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  • I'm going to talk about the simple truth in leadership

    我要說些21世紀

  • in the 21st century.

    領導的簡單的小道理

  • In the 21st century, we need to actually look at --

    現在是21世紀,我們應該要看的東西

  • and what I'm actually going to encourage you to consider today --

    和我今天鼓勵大家去想想的事情

  • is to go back to our school days

    要回溯到我們上學的時候

  • when we learned how to count.

    回溯到我們學算數的時候

  • But I think it's time for us to think about what we count.

    我認為該想想我們到底數了些什麼

  • Because what we actually count

    因為我們真正在意的事

  • truly counts.

    才算數

  • Let me start by telling you a little story.

    我先從小故事說起

  • This is Van Quach.

    這是范姱嬬

  • She came to this country in 1986 from Vietnam.

    1986年的時候從越南移民到這

  • She changed her name to Vivian

    把名字改成薇薇安

  • because she wanted to fit in here in America.

    希望能夠融入這裡的生活

  • Her first job was at an inner-city motel

    她的第一份工作

  • in San Francisco as a maid.

    是在舊金山市中心的汽車旅館當清潔人員

  • I happened to buy that motel

    事實上,她工作三個月後

  • about three months after Vivian started working there.

    我恰巧買了那間旅館

  • So Vivian and I have been working together for 23 years.

    所以薇薇安跟我共事了23年

  • With the youthful idealism of a 26-year-old,

    那時候是1987年

  • in 1987,

    我26歲,心理充滿了理想

  • I started my company and I called it Joie de Vivre,

    我開始經營飯店,稱為「人生之樂」

  • a very impractical name,

    這是個非常不切實際的名字

  • because I actually was looking to create joy of life.

    因為我想創造生活的快樂

  • And this first hotel that I bought, motel,

    這就是我第一個收購的旅館,

  • was a pay-by-the-hour, no-tell motel

    是以時計費,供人「休息」的汽車旅館

  • in the inner-city of San Francisco.

    在舊金山的市區内。

  • As I spent time with Vivian,

    我跟薇薇安一起工作的時候

  • I saw that she had sort of a joie de vivre

    我發現她工作的方式

  • in how she did her work.

    有「人生之樂」的特質。

  • It made me question and curious:

    這讓我既疑惑又好奇

  • How could someone actually find joy

    怎麼可能有人

  • in cleaning toilets for a living?

    會喜歡以掃廁維生

  • So I spent time with Vivian, and I saw that

    所以我就觀察薇薇安,發現

  • she didn't find joy in cleaning toilets.

    她並非以掃廁所為樂

  • Her job, her goal and her calling

    她的目標、職志

  • was not to become the world's greatest toilet scrubber.

    並不是成為世界第一的廁所清潔工

  • What counts for Vivian was the emotional connection

    她在意的是情感的聯繫

  • she created with her fellow employees and our guests.

    是同事、顧客、和自己間的關係。

  • And what gave her inspiration and meaning

    鼓舞並讓她覺得有意義的是

  • was the fact that she was taking care of people

    她的工作,而這份工作

  • who were far away from home.

    其實是照顧異鄉遊子。

  • Because Vivian knew what it was like to be far away from home.

    因為薇薇安深知離鄉背井的感受。

  • That very human lesson,

    這二十幾年前

  • more than 20 years ago,

    人性溫暖的例子

  • served me well during the last

    幫助我度過上一個

  • economic downturn we had.

    經濟衰退。

  • In the wake of the dotcom crash and 9/11,

    網路股泡沫化以及911事件開始的時候

  • San Francisco Bay Area hotels

    讓舊金山的灣區酒店的收入

  • went through the largest percentage revenue drop

    大幅減少

  • in the history of American hotels.

    是美國史上的新低。

  • We were the largest operator of hotels in the Bay Area,

    當時我們是灣區最大的業者

  • so we were particularly vulnerable.

    所以受到的衝擊非常大。

  • But also back then,

    也同樣是那時候

  • remember we stopped eating French fries in this country.

    美國國内抵制吃薯條

  • Well, not exactly, of course not.

    其實也不盡然,

  • We started eating "freedom fries,"

    應該說,我們不吃「法式薯條」開始吃「自由薯條」

  • and we started boycotting anything that was French.

