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  • You probably already know that everything is made up of

    你大概已經知道萬物皆是由

  • little tiny things called atoms.

    一種非常微小 稱之為原子的東西所組成

  • You might even know that each atom is made up of even smaller particles

    你甚至可能知道原子還是由 更小的粒子所組成

  • called protons, neutrons and electrons.

    我們稱為質子、中子跟電子

  • And you've probably heard that atoms are small.

    且你大概都聽說過原子很小

  • But I bet you haven't ever thought about how small atoms really are.

    但我猜你應該從未想過 原子究竟有多小

  • Well, the answer is that they are really, really, really small.

    嗯 答案是 非常 非常 非常小

  • So you ask, just how small are atoms?

    因此 你會想知道 究竟原子有多小?

  • To understand this, let's ask this question:

    為了了解 先來研究這個問題

  • How many atoms are in a grapefruit?

    葡萄柚是由多少原子所組成?

  • Well let's assume that the grapefruit is made up of only nitrogen atoms,

    嗯 假設葡萄柚是只由氮原子所組成

  • which isn't at all true, but there are nitrogen atoms in a grapefruit.

    當然這不是事實 但確實葡萄柚裡有氮原子

  • Well, to help you visualize this, let's blow up each of the atoms

    當然 為了幫助你們想像 我們將原子放大

  • to the size of a blueberry.

    到像藍莓一般大

  • And then how big would the grapefruit have to be?

    那此時 葡萄柚會變得多大呢?

  • It would have to be the same size of -- well, actually, the Earth.

    葡萄柚會變得...會跟地球一樣大

  • That's crazy! You mean to say that if I filled the Earth with blueberries,

    非常不可思議吧...意思是 若把藍莓集合成地球一樣大

  • I would have the same number of nitrogen atoms as a grapefruit?

    就可以得知葡萄柚裡有多少氮原子

  • That's right! So how big is the atom?

    沒錯! 所以到底原子有多大?

  • Well, it's really, really, really, really small.

    原子是非常 非常 非常 非常小

  • And you know what?

    而且你知道嘛?

  • It gets even more crazy.

    更誇張的是

  • Let's now look inside of each atom -- and thus the blueberry, right? --

    讓我們來看看每個原子之中 也就是藍莓

  • What do you see there?

    你會看到些什麼?

  • In the center of the atom is something called the nucleus,

    在原子的中央 有個稱為原子核的東西

  • which contains protons and neutrons,

    裡面包含了質子跟中子

  • and on the outside you'd see electrons.

    而在其外你會看到電子

  • So how big is the nucleus?

    原子核多大呢?

  • Well, if atoms are like blueberries in the Earth, how big would the nucleus be?

    如果原子像藍莓一般大 原子核相對會多大?

  • You might remember the old pictures of the atom from your science class,

    你可能還記得在理化課上的 舊原子圖片吧

  • where you saw this tiny dot on the page with an arrow pointing to the nucleus.

    你看到的頁面上 用箭頭指著的那個小點

  • Well, those pictures, they're not drawn to scale,

    嗯 那些圖片 其實並非照比例而畫

  • so they're kind of wrong.

    因此是錯誤的

  • So how big is the nucleus?

    所以 原子核究竟多大呢?

  • So if you popped open the blueberry

    如果你切開那個和原子一樣大的藍莓

  • and were searching for the nucleus,

    然後尋找原子核

  • you know what? It would be invisible.

    你知道 原子會是隱形的

  • It's too small to see!

    因為它太小以至於你無法看到

  • OK. Let's blow up the atom -- the blueberry --

    因此 我們在將原子 也就是藍莓

  • to the size of a house.

    放大到像房子一樣大

  • So imagine a ball that is as tall as a two-story house.

    想像一下這個球跟 兩層樓的房子一樣高

  • Let's look for the nucleus in the center of the atom.

    然後再來尋找在原子中央的原子核

  • And do you know what? It would just barely be visible.

    你知道嗎? 原子核還是幾乎不可見

  • So to get our minds wrapped around how big the nucleus is,

    所以 為了知道到底原子核有多大

  • we need to blow up the blueberry, up to the size of a football stadium.

    我們必須把原子從藍莓的大小 放大到美式足球場一樣

  • So imagine a ball the size of a football stadium,

    然後想像一顆美式足球場般大的球

  • and right smack dab in the center of the atom,

    原子不偏不倚的中央一小點

  • you would find the nucleus, and you could see it!

    你就會找到原子核 而且你可以看得到它

  • And it would be the size of a small marble.

    它就和一個彈珠的大小一樣

  • And there's more, if I haven't blown your mind by now.

    不僅僅如此 如果我還沒讓你驚訝的話

  • Let's consider the atom some more. It contains protons, neutrons and electrons.

    我們來更詳盡的了解原子 它包含了質子 中子 跟電子

  • The protons and neutrons live inside of the nucleus,

    質子跟中子是在原子核之內

  • and contain almost all of the mass of the atom.

