字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 When you have 21 minutes to speak, 當你有21分鐘發言時間， two million years seems like a really long time. 相比之下二百萬年似乎是很長一段時間 But evolutionarily, two million years is nothing. 但就進化論而言，二百萬年是很短的 And yet in two million years the human brain has nearly tripled in mass, 然而，二百萬年的時間，人腦的體積增長了將近3倍 going from the one-and-a-quarter pound brain of our ancestor here, Habilis, 從直立猿人(我們的祖先)的 1.25磅腦袋， to the almost three-pound meatloaf that everybody here has between their ears. 到現在我們每個人兩耳中間的近3磅重的肉餅 What is it about a big brain that nature was so eager for every one of us to have one? 大腦究竟有什麼特質，讓我們每個人都需要有一個呢？ Well, it turns out when brains triple in size, 哦，原來人腦體積增加了近3倍後 they don't just get three times bigger; they gain new structures. 不單只增大了，它們還配備新的結構 And one of the main reasons our brain got so big is because it got a new part, 它們變得那麼大的主因之一，是因為新增了一個部分 called the "frontal lobe." And particularly, a part called the "pre-frontal cortex." 稱為「額葉」，尤其是稱為「前額葉皮質」的部分 Now what does a pre-frontal cortex do for you that should justify 究竟前額葉皮質有什麼功能可以 the entire architectural overhaul of the human skull in the blink of evolutionary time? 在進化過程中，一瞬間重整全部頭骨的結構？ Well, it turns out the pre-frontal cortex does lots of things, 哦，原來，前額葉皮質能做很多功能， but one of the most important things it does 但其中一個最重要的功能 is it is an experience simulator. 是作為一個經驗模擬器 Flight pilots practice in flight simulators 飛機駕駛員利用飛行模擬器練習 so that they don't make real mistakes in planes. 以減低在真正駕駛時的出錯率 Human beings have this marvelous adaptation 人類有這種非凡的能力 that they can actually have experiences in their heads 可以先在腦中創造模擬經驗 before they try them out in real life. 然後在現實生活中嘗試實行 This is a trick that none of our ancestors could do, 我們的祖先無法這麼做 and that no other animal can do quite like we can. It's a marvelous adaptation. 也沒有其他動物能做到，這是一種非凡的適應能力 It's up there with opposable thumbs and standing upright and language 非凡程度可以比美相對的十指、雙腳的站立、語言 as one of the things that got our species out of the trees 這些能力讓我們從住在森林中進化到 and into the shopping mall. 能進入購物商場 Now -- (Laughter) -- all of you have done this. 現在-- 在座每個人都做過 I mean, you know, 我的意思是 Ben and Jerry's doesn't have liver-and-onion ice cream, Ben & Jerry’s冰淇淋店沒有賣肝臟加洋蔥口味 and it's not because they whipped some up, tried it and went, "Yuck." 不是因為他們試吃過了才發現很難吃 It's because, without leaving your armchair, 而是因為，只要坐在那 you can simulate that flavor and say "yuck" before you make it. 就能模擬那味道，光想就知道很難吃 Let's see how your experience simulators are working. 來看看我們的經驗模擬器是怎樣運作 Let's just run a quick diagnostic before I proceed with the rest of the talk. 在我繼續演講前，先很快的問大家個問題 Here's two different futures that I invite you to contemplate, 請你們想一下這兩個不同的未來 and you can try to simulate them and tell me which one you think you might prefer. 試著模擬這兩個未來，然後告訴我你比較喜歡哪個 One of them is winning the lottery. This is about 314 million dollars. 第一個是中彩卷，約三億一千四百萬美金 And the other is becoming paraplegic. 另外個是下半身癱瘓 So, just give it a moment of thought. 讓大家考慮一下 You probably don't feel like you need a moment of thought. 你可能覺得這根本不用考慮 Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people, 有趣的是，我們有這兩組人的數據 data on how happy they are. 他們有多快樂的數據 And this is exactly what you expected, isn't it? 