    抵制全部跟法國有關的東西

  • Well, my name of my company, Joie de Vivre --

    我公司的名字「人生之樂」就是法文

  • so I started getting these letters

    所以我就陸續收到

  • from places like Alabama and Orange County

    從阿拉巴馬和橘郡等地來的信

  • saying to me that they were going to boycott my company

    說要抵制我的公司

  • because they thought we were a French company.

    因為他們認為我們是法國公司

  • And I'd write them back, and I'd say, "What a minute. We're not French.

    然後我就回信說

  • We're an American company. We're based in San Francisco."

    我們不是法商!我們是在舊金山的美國公司!

  • And I'd get a terse response: "Oh, that's worse."

    接著我收到了一封回信說:「噢!那更糟!」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So one particular day

    所以有一天

  • when I was feeling a little depressed and not a lot of joie de vivre,

    我覺得有點鬱悶,不太快樂

  • I ended up in the local bookstore around the corner from our offices.

    我就到辦公室附近的書店逛逛

  • And I initially ended up in the business section of the bookstore

    一開始我只在商業叢書區

  • looking for a business solution.

    找尋解決方法

  • But given my befuddled state of mind, I ended up

    但是我的頭腦真是太混亂了

  • in the self-help section very quickly.

    所以我很快就逛到勵志叢書區

  • That's where I got reacquainted with

    就在那,我再讀了

  • Abraham Maslow's "hierarchy of needs."

    亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛的需求層次理論。

  • I took one psychology class in college,

    我大學時候修了門心理學

  • and I learned about this guy, Abraham Maslow,

    學到了亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛

  • as many of us are familiar with his hierarchy of needs.

    很多人都熟悉他的需求層次理論

  • But as I sat there for four hours,

    我在那坐了四個小時

  • the full afternoon, reading Maslow,

    整個下午都在讀馬斯洛的書

  • I recognized something

    使我體認到了一些

  • that is true of most leaders.

    大部分領袖都具備共同的特質。

  • One of the simplest facts in business

    在企業内最簡單清楚的事實之一

  • is something that we often neglect,

    卻也是我們常忽略的

  • and that is that we're all human.

    那就是:「我們都是人。」

  • Each of us, no matter what our role is in business,

    不管我們在事業上的角色為何

  • has some hierarchy of needs

    在職場上

  • in the workplace.

    都有自己的需求層次。

  • So as I started reading more Maslow,

    接著我讀了更多馬斯洛的書

  • what I started to realize is that

    我漸漸發現

  • Maslow, later in his life,

    其實馬斯洛稍後

  • wanted to take this hierarchy for the individual

    想把個人的需求層次理論

  • and apply it to the collective,

    套用到群體

  • to organizations and specifically to business.

    套用到組織,特別是商業組織

  • But unfortunately, he died prematurely in 1970,

    但不幸的是馬斯洛英在1970年英年早逝

  • and so he wasn't really able to live that dream completely.

    所以他並沒能完全實現那夢想。

  • So I realized in that dotcom crash

    我發覺網路股泡沫化的時候

  • that my role in life was to channel Abe Maslow.

    我人生的階段任務就是跟馬斯洛對話。

  • And that's what I did a few years ago

    這也是幾年前我所做的

  • when I took that five-level hierarchy of needs pyramid

    把需求層次理論的五層金字塔

  • and turned it into what I call the transformation pyramid,

    變成我所謂的「轉型金字塔」

  • which is survival, success and transformation.

    包括生存、成功、轉型

  • It's not just fundamental in business, it's fundamental in life.

    這金字塔不只是事業的基石,更是人生的基石。

  • And we started asking ourselves the questions

    我們開始問自己

  • about how we were actually addressing

    要如何滿足公司内

  • the higher needs, these transformational needs

    主要員工高階的需求

  • for our key employees in the company.

    也就是轉型需求

  • These three levels of the hierarchy needs

    這三層的需求層次

  • relate to the five levels

    其實跟馬斯洛的

  • of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    五階層需求層次有關

  • But as we started asking ourselves about how we were addressing

    可是當我們要著手衡量

  • the higher needs of our employees and our customers,

    員工和顧客的高階需求的時候

  • I realized we had no metrics.

    我才發現,我們沒有衡量標準。

  • We had nothing that actually could tell us whether we were actually getting it right.

    不知道怎樣衡量才是對的。

  • So we started asking ourselves:

    所以我們反問自己

  • What kind of less obvious metrics

    還有什麼我們看不見的變數

  • could we use to actually evaluate

    可以用來實際地評估

  • our employees' sense of meaning,

    員工的感覺

  • or our customers' sense of emotional connection with us?

