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  • What do you think is the key to achieving our goals, our success?

    你們認為實現理想和獲取成就的關鍵要素是什麼?

  • Some people suggest things like hard work, focus, persistence.

    有人認為是勤奮努力、專心致志和持之以恒

  • But research shows these are all by-products of something else,

    但研究指出,這些都是由其它某個要素所衍生出來的產物

  • something much more powerful that we can all develop.

    一種更具影影力的,並且是你我都能培養的

  • It is this very special something that is really critical to success,

    它非常的特別,是成功的重要關鍵

  • and is what I am here to discuss with you today.

    這也是我今天要和你們探討的主題

  • Someone who has achieved great success is Josh Waitzkin,

    有個已經擁有偉大成就的人叫喬希.維茲勤

  • a chess international master and the subject of the movie "Searching for Bobby Fischer".

    他是國際西洋棋大師,也是電影 《天生小棋王》的主人翁

  • Nobody has won all the national chess championships that Josh has.

    喬希所贏過的全國西洋棋冠獎盃無能人及

  • But even more impressive, when he turned 21,

    但更令人欽佩的是,當他滿21歲的時後

  • he took on the challenge of mastering something completely new

    他接受了一個「精通全新事物」的挑戰

  • and very different from chess: martial arts.

    和西洋棋截然不同的:武術

  • He realized that he had learned how to grow and succeed,

    他意識到自己已經學會如何成長和成功

  • and he could apply that understanding to other domains.

    而且他可以把所領悟到的運用到其它領堿

  • And so, he devoted himself relentlessly to tai chi chuan.

    所以,他努力不懈的致力於太極拳

  • And after lots of hard work, many failures, and some broken joints,

    然後,在經過多次的努力、多次的失敗和一些關節的斷裂

  • he became a great martial artist, and he won two world championships.

    他成為一個偉大的武術家,並且贏得2座世界冠軍

  • Now he is off to jiu-jitsu.

    現在,他正在學巴西柔術

  • So what does Josh say is the greatest thing ever happened to him?

    所以,喬希說過他人生中最棒的遭遇是什麼呢?

  • Believe it or not, he says, "Losing my first national chess championship,

    信不信由你, 他說:「就是第一次痛失西洋棋冠軍的時後

  • because it helped me avoid many of the psychological traps."

    因為這幫助他避免了許多心理的魔咒」

  • The key trap that Josh avoided was believing that he was special,

    喬希避開的關鍵陷阱就是相信自己與眾不同

  • that he was smarter than other people, and that he didn't have to work hard.

    比任何人都還聰明,甚至不需要去花費太多心力就能成功

  • He could have thought of himself as a prodigy,

    他本來可以把自己當作是天才的

  • but he doesn't think that he has extraordinary intelligence.

    但他並不認為自己擁有超凡的智慧

  • He says, "The moment we believe that success is determined by an ingrained level of ability,

    他說:「當我們堅信成功取決根深蒂固的能力

  • we will be brittle in the face of adversity."

    在面對逆境時,我們將會變得脆弱」

  • Josh often quotes Stanford Professor Carol Dweck

    喬希經常引述史丹佛教授卡蘿·杜瑞克

  • who discovered that some people see intelligence or abilities as fixed

    她發現有些人認為智力和能力是固定不變的

  • what is called a fixed mindset,

    就是所謂的「固定型思維模式」

  • while other people see them as Josh does,

    而另一些人則和喬希一樣

  • as qualities that can be developed; a growth mindset.

    認為才能是可以被發展的; 也就是「成長型思維模式」

  • More important, Dr. Dweck discovered that these two different mindsets

    更重要的是,杜瑞克博士發現這兩種不同的「心智」

  • lead to very different behaviors and results.

    會導致非常不一樣的態度和結果

  • In a study she did with Dr. Lisa Blackwell,

    在一個她和莉莎·布萊克威爾博士所做的研究中

  • several hundreds seventh graders were surveyed to determine

    有數百名的國一學生被做過調查

  • which mindset each student had, and then they were tracked for two years.

    以判定每個學生所具有的心智,然後他們被追蹤長達兩年

  • Results showed that the students with a growth mindset,

    研究的結果指出,具有成長型思維模式的學生

  • those who thought they could change their own intelligence

    也就是那些認為他們自己的智力是可以變動的

  • increased their grades over time.

    他們的成績逐漸改善

  • While those with a fixed mindset did not.

    而那些具有固定型思維的學生卻沒有太多變化

  • You can see the trend, the gap in performance

    你可以看到這個趨勢,兩者表現的差距

  • just widens and widens over time.

    隨著時間不斷的在擴大

  • The difference between these two groups: a different perspective on intelligence.