你們預期的像這樣，對嗎？ But these aren't the data. I made these up! 但這些不是真的數據，是我作出來的！ These are the data. You failed the pop quiz, and you're hardly five minutes into the lecture. 這些才是真正的數據。演講還不到5分鐘，你們小考就不及格了 Because the fact is that a year after losing the use of their legs, 因為實際上，下半身癱瘓之後一年， and a year after winning the lotto, lottery winners and paraplegics 和中了彩卷之後一年，贏彩卷和癱瘓的人 are equally happy with their lives. 都同樣地滿意他們的生活 Now, don't feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz, 現在，請不要為第一次小考不及格感到丟臉 because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time. 小考不合格的情況是很常發生的事 The research that my laboratory has been doing, 根據我的實驗室所做的研究 that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing, 全國各地的經濟學家和心理學家也在做的研究 have revealed something really quite startling to us, 得出一些令人吃驚的結論 something we call the "impact bias," 我們稱之為 預測的偏差 which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly. 這是指模擬器出錯的狀況 For the simulator to make you believe that different outcomes 這模擬器預測不同未來的差異 are more different than in fact they really are. 比實際的差異還大 From field studies to laboratory studies, 從實地研究到實驗室研究 we see that winning or losing an election, gaining or losing a romantic partner, 我們都看到，選舉勝出或落敗、獲得或失去一個伴侶 getting or not getting a promotion, passing or not passing a college test, 有沒有得到升遷、有沒有通過大學入學考 on and on, have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration 等等產生的影響，比預期中較輕、較弱、及時間較短 than people expect them to have. 不同人們所想像的 In fact, a recent study -- this almost floors me -- 事實上，令我完全屈服的是 a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people 最近一項研究，關於人生重大創傷造成的影響 suggests that if it happened over three months ago, 顯示，創傷發生超過3個月之後 with only a few exceptions, 只有少數例外 it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness. 否則它對你的人生幸福並沒有任何影響 Why? 為什麼？ Because happiness can be synthesized. 因為快樂是可以合成的 Sir Thomas Brown wrote in 1642, "I am the happiest man alive. 托馬斯．布朗爵士在1642年寫道: 「我是活著中最幸福的人」 I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches, adversity to prosperity. 「我擁有的潛能可以把貧困轉換為財富，逆境轉換為繁榮」 I am more invulnerable than Achilles; fortune hath not one place to hit me." 「我比阿基里斯更加刀槍不入；命運找不到一處能打擊我的地方。」 What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head? 這傢伙的腦子裡有什麼非凡的機器嗎 Well, it turns out it's precisely the same remarkable machinery that all off us have. 原來，這非凡的機器我們每個人都有 Human beings have something that we might think of as a "psychological immune system." 人類有種東西可視為是 精神免疫的系統 A system of cognitive processes, largely non-conscious cognitive processes, 認知程序的系統，大量不自覺的認知程序 that help them change their views of the world, 能幫助他們改變自己的世界觀 so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves. 能使他們對自己的生活，產生更好的感受 Like Sir Thomas, you have this machine. 和托馬斯爵士一樣，你們也有這機器 Unlike Sir Thomas, you seem not to know it. (Laughter) 和托馬斯爵士不一樣的是，你們並不知道這點 We synthesize happiness, but we think happiness is a thing to be found. 我們能合成快樂，但我們認為快樂是尋找來的 Now, you don't need me to give you too many examples of people synthesizing happiness, 現在，你們並不需要我給太多合成快樂的例子 I suspect. Though I'm going to show you some experimental evidence, 但是我要給你們一些實驗例子 you don't have to look very far for evidence. 