    或是顧客跟我們的情感聯係度

  • For example, we actually started asking our employees,

    舉例來說,我們問員工說

  • do they understand the mission of our company,

    你們了解我們公司的服務宗旨嗎?

  • and do they feel like they believe in it,

    你們認同我們的服務宗旨嗎?

  • can they actually influence it,

    你們能為公司帶來任何改變嗎?

  • and do they feel that their work actually has an impact on it?

    你們真的覺得自己的工作對公司有影響嗎?

  • We started asking our customers,

    我們也問顧客

  • did they feel an emotional connection with us,

    是否覺得和我們有

  • in one of seven different kinds of ways.

    七種程度不同的情感的聯係。

  • Miraculously, as we asked these questions

    神奇的是,藉由問這些問題

  • and started giving attention higher up the pyramid,

    還有漸漸注重金字塔頂端的需求後

  • what we found is we created more loyalty.

    我們竟然讓顧客的忠誠度提高了。

  • Our customer loyalty skyrocketed.

    顧客對我們的忠誠度疾速攀升

  • Our employee turnover dropped

    員工的離職律也降低到

  • to one-third of the industry average,

    產業平均的三分之一。

  • and during that five year dotcom bust,

    網路股泡沫化為期五年

  • we tripled in size.

    那五年裡,我們的營業規模變為三倍。

  • As I went out and started spending time with other leaders out there

    之後我跟其他領導者聊天

  • and asking them how they were getting through that time,

    問他們如何撐過那段時期

  • what they told me over and over again

    我聼到的都是

  • was that they just manage what they can measure.

    他們只管理有形的看得到的

  • What we can measure is that tangible stuff

    他們能看到的就是金字塔底端

  • at the bottom of the pyramid.

    有形的資產

  • They didn't even see the intangible stuff

    大家都沒看倒金字塔上層

  • higher up the pyramid.

    無形的資產。

  • So I started asking myself the question:

    所以我開始問自己

  • How can we get leaders to start valuing the intangible?

    要如何讓大家重視無形的資產?

  • If we're taught as leaders to just manage what we can measure,

    如果大家跟企業家一樣,只管理能夠量化的

  • and all we can measure is the tangible in life,

    也就是人生中有形的資產

  • we're missing a whole lot of things at the top of the pyramid.

    我們就會失去金字塔頂端的所有東西。

  • So I went out and studied a bunch of things,

    所以我繼續作了一些研究

  • and I found a survey that showed

    發現一則調查顯示

  • that 94 percent

    百分之九十四的

  • of business leaders worldwide

    企業領導者相信

  • believe that the intangibles are important in their business,

    對於自己的企業來說,無形資產是很重要的

  • things like intellectual property,

    包括智慧財產

  • their corporate culture, their brand loyalty,

    企業文化、品牌忠誠度。

  • and yet, only five percent of those same leaders

    但是其中只有百分之五的企業主

  • actually had a means of measuring the intangibles in their business.

    真的有一套標準來衡量事業上無形的資產。

  • So as leaders, we understand

    跟企業主一樣,我們也知道

  • that intangibles are important,

    無形資產很重要

  • but we don't have a clue how to measure them.

    但是壓根不知道怎麼衡量無形資產。

  • So here's another Einstein quote:

    愛因斯坦說

  • "Not everything that can be counted counts,

    不是所有算的出來的東西都有意義

  • and not everything that counts can be counted."

    有意義的事情不一定算的出來。

  • I hate to argue with Einstein,

    我不想跟愛因斯坦爭論

  • but if that which is most valuable

    但最有價值的東西

  • in our life and our business

    無論是人生中還是事業上

  • actually can't be counted or valued,

    都算不清,也估不得

  • aren't we going to spend our lives

    難道要任由生命陷在

  • just mired in measuring the mundane?

    對世俗東西的計算嗎?

  • It was that sort of heady question about what counts

    因爲對這量化的問題百思不解

  • that led me to take my CEO hat off for a week

    讓我拋掉執行長的頭銜一個禮拜

  • and fly off to the Himalayan peaks.

    飛到喜馬拉雅山區

  • I flew off to a place that's been shrouded in mystery for centuries,

    這地方已經藏在神祕的面紗後好幾世紀了

  • a place some folks call Shangri-La.

    就是人們口中香格里拉。

  • It's actually moved from the survival base of the pyramid

    香格里拉就是從金字塔底部的生存層

  • to becoming a transformational

    轉型成功的例子

  • role model for the world.