    這兩組之間的差異:不同的觀點來看待智力

  • Other studies have shown similar effects for our mindset about other abilities

    更有研究也指出,我們的心智對於其它的才能也有類似的影響

  • like problem solving, playing sports, managing people,

    像是解決問題、從事體育活動、管理用人

  • or anything else you'd like, dancing La Macarena.

    或是任何你喜歡的事物,跳瑪卡蓮娜

  • The key to success is not simply effort, or focus, or resilience,

    成功的關鍵不單單只是努力,或者是專注,又或者是韌性

  • but it is the growth mindset that creates them,

    而是成長型的思維模式創造了這些成功要素

  • the mindset itself is critical.

    心智本身才是最關鍵的

  • Research shows that when we directly try to build grit or persistence,

    研究顯示,當我們很直接的試著去建立恆毅力或是堅持力時

  • it's not nearly as effective as addressing the mindset that underlies them.

    它的效果並不如直接針對彰顯這些特點的心智

  • How many of us think of ourselves as not math people, or creative,

    我們有多少人認為自己不擅長數學、或是沒創造力

  • or sociable, or athletic, or conversely, that we are naturals?

    又或是不善交際、還是沒運動天賦,或者反過來說,我們就只是普通人?

  • If we are to fulfill our potential, we have to start thinking differently.

    如果我們要發揮自己的潛能,我們就必需要開始有不一樣的思維

  • We have to realize that we are not chained to our current capabilities.

    我們必須明白,自己不能被現有的個人能耐所束縛

  • Neuroscience shows the brain is very malleable.

    神經科學顯示,大腦的可塑性很強

  • And we can change our own ability to think and to perform.

    而且我們是可以改變自己思考和表現的能力

  • In fact, many of the most accomplished people of our era

    事實上,許多這個世代最傑出的人士

  • were thought of, by experts, to have no future.

    都被專家認定是沒有任何前途的

  • People like Charles Darwin, Lucille Ball, Marcel Proust, and many others.

    像是查爾斯·達爾文、露西兒·鮑爾、馬塞爾·普魯斯特等人

  • But they, along with all great achievers from Mozart to Einstein,

    但他們,和所有從莫扎特到愛因斯坦之間功成名就的偉人

  • built their abilities.

    創造自己的能力

  • But the key insight that I would like you to walk away with today

    不過我希望你們今天能帶走的重要觀點

  • is that when we realize that,

    就是當我們意識到

  • when we realize we can change our own abilities,

    當我們意識到我們可以改變自己的個人能力

  • when we have a growth mindset, we bring our game to new levels.

    當我們具有成長型的思維模式時,我們便能百尺竿頭,更進一步

  • So how does a growth mindset do that?

    所以成長型的思維模式是如何改變我們呢?

  • It turns out that there are physiological manifestations to mindset.

    事實證明,心智會有不同的生理的徵兆

  • Brain scans show that for people with a fixed mindset,

    腦部的掃描顯示,那些有固定型思維模式的人

  • the brain becomes most active when receiving information

    大腦變得最活躍的時後是在

  • about how the person performed such as a grade or a score.

    接收關於各人表現的資訊時,例如成績或是分數

  • But for people with a growth mindset, the brain becomes most active

    但有成長型思維模式的人,大腦變得最活躍的時後是在

  • when receiving information about what they could do better next time.

    接收關於未來該如何改善的資訊時

  • In other words,

    換句話說

  • people with a fixed mindset worry the most about how they are judged,

    固定型思維的人,最擔心的就是他們是如何被評判的

  • while those with a growth mindset focus the most on learning.

    而成長型思維的人則注重在學習

  • There are other consequences of mindset:

    還有其它心智不同所導致的結果

  • people with a fixed mindset see effort as a bad thing,

    有固定型思維的人認為努力是一件壞事

  • something that only people with low capabilities need,

    只有能耐不足的人才需要

  • while those with a growth mindset see effort as what makes us smart,

    而有成長型思維的人則認為努力能使我們變聰明

  • as the way to grow.

    是成長的方法

  • And when they hit a setback or a failure,

    然後當遇到挫折或失敗時

  • people with a fixed mindset tend to conclude that they are incapable.

    有固定型思維的人,會傾向斷定自己無法勝任

  • So to protect their ego, they lose interest or withdraw.

    因此,這些人為了保有自己的自尊,他們會失去興趣或閃躲逃避

  • We observe that as lack of motivation.

    我們認為這樣即是缺乏動力

  • But behind it is a fixed mindset,

    但背後的原因其實是固定型的思維模式

  • whereas people with a growth mindset

    而有成長型思維模式的人

  • understand that setbacks are part of growth.

    理解失敗就是成功之母

  • So when they hit one, they find a way around it.

    所以當他們遇到時,他們會找到解決之道

  • Like Josh Waitzkin did when he lost in chess or in martial arts.