    且佔了原子大部分的重量

  • Way on the edge are the electrons.

    而其邊緣上則為電子

  • So if an atom is like a ball the size of a football stadium,

    如果原子是一顆 跟美式足球場般大的球

  • with the nucleus in the center, and the electrons on the edge,

    原子在中央 電子在邊緣

  • what is in between the nucleus and the electrons?

    那在原子核跟電子之間是什麼呢?

  • Surprisingly, the answer is empty space.

    相當令人驚訝地 答案是什麼都沒有

  • (Wind noise)

    (風聲)

  • That's right. Empty!

    沒錯 什麼都沒有 空的

  • Between the nucleus and the electrons, there are vast regions of empty space.

    在原子核跟電子之間 有著相當廣大的空間

  • Now, technically there are some electromagnetic fields,

    嚴格來說 那裡存在著電磁場

  • but in terms of stuff, matter, it is empty.

    但就本質而言 那裡是空的

  • Remember this vast region of empty space

    記得這個一大片的空間

  • is inside the blueberry, which is inside the Earth,

    是位於跟和組成地球的 藍莓一樣大的原子之中

  • which really are the atoms in the grapefruit.

    組成地球的藍莓 就好比是葡萄柚裡的原子

  • OK, one more thing, if I can even get more bizarre.

    另外還有一件事 是更難以想像的

  • Since virtually all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus --

    既然事實是原子的全部重量 是集中於原子核中

  • now, there is some amount of mass in the electrons,

    嗯 當然電子當然還是 佔有一部分的重量

  • but most of it is in the nucleus --

    但是大部分是集中於原子核上

  • how dense is the nucleus?

    那麼原子核的密度有多大呢?

  • Well, the answer is crazy.

    答案是相當驚人的

  • The density of a typical nucleus

    一般而言原子核的密度是

  • is four times 10 to the 17th kilograms per meter cubed.

    每立方公尺重達4乘10的17次方公斤

  • But that's hard to visualize. OK, I'll put it in English units.

    但數字是難以想像的 讓我來用英制表示

  • 2.5 times 10 to the 16th

    每立方英吋重達

  • pounds per cubic feet.

    2.5乘10的16次方磅

  • OK, that's still kind of hard to figure.

    當然 這仍然是難以理解的

  • OK, here's what I want you to do.

    不如我告訴你怎麼做

  • Make a box that is one foot by one foot by one foot.

    做一個各邊都是1英呎的盒子

  • Now let's go and grab all of the nuclei from a typical car.

    然後集合相當於 一台普通車子的所有原子

  • Now, cars on average weigh two tons.

    車子一般而言重約兩噸

  • How many cars' nuclei would you have to put into the box

    要在盒子裡放入多少輛車子的原子

  • to have your one-foot-box have the same density of the nucleus?

    才能讓這每邊為1英呎盒子的 密度等同於原子核呢?

  • Is it one car? Two? How about 100?

    一輛 兩輛 還是100輛

  • Nope, nope and nope.

    以上皆非

  • The answer is much bigger.

    答案是不只如此

  • It is 6.2 billion.

    是62億

  • That is almost equal to the number of people in the Earth.

    那是相當於地球上的所有人口

  • So if everyone in the Earth owned their own car --

    假設地球上每個人都擁有一部車

  • and they don't --

    當然並非如此

  • and we put all of those cars into your box,

    我們將所有的車子放到你的箱子裡

  • that would be about the density of a nucleus.

    那就是原子核的密度

  • So I'm saying that if you took every car in the world and put it into your one-foot box,

    我的意思是 如果你將地球上 所有的車子放進每邊一英呎的盒子裡

  • you would have the density of one nucleus.

    那就是一個原子核的密度

  • OK, let's review.

    好了 讓我們來複習一下

  • The atom is really, really, really small.

    原子是非常 非常 非常小

  • Think atoms in a grapefruit like blueberries in the Earth.

    葡萄柚裡的一粒原子 就好比地球上的一顆藍莓

  • The nucleus is crazy small.

    原子核是超級小

  • Now look inside the blueberry, and blow it up to the size of a football stadium,

    把藍莓放大到足球場一般大

  • and now the nucleus is a marble in the middle.

    原子核就是在藍莓中央的一顆彈珠

  • The atom is made up of vast regions of empty space.

    原子的組成是一大片的空間

  • That's weird.

    這是非常詭異的

  • The nucleus has a crazy-high density.

    原子核的密度是極度大

  • Think of putting all those cars in your one-foot box.

    就好比將地球上所有的車放進 每邊為1英呎的盒子中

  • I think I'm tired.

    我想我累了

  • (Yawning)

    (打呵欠)

(Music)

(音樂)

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 原子核 原子 藍莓 葡萄柚 密度 地球

【TED-Ed】原子到底有多小? (Just How Small is an Atom? - Jon Bergmann)

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    Furong Lai   發佈於 2012 年 11 月 30 日
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