一些很容易找到的證據 As a challenge to myself, since I say this once in a while in lectures, 算是給我自己的挑戰，因為我偶爾在演講時會講 I took a copy of the New York Times and tried to find some instances of people synthesizing happiness. 我用一份紐約時報想試圖找出一些合成快樂的例子 And here are three guys synthesizing happiness. 這裡有三個人合成快樂 "I am so much better off physically, financially, emotionally, mentally 「我在多方面也比以前好多了，身體上、經濟上、感情上、精神上、 and almost every other way." "I don't have one minute's regret. 幾乎所有的方面 」、「我沒有一點的遺憾， It was a glorious experience." "I believe it turned out for the best." 這是一個光榮的歷程」、「最後的結果是最好的」 Who are these characters who are so damn happy? 這些快樂的人究竟是誰呢？ Well, the first one is Jim Wright. 第一位是吉姆．賴特 Some of you are old enough to remember: he was the chairman of the House of Representatives 有些人年紀較大可能記得，他當過美國眾議院主席 and he resigned in disgrace when this young Republican named Newt Gingrich 因為被一位年輕的共和黨員紐特．金奇 found out about a shady book deal he had done. 揭發受賄醜聞而黯然辭職 He lost everything. The most powerful Democrat in the country, 他失去了一切，曾是全國擁有最大權力的民主黨員 he lost everything. 他失去了一切 He lost his money; he lost his power. 他失去了他的金錢、他的權力 What does he have to say all these years later about it? 那麼他在多年後說了什麼？ "I am so much better off physically, financially, mentally 「我好多了，不管是身體上、經濟上、感情上、精神上、 and in almost every other way." 幾乎所有的方面 」 What other way would there be to be better off? 還有什麼方面能變得更好？ Vegetably? Minerally? Animally? He's pretty much covered them there. 植物上？礦物上？動物上？他差不多都說完啦 Moreese Bickham is somebody you've never heard of. 你們應該沒有聽說這位慕仁．碧咸 Moreese Bickham uttered these words upon being released. 慕仁．碧咸被釋放時說出這些話 He was 78 years old. He spent 37 years 他那時78歲，他被關了37年， in a Louisiana State Penitentiary for a crime he didn't commit. 在路易斯安那州監獄，因一宗他沒有犯的罪 He was ultimately exonerated, 78歲時，因為DNA證據 at the age of 78, through DNA evidence. 他最後被證明無罪 And what did he have to say about his experience? 那他被釋放時說了什麼？ "I don't have one minute's regret. It was a glorious experience." 「我沒有一點的遺憾，這是一個光榮的歷程。」 Glorious! This guy is not saying, 光榮的！這傢伙不是說： "Well, you know, there were some nice guys. They had a gym." 「嗯，獄中有一些人還不錯的，又有健身房。」 It's "glorious," 他說「光榮」 a word we usually reserve for something like a religious experience. 這個字通常只用來形容宗教體驗之類的吧 Harry S. Langerman uttered these words, and he's somebody you might have known 哈利．蘭格曼說出以下這些話，你們可能原本會認識他 but didn't, because in 1949 he read a little article in the paper 但最後沒有，因為在1949年，他讀了一篇文章 about a hamburger stand owned by these two brothers named McDonalds. 關於兩個姓麥當勞的兄弟所擁有的一個漢堡攤 And he thought, "That's a really neat idea!" 他想︰「這是一個非常好的主意！」 So he went to find them. They said, 於是，他找到那兩兄弟。他們說︰ "We can give you a franchise on this for 3,000 bucks." 「3000美元，我們就給你經營權」 Harry went back to New York, asked his brother who's an investment banker 哈利回到紐約，請他那個做投資銀行家的兄弟 to loan him the 3,000 dollars, 讓他貸款3000美元 and his brother's immortal words were, 那兄弟的不朽話語是︰ "You idiot, nobody eats hamburgers." 「你這白痴，沒有人吃漢堡的」 He wouldn't lend him the money, and of course six months later 他沒有借給他錢，當然，半年後 Ray Croc had exactly the same idea. 一位雷‧克羅也有相同的想法 It turns out people do eat hamburgers, 原來很多人喜歡吃漢堡 and Ray Croc, for a while, became the richest man in America. 