of Mouth, for his explanation.

    在BBC廣播4臺節目《口碑》中與作家兼主持人Michael Rosen交談,請他解釋。

  • Michael Rosen: Why would we lose 'shall'?

    邁克爾-羅森。為什麼我們會失去'應&39;?

  • I mean, if especially as we hold it in the interrogative.

    我的意思是,如果特別是當我們把它放在問句中。

  • We say, you know, 'Shall we go swimming'?

    我們說,你知道,'我們去游泳吧'?

  • Bas Aarts: Well, because it's in competition with 'will'.

    巴斯-阿特。因為它與'意志&39;競爭。

  • If you have two words that more or less express the same meaning,

    如果你有兩個或多或少表達相同意思的詞。

  • one of the two is going to be pushed out of the language.

    兩者之一將被推出語言。

  • And in this case, it's 'shall'.

    而在這種情況下,它'的'應'。

  • Neil: Bas Aarts there. And interrogative means 'a question'.

    尼爾:巴斯阿特有。而問句的意思是'一個問題'。

  • So it's not just in nature that we get survival of the fittestyou know,

    所以,不只是在自然界,我們得到適者生存--你知道的。

  • the struggle for lifeit happens in language too.

    生命的掙扎--這也發生在語言中。

  • Similar words are competing with each other, and some lose while others win out

    相似的詞語相互競爭,有的人輸了,有的人卻贏了。

  • or succeed after a fight.

    或戰鬥後成功。

  • Do you know of any other modal verbs that are on their way out, Alice?

    你知道有什麼其他的情態動詞正在被淘汰嗎,愛麗絲?

  • Alice: Yes – 'must' is declining rapidly.

    愛麗絲。是的--'必須&39;正在迅速下降。

  • Neil: Why's that?

    尼爾:為什麼'是這樣?

  • Alice: Well... 'Must' sounds authoritarian, and people are choosing to express obligation

    愛麗絲。嗯......'必須';聽起來很專制,而人們選擇表達的義務

  • or having a duty to do somethingin different ways.

    或有責任做某事 -- -- 以不同的方式。

  • Neil: OK, authoritarian means 'demanding that people obey you'.

    尼爾:好吧,專制意味著'要求人們服從你&39;。

  • For example: Alice, you must move on to the next point, now!

    例如:愛麗絲,你必須馬上進入下一個點!

  • Alice: Oh, you scared me a bit there, Neil!

    愛麗絲哦,你嚇到我了,尼爾!

  • Neil: Exactly. I can see why people are shying away fromor avoiding – 'must'.

    尼爾:沒錯。我知道為什麼人們對'必須&39;望而卻步--或避而遠之。

  • It sounds nicer to soften obligation by saying things like,

    說這樣的話來軟化義務,聽起來會更好。

  • 'You might want to move on to the next point now, Alice.'

    '你現在可能想繼續下一點,愛麗絲.&#39。

  • Alice: OK, then, I shall.

    愛麗絲好吧,那麼,我會的。

  • Let's talk about tenses.

    讓我們'來談談時態。

  • Progressive tensesformed from the verb be and the suffixingare usually used for ongoing situations,

    遞進式時態--由動詞be和後綴-ing形成,通常用於正在進行的情況。

  • for example, 'I'm doing the show with Neil at the moment'.

    比如,'我&39;此刻正在和尼爾一起做節目&39;。

  • But its use has been increasing rapidly.

    但其使用量一直在迅速增加。

  • Let's listen to Michael Rosen and Bas Aarts again talking about this.

    讓我們再來聽聽邁克爾-羅森和巴斯-阿茨談論這個問題。

  • BA: It started increasing dramatically in the 19th century

    BA:19世紀開始急劇增加。

  • and has continued to rise in the present day.

    並一直延續到現在。

  • MR: I think that's a cue for me to say, 'I'm loving it', is that right?

    MR:我想這'是一個提示,讓我說,'我'很喜歡它',是這樣嗎?

  • BA: Well, that is one of the constructions that is coming in,

    BA:Well, that is one of the constructions that is coming in,

  • I mean, I sometimes call it the Big Mac progressive because of course McDonald's use that.