    值得借鏡。

  • I went to Bhutan.

    我去了不丹

  • The teenage king of Bhutan was also a curious man,

    不丹的國王還是少年,頗具好奇心

  • but this was back in 1972,

    在1972年

  • when he ascended to the throne

    他的父親去世兩天後

  • two days after his father passed away.

    不丹國王便登基

  • At age 17, he started asking the kinds of questions

    那時國王年僅17歲,他開始思考一些問題

  • that you'd expect of someone with a beginner's mind.

    一些聼起來像初學者的問題。

  • On a trip through India,

    在他剛開始統治不丹的時候

  • early in his reign as king,

    有一次去印度拜訪

  • he was asked by an Indian journalist

    有個記者問國王

  • about the Bhutanese GDP,

    不丹的國内生産毛額

  • the size of the Bhutanese GDP.

    不丹的國内生産毛額有多少

  • The king responded in a fashion

    國王的那時的囘答

  • that actually has transformed us four decades later.

    影響了四十年後的我們。

  • He said the following, he said: "Why are we so obsessed

    國王說,我們為什麼那麼執意、

  • and focused with gross domestic product?

    注重國内生産毛額

  • Why don't we care more about

    我們為什麼不多注意,

  • gross national happiness?"

    國内幸福毛額

  • Now, in essence, the king was asking us to consider

    事實上,國王要我們多想想

  • an alternative definition of success,

    成功另外的定義

  • what has come to be known as

    也就是後來的

  • GNH, or gross national happiness.

    GNH,或稱為國内幸福毛額。

  • Most world leaders didn't take notice,

    大多數的國家領導者都不注重GNH

  • and those that did thought this was just "Buddhist economics."

    或者認為這只是「佛教經濟學」

  • But the king was serious.

    但國王卻很認真

  • This was a notable moment,

    這是重要的一刻

  • because this was the first time a world leader

    因為這是第一次

  • in almost 200 years

    在近兩百年來

  • had suggested

    有領導人物提出

  • that intangible of happiness --

    幸福的無形價值。

  • that leader 200 years ago,

    兩百年前也有領導者提過

  • Thomas Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence --

    那人就是提出「獨立宣言」的湯瑪斯傑弗遜

  • 200 years later,

    兩百年後

  • this king was suggesting that intangible of happiness

    不丹王提出幸福的無形價值

  • is something that we should measure,

    正是我們該去衡量的

  • and it's something we should actually value

    而且我們是應該要珍視的

  • as government officials.

    身為政府官員,理應如此。

  • For the next three dozen years as king,

    在他執政的三十六年中

  • this king actually started measuring

    確實去衡量

  • and managing around happiness in Bhutan --

    且提昇不丹的幸福指數。

  • including, just recently, taking his country

    不丹國王最近還把自己的國家

  • from being an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy

    從絕對君主制變成君主立憲制

  • with no bloodshed, no coup.

    改革期間沒有傷亡,也沒有政變

  • Bhutan, for those of you who don't know it,

    對那些不太了解不丹的人來說

  • is the newest democracy in the world, just two years ago.

    不丹是世上最年輕的民主國家,現在才兩歲。

  • So as I spent time with leaders in the GNH movement,

    我跟其他領導者參加GNH運動的時候

  • I got to really understand what they're doing.

    才真正了解他們在做什麼。

  • And I got to spend some time with the prime minister.

    我跟首相處了一段時間

  • Over dinner, I asked him an impertinent question.

    晚宴時,問了首相一個很直接的問題

  • I asked him,

    我問首相

  • "How can you create and measure

    「你們怎麼能創造、衡量

  • something which evaporates --

    摸不到的東西

  • in other words, happiness?"

    也就是『幸福』?」

  • And he's a very wise man, and he said,

    首相非常有智慧,跟我說

  • "Listen, Bhutan's goal is not to create happiness.

    我告訴你呀,不丹並不是要創造幸福

  • We create the conditions for happiness to occur.

    我們創造的是環境,讓幸福來臨的環境

  • In other words, we create a habitat of happiness."

    也就是說,我們為幸福建造家園

  • Wow, that's interesting.

    哇!那可真有趣!

  • He said that they have a science behind that art,

    首相又說這藝術的背後,有著科學根據。

  • and they've actually created four essential pillars,

    我們創造了四大項目

  • nine key indicators

    九個關鍵指標