    就像是喬希.維茲勤在西洋棋或是在武術輸掉時所做的

  • Research clearly shows these effects of mindset.

    研究很明確的指出這些心智所產生的影響

  • In one study Dr. Dweck did with Dr. Claudia Mueller,

    在一個杜瑞克博士和克勞蒂亞·繆勒博士所作的研究中

  • they had children do a set of puzzles,

    他們讓小孩們做一組拼圖謎題

  • and then they praised the kids.

    然後他們稱讚這些孩子

  • To some of the kids, they said,

    他們對一部分孩子們說

  • "Wow, that's a really good score, you must be smart at this."

    「哇,這是一個非常不錯的成積,你一定是這方面的天才」

  • That's fixed mindset praise

    這是固定型思維的讚美

  • because it portrays intelligence or abilities as a fixed quality.

    因為它用確切的特性來勾勒出智力或能力

  • To other kids they said,

    對另一部分的孩子們則說

  • "Wow, that's a really good score, you must have tried really hard."

    「哇,這是一個非常不錯的成積,你一定是非常努力地去嘗試」

  • That's growth mindset praise because it focuses on the process.

    這就是成長型思維的讚美,因為它聚焦在過程

  • Then, they asked the kids,

    之後,他們再問這些孩子們

  • "OK, what kind of puzzle would you like to do next? An easy one or a hard one?"

    「好,接下來你們想要做什麼樣的謎題呢?簡單的還是困難的?」

  • The majority of the kids who received the fixed mindset praise

    大部分受到固定型思維讚美的孩子們

  • chose to do the easy puzzle.

    選擇去做簡單的謎題

  • While the great majority of those who received the growth mindset praise

    而絕大多數受到成長型思維讚美的孩子們

  • chose to do challenge themselves.

    選擇挑戰自我

  • Then the researchers gave a hard puzzle to all of the kids

    然後研究人員給所有的孩子們一個困難的謎題

  • because they were interested in seeing

    因為他們想觀察

  • what confronting difficulty would do to their performance.

    在遭遇困境後,孩子們的表現會變得如何

  • Look at what happened when the kids later went back

    看看發生了什麼事,當這些孩子們之後再回去

  • to the set of easier problems that they started with.

    解答那組他們一開始所做比較簡單的謎題時

  • The kids who received the fixed mindset praise

    那些受到固定型思維讚美的孩子們

  • did significantly worse than they had originally,

    很明顯地比他們原有的成績更糟

  • while those who received a growth mindset praise did better.

    而那些受到成長型思維讚美的孩子們,則進步了

  • And to top it off,

    除此之外

  • at the very end, kids were asked to report their scores;

    這些孩子在結尾時被要求報告他們的成績

  • and the kids who received the fixed mindset praise

    那些受到固定型思維讚美的孩子們

  • lied about their scores over three times more often

    謊報成績的次數

  • than those who received the growth mindset praise.

    是那些受到成長型思維讚美的孩子們的三倍

  • They did not have another way to cope with their failure.

    他們沒有任何的辨法來因應挫折

  • The difference between these two groups:

    這2組孩子的差異:

  • one short little sentence.

    只是簡短的一句話

  • How often do we praise kids for being smart or for being great at something?

    我們是否經常讚美孩子很聰明或者是在某方面非常優秀?

  • We have been told that this will raise their self-esteem.

    我們都被告知這樣作會提升他們的自尊

  • But instead, it puts them in a fixed mindset.

    但相反的是,這樣的話語會他們處於固定型的思維模式

  • They become afraid of challenges,

    他們變得不敢面對挑戰

  • and they lose confidence when things hit hard.

    然後在遇到困難時,就會失去信心

  • As Josh Waitzkin says,

    就像喬希.維茲勤所說的

  • "It is incredibly important for parents to make their feedback process related

    「對父母們來說,過程相關的回饋話語是極為重要的,

  • as oppose to praising or criticizing talent.

    而不是稱讚或批評天賦

  • If we win because we are winners,

    如果,我們會贏是因為我們本來就是贏家

  • then when we lose, it must make us losers."

    那麼,當我們失敗的時後,我們就一定是廢物了」

  • These studies show not only the mechanisms by which mindset affects performance,

    這些研究不僅顯示心智影響表現的方式

  • but they also show something else that is very important:

    更呈現出一件重要的事

  • they show that we can change mindsets,

    研究讓我們清楚心智是可以改變的

  • and that's important, because most of us have fixed mindsets about something.

    這很重要的,因為,我們大部分的人對某些事物都抱持著固定型的思維模式

  • Another study that showed that we can change mindsets

    另一個顯示我們心智是可以改變的研究

  • is one in which Dweck and Blackwell did a workshop with seventh graders

    是杜瑞克和布萊克威讓國一生所參與

  • to instill a growth mindset in them.