    我的意思是,我有時會把它叫做巨無霸漸進式,因為當然麥當勞'的使用。

  • Neil: In this segment of the BBC Radio 4 programme Word of Mouth,

    尼爾:在英國廣播公司第四臺節目《口碑》的這一段。

  • Michael Rosen quotes the progressive form 'I'm loving it'

    邁克爾-羅森引用了進步的形式'我&39;很喜歡它&39。

  • a slogan used by an American fast-food chain in its advertising campaign.

    一家美國快餐連鎖店在其廣告宣傳中使用的口號。

  • Alice: The verb 'love' is a stative verb.

    愛麗絲。動詞'愛&39;是一個定語動詞。

  • It expresses a state of being

    它表達的是一種狀態

  • as opposed to doing

    與做

  • and is traditionally used in the simple form, for example, 'I love it'.

    並且是傳統的簡單形式,例如,'我愛它'。

  • But these days, people are using stative verbs in the progressive more and more.

    但如今,人們越來越多地使用定語動詞進位。

  • Neil: I'm hearing what you're saying, Alice!

    我聽到你說的了,愛麗絲!我聽到你說的了。

  • Now, I think it's time for the answer to today's quiz question.

    現在,我想是時候回答今天'的測驗題了。

  • I asked you: What kinds of words are slow to change?

    我問你什麼樣的詞是變化緩慢的?

  • Is it... a) nouns, b) pronouns or c) adjectives?

    是......a)名詞,b)代詞還是c)形容詞?

  • Alice: I said a) nouns.

    愛麗絲:我說a)名詞。

  • Neil: And you were wrong, Alice!

    你錯了,愛麗絲!

  • According to Professor Mark Pagel, evolutionary biologist at Reading University in the UK,

    據英國雷丁大學進化生物學家馬克-帕格爾教授介紹。

  • pronouns like 'I' and 'you' and 'we' evolve slowly

    代詞,如'我&39;和'你&39;和'我們&39;慢慢演變

  • a thousand years ago we would be using similar or sometimes identical sounds.

    一千年前,我們會使用相似或有時相同的聲音。

  • Similarly, number words evolve very slowly

    同樣,數字詞的發展也非常緩慢

  • our ancestors were using related sounds a thousand or perhaps even two thousand years ago.

    我們的祖先使用相關的聲音 一千年甚至兩千年前。

  • Whereas nouns and adjectives get replaced quite rapidly

    而名詞和形容詞則會很快被替換掉

  • and in five hundred years or so we'll probably be using different words to the ones we use now.

    而在五百年左右的時間裡,我們'可能會使用與現在不同的詞彙。

  • Alice: Well, I got that completely wrong then!

    愛麗絲好吧,我得到了完全錯誤的呢!

  • Who knew that one, two, three would have such staying power?

    誰知道一二三會有這樣的持久力?

  • Neil: I suppose numbers are pretty fundamental to our day-to-day lives

    尼爾:我想數字是我們日常生活的基本要素。

  • sort of part of who we are.

    某種程度上是我們的一部分。

  • Alice: OK, let's hear the - hopefully - more permanent words we learned today.

    愛麗絲。好了,讓我們聽聽我們今天學到的--希望是--更永久的詞。

  • Neil: There were:

    尼爾:有的。

  • baffling

    令人費解

  • on the way out

    臨走

  • interrogative

    疑問

  • win out

    勝出

  • obligation

    義務

  • authoritarian

    專制

  • shying away from

    畏縮

  • progressive

    漸進

  • stative

    定性

  • Alice: Well, that's the end of today's 6 Minute English.

    愛麗絲好了,這'是今天的結束'6分鐘的英語。

  • To recap, we're enjoying the progressive tense.

    總結一下,我們'享受進步的時態。

  • Neil: And we're loving 'will' and 'should', but avoiding 'shall' and 'must'.

    尼爾:而我們'愛著'會';和'應該',但避免'應';和'必須'。

  • Don't forget to join us again soon!

    不要忘了很快再加入我們的行列!

  • Both: Bye!

    再見!

Alice: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Alice.

愛麗絲:你好,歡迎來到6分鐘英語。我'是愛麗絲。

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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 愛麗絲 尼爾 名詞 動詞 羅森 巴斯

BBC 6 Minute English August 04, 2016 - Is English changing?

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    Adam Huang   發佈於 2016 年 08 月 14 日
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