有段時間，雷‧克羅成了美國最富有的人 And then finally -- you know, the best of all possible worlds -- 最後，最精彩的這個 some of you recognize this young photo of Pete Best, 有一些人可能認得這位彼得‧貝斯特年輕時的照片 who was the original drummer for the Beatles, 他原是披頭四的鼓手 until they, you know, sent him out on an errand and snuck away 直到他們打發了他 and picked up Ringo on a tour. 找了林哥一起巡迴 Well, in 1994, when Pete Best was interviewed 好了，當彼得在1994年接受採訪時 -- yes, he's still a drummer; yes, he's a studio musician -- 是，他仍是個鼓手；是，他是個錄音室音樂家 he had this to say: "I'm happier than I would have been with the Beatles." 他曾這樣說：「我現在比我在披頭四時更快樂」 Okay. There's something important to be learned from these people, 好吧。我們可以從這些人身上學到些很重要的東西 and it is the secret of happiness. 就是快樂的秘訣 Here it is, finally to be revealed. 現在，要揭露了 First: accrue wealth, power, and prestige, 第一：累積財富、權力和威望 then lose it. (Laughter) 然後失去它們 Second: spend as much of your life in prison as you possibly can. 第二：能被關多久就被關多久 (Laughter) Third: make somebody else really, really rich. (Laughter) 第三：讓別人變得非常非常富有 And finally: never ever join the Beatles. (Laughter) 最後：永遠不要加入披頭四 OK. Now I, like Ze Frank, can predict your next thought, 現在，像澤‧法蘭克一樣，我可以預測你們在想什麼 which is, "Yeah, right." Because when 就是「對啦，最好是」 people synthesize happiness, as these gentlemen seem to have done, 因為當人合成快樂時，像這些人的例子 we all smile at them, but we kind of roll our eyes and say, 我們臉上掛著微笑，但其實都翻著白眼想︰ "Yeah right, you never really wanted the job." 「是嗎？你從來沒有想過要那份工作？」 "Oh yeah, right. You really didn't 「是嗎？你和她」 have that much in common with her, 確實沒有什麼共同點 and you figured that out just about the time 而你就在她把訂婚戒指扔向你的時候 she threw the engagement ring in your face." 才發現這個事實」 We smirk because we believe that synthetic happiness 我們偷笑，是因為我們認為合成快樂 is not of the same quality as what we might call "natural happiness." 次於自然快樂 What are these terms? 這是什麼術語？ Natural happiness is what we get when we get what we wanted, 自然快樂，是我們得到心理所想要的東西那種快樂 and synthetic happiness is what we make when we don't get what we wanted. 合成快樂，是我們得不到想要的東西時，改變想法的快樂 And in our society, we have a strong belief 在我們的社會，我們堅信 that synthetic happiness is of an inferior kind. 合成快樂是比較差的一種 Why do we have that belief? 為什麼我們這樣想？ Well, it's very simple. What kind of economic engine 很簡單，我們的經濟發展 would keep churning 會變成怎樣 if we believed that not getting what we want could make us just as happy as getting it? 如果我們相信，得不到想要的東西和得到想要的東西都能同樣地快樂？ With all apologies to my friend Matthieu Ricard, 先向我的朋友馬修‧瑞卡道歉 a shopping mall full of Zen monks 一個只有僧侶光顧的購物中心 is not going to be particularly profitable 是很難取得高利潤 because they don't want stuff enough. 因他們的購買慾不夠強 I want to suggest to you that synthetic happiness 我想告訴各位，合成快樂的 is every bit as real and enduring 真實性和持久性 as the kind of happiness you stumble upon 其實和那種當你達到目標 when you get exactly what you were aiming for. 所得到的快樂一樣程度 Now, I'm a scientist, so I'm going to do this not with rhetoric, 我是一個科學家，所以我不只是空談 but by marinating you in a little bit of data. 我會用一些數據來感化你們 Let me first show you an experimental paradigm that is used 首先，這個典型的實驗範例 to demonstrate the synthesis of happiness 用來說明合成的快樂 among regular old folks. And this isn't mine. 這是較早之前的，不是我的範例 This is a 50-year-old paradigm called the "free choice paradigm." 差不多50年前的，稱為自由選擇模式 It's very simple. 