    建立成長型思維模式的課程

  • As a result of the workshop, the students gained more interest in learning,

    課程的成效就是學生們變得更想學習了

  • and they worked harder;

    然後更努力用功

  • and as a result of that, their grades improved.

    成績也因此獲得改善

  • Other studies have shown that when we teach a growth mindset,

    其它的研究也指出,當我們教導成長型的思維模式時

  • not only that it improves achievements for students as a whole

    不僅是學生們的整體成積獲得改善

  • but it also narrows the achievement gap,

    更縮短了成就落差

  • because the effects are most pronounced

    因為這些效果

  • for the students who face negative stereotypes

    在那些有著負面刻板印象的學生上格外顯著

  • such as minority students, and girls in math.

    像是少數民族學生和數學不好的女孩

  • I have spoken mostly about children, but mindsets affects all of us.

    我到目前為止主要談到的都是關於孩童,但心智對所有人都有影響

  • In our work places, managers with fixed mindsets don't welcome feedback as much,

    在工作的場所,有固定型思維模式的經理人比較不會接受反饋

  • and they don't mentor employees as much.

    而且他們也不會給員工太多的指導

  • And employees with growth mindsets

    而職員在特定專長上

  • about specific skills like negotiations

    有成長型的思維,像是談判

  • become far better at those skills than people with fixed views.

    在這項專長上,會遠遠勝過那些只有固定觀點的人

  • Mindsets can even help us solve big social issues.

    心智的不同甚至可幫助我們解決重大社會問題

  • A recent study showed

    一項近期的研究顯示

  • that when we expose Israelis and Palestinians

    當我們讓以色列人和巴勒斯坦人

  • to the idea that groups can change,

    接觸「族群是可以改變」的觀念時

  • they increase their attitudes towards one another,

    他們增進了對於彼此的態度

  • they improve them.

    更加改善了

  • and they enhance their willingness to compromise and to work for peace.

    也提高了他們和解的意願和為和平努力

  • We also see the effects of mindsets on relationships, sports, health.

    我們也在人際關係、體育、健康上觀察到心智不同的影響

  • How is it possible that as a society,

    身為社會的一分子

  • we are not asking schools to develop a growth mindset in children?

    我們怎麼可能不去要求學校讓學生發展成長型的思維模式呢?

  • Our myopic efforts to teach them facts, concepts,

    我們目光淺短的嘗試教導他們事實、觀念

  • and even critical thinking skills

    甚至是批判性思考的能力

  • is likely to fail,

    將可能會失敗

  • if we don't also deliberately teach them the essential beliefs that will allow them

    因為沒人仔細教導這些孩子們,在學校甚至於以後的未來

  • to succeed not only in school but also beyond.

    能使他們成功不可缺少的信念

  • There is a lot that we can do to change mindsets,

    有很多我們可以改變心智的方式

  • but here are three things that any of us can do to instill a growth mindset

    不過,這裡有三個樹立成長型思維模式的要點,是任何一個人都可以落實的

  • in ourselves and in those around us.

    不論是對於我們自已或者是週遭的人

  • First, recognize that the growth mindset is not only beneficial

    第一,認同成長型的思維模式不單只是有益

  • but it is also supported by science.

    但同時也有科學依據

  • Neuroscience shows that the brain changes and becomes more capable

    神經科學顯示,當我們努力去改善自我時

  • when we work hard to improve ourselves.

    大腦會改變而且會變得更加能幹

  • Second, learn and teach others about how to develop our abilities.

    第二,學習並教導其它人該如何發展自已的能力

  • Learn about deliberate practice and what makes for effective effort.

    去認識「刻意練習」,和什麼才是有效的努力

  • When we understand how to develop our abilities,

    當我們了解如何發展自我能力時

  • we strengthen our conviction that we are in charge of them.

    我們便能鞏固並主導自已的信念

  • And third, listen for your fixed mindset voice,

    第三,去聆聽自已固定型思維的聲音

  • and when you hear it, talk back with a growth mindset voice.

    然後當聽到這樣的聲音時,用成長型思維的聲音反駁

  • If you hear, "I can't do it," add, "Yet."

    如果你聽到「我做不到」時,加一個「還」

  • My request to you today is that you share this knowledge

    今天,我對你們的請求就是

  • about the growth mindset with your family, friends, and schools

    和你們的家人、朋友和學校分享關於成長型思維的知識

  • so that all of us can go and fulfill our potential.

    這樣我們所有人就都能充分發揮自己的潛能

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

What do you think is the key to achieving our goals, our success?

你們認為實現理想和獲取成就的關鍵要素是什麼?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 思維 心智 模式 喬希 讚美 孩子

【TEDx】信念的力量 (The Power of belief -- mindset and success | Eduardo Briceno | TEDxManhattanBeach)

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    Yassion Liu 發佈於 2017 年 06 月 12 日
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