這很簡單 You bring in, say, six objects, 你有6件物件 and you ask a subject to rank them from the most to the least liked. 請你的實驗對象用自己對物件的好感程度排名 In this case, because the experiment I'm going to tell you about uses them, 在這實驗中的研究員使用了 these are Monet prints. 莫內的畫 So, everybody can rank these Monet prints 每個人都以喜好來排這些莫內的印刷畫 from the one they like the most, to the one they like the least. 由最喜歡到最不喜歡 Now we give you a choice: 現在，我們告訴你： "We happen to have some extra prints in the closet. 「我們有些多餘的印刷畫放在櫃子裡」 We're going to give you one as your prize to take home. 「我們送你一張作為獎品」 We happen to have number three and number four," 「我們正好有3號和4號」 we tell the subject. This is a bit of a difficult choice, 就這樣告訴他們，這是個有點困難的抉擇 because neither one is preferred strongly to the other, 因為兩張沒有太大的喜好差異 but naturally, people tend to pick number three 但自然地，他們傾向選擇3號 because they liked it a little better than number four. 因為比4號還更喜歡一點 Sometime later -- it could be 15 minutes; it could be 15 days -- 之後，可能是15分鐘後，也可能是15天後 the same stimuli are put before the subject, 實驗對象會再看同一組物件 and the subject is asked to re-rank the stimuli. 請他們重新排列好感程度 "Tell us how much you like them now." 「請告訴我們，你有多喜歡它們」 What happens? Watch as happiness is synthesized. 會發生什麼事呢？請看快樂被合成 This is the result that has been replicated over and over again. 重做實驗也得出這結果 You're watching happiness be synthesized. 你們正在看快樂被合成 Would you like to see it again? Happiness! 你們想再看一次嗎？快樂！ "The one I got is really better than I thought! 「我擁有的那件物件真的比我想像中好！ That other one I didn't get sucks!" 「我沒有選擇的那件物件真爛！」 (Laughter) That's the synthesis of happiness. 這正是合成的快樂 Now what's the right response to that? "Yeah, right!" 好了，正確的反應怎樣的？「噢，真的嗎？」 Now, here's the experiment we did, 這個是我們做的實驗 and I would hope this is going to convince you that 希望這個實驗能說服你們 "Yeah, right!" was not the right response. 「對啦，最好是」不是正確的反應 We did this experiment with a group of patients 我們以病人為實驗對象來重做以上的實驗， who had anterograde amnesia. These are hospitalized patients. 是患有順行性遺忘症的病人，長期住院的患者 Most of them have Korsakoff's syndrome, 他們多數患有科爾薩科夫氏症候群 a polyneuritic psychosis that -- they drank way too much, 一種複合性神經炎 - 他們酒喝太多 and they can't make new memories. 無法製造新的回憶 OK? They remember their childhood, but if you walk in and introduce yourself, 懂嗎？他們還記得童年，但如果你向他們自我介紹 and then leave the room, 然後離開房間 when you come back, they don't know who you are. 當你再回去時，他們已經忘記你是誰 We took our Monet prints to the hospital. 我們把莫內的印刷畫帶到醫院 And we asked these patients to rank them 要這些病人排名 from the one they liked the most to the one they liked the least. 從最喜歡到最不喜歡 We then gave them the choice between number three and number four. 然後，要他們選3號或4號作為禮物 Like everybody else, they said, 和其他人一樣，他們說： "Gee, thanks Doc! That's great! I could use a new print. 「哎呀，多謝醫生！太棒了！我正好要張新的畫 I'll take number three." 我要3號」 We explained we would have number three mailed to them. 我們告訴他們會郵寄3號那張過去 We gathered up our materials and we went out of the room, 我們整理好東西就離開了房間 and counted to a half hour. 然後等了半小時 Back into the room, we say, "Hi, we're back." 之後回到房間，我們說︰「嗨，我們回來了」 The patients, bless them, say, "Ah, Doc, I'm sorry, 那些病人，真的要保佑他們，說：「啊，對不起醫生 I've got a memory problem; that's why I'm here. 我有記憶問題，正是我住院的原因 If I've met you before, I don't remember." 如果我之前遇見你，我已經忘了」 "