Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • If you visit a museum with a collection of modern and contemporary art,

    若你參觀一間收藏現代藝術的博物館,

  • you're likely to see works that sometimes elicit the response,

    你大概會看見一些作品 讓你有這樣反應:

  • "My cat could make that, so how is it art?"

    「我的貓也會做,這怎麼叫藝術?」

  • A movement called Abstract Expressionism, also known as the New York School,

    一種運動名為「抽象表現主義」 也叫「紐約畫派」,

  • gets this reaction particularly often.

    特別常引發這種反應。

  • Abstract Expressionism started in 1943

    抽象表現主義始於 1943 年,

  • and developed after the end of World War II.

    在二戰結束後開始發展,

  • It's characterized by large, primarily abstract paintings,

    特色是大型且主要為抽象的畫作,

  • all-over compositions without clear focal points,

    沒有清晰主題的整體構圖,

  • and sweeping swaths of paint embodying and eliciting emotions.

    和表現並誘發情緒 用塗料畫長而寬的彎曲線。

  • The group of artists who are considered Abstract Expressionists

    被視為抽象表現主義的藝術家群,

  • includes Barnett Newman with his existential zips,

    包括巴尼特·紐曼 和他的「存在的拉鏈」、

  • Willem de Kooning, famous for his travestied women,

    以滑稽化女人而聞名的 威廉·德·庫寧、

  • Helen Frankenthaler, who created soak-stains,

    創造滲透染色法的 海倫·弗蘭肯沙勒

  • and others.

    等等。

  • But perhaps the most famous, influential, and head-scratching one

    不過也許最有名、最具影響力 且最令人困惑的

  • was Jackson Pollock.

    還是傑克遜·波洛克。

  • Most of his paintings are immediately recognizable.

    他大部份的作品都可一眼認出。

  • They feature tangled messes of lines of paint

    特徵在於其緃橫交錯的線條

  • bouncing around in every direction on the canvas.

    在畫布上向各個方向躍動。

  • And sure, these fields of chaos are big and impressive,

    沒錯,這樣的混亂既大又令人印象深刻,

  • but what's so great about them?

    但到底有什麼特別呢?

  • Didn't he just drip the paint at random?

    他不就是隨意滴濺作畫嘛?

  • Can't anyone do that?

    誰不會?

  • Well, the answer to these questions is both yes and no.

    答案是對,也是不對。

  • While Pollock implemented a technique anyone is technically capable of

    波洛克使用的技巧的確誰都會,

  • regardless of artistic training,

    有沒有受過美術訓練都一樣,

  • only he could have made his paintings.

    但只有他才做得出他的畫。

  • This paradox relates to his work's roots

    這種矛盾關係到他作品的根源,

  • in the Surrealist automatic drawings of André Masson and others.

    即安德烈·馬松與其他人 超現實主義的無意識繪畫。

  • These Surrealists supposedly drew directly from the unconscious

    一般認為這些超現實派畫家 是利用下意識作畫

  • to reveal truths hidden within their minds.

    以揭露潛藏在心智中的真實面。

  • Occasionally, instead of picturing something and then drawing it,

    有時,他們並沒有預先設想某物 才開始作畫,

  • they let their hands move automatically

    而是讓手自然而然地移動,

  • and would later tease out familiar figures that appeared in the scribbles.

    之後再從塗鴉中梳理出熟悉圖形。

  • And after Pollock moved away from representation,

    波洛克脫離了象徵藝術,

  • he made drip, or action, paintings following a similar premise,

    順著類似前述方式 發展了「滴畫」或稱「行動畫」,

  • though he developed a signature technique

    但研發了自己的招牌技法

  • and never looked for images or messages hidden in the works.

    且從不在他的作品中 尋找隱藏的圖像或訊息。

  • First, he took the canvas off of the easel and laid it on the floor,

    他先從畫架上取下畫布 平鋪在地面上,

  • a subversive act in itself.

    這動作本身即具顛覆性。

  • Then, in a controlled dance, he stepped all around the canvas,

    接著他以有節制的舞步 在畫布各處踩踏,

  • dripping industrial paint onto it from stirrers and other tools,

    邊用攪棒和其他工具滴灑工業漆,

  • changing speed and direction

    同時變換速度與方向

  • to control how the paint made contact with the surface.

    來控制顏料與畫布表面接觸的方式。

  • These movements, like the Surrealist scribbles,

    這些動作就像超現實派的塗鴉

  • were supposedly born out of Pollock's subconscious.

    據稱出於波洛克的潛意識。

  • But unlike the Surrealists,

    但不同於超現實派的是

  • whose pictures represented the mind's hidden contents,

    超現實派畫作 代表心中隱藏的真意,

  • Pollock's supposedly made physical manifestations of his psyche.

    而波洛克的畫則被視為 其心靈的身體表現形式。

  • His paintings are themselves signatures of his mind.

    他的畫作本身 即為他心智的簽名方式。

  • In theory, anyone could make a painting that is an imprint of their mind.

    理論上人人都可以創出 具個人心智印記的畫作。

  • So why is Pollock so special?

    何以波洛克的就與眾不同?

  • Well, it's important to remember that while anyone could have done what he did,

    重要的是,雖然他做的事誰都可以做,

  • he and the rest of the New York School were the ones who actually did it.

    但他與紐約畫派的其他人 是付諸行動的人。

  • They destroyed conventions of painting that had stood for centuries,

    他們打破了好幾世紀以來 屹立不搖的繪畫傳統,

  • forcing the art world to rethink them entirely.

    迫使美術界徹底地重新反思。

  • But one last reason why Jackson Pollock's work has stayed prominent

    再說最後一個波洛克的作品 能維持其突顯地位的原因,

  • stems from the specific objects he made, which embody fascinating contradictions.

    是由於他創作的具體作品 體現了迷人的矛盾感。

  • For instance, while Pollock's process

    比如,雖然波洛克用的技法

  • resulted in radically flat painted surfaces,

    最後完成的是全平面的畫,

  • the web of painted lines can create the illusion of an infinite layered depth

    但當近距離審視時 可體驗到其畫線交織的網

  • when examined up close.

    創造了無限層次的錯覺。

  • And the chaos of this tangled mess seems to defy all control,

    而這緃橫交錯的混亂 似乎完全無法控制,

  • but it's actually the product of a deliberate,

    其實作品是經過深思熟慮的步驟 ─

  • though not pre-planned, process.

    雖未經事先規劃。

  • These characteristics made Pollock into a celebrity,

    這些特色讓波洛克搖身成了名人,

  • and within art history,

    而在美術史中,

  • they also elevated him to the mythified status

    人們也將他的地位提高至神話級,

  • of the genius artist as hero.

    視他為英雄般的天才藝術家。

  • So rather than evening the playing field for all creative minds,

    所以,他的作品並沒有 讓所有創造心智受到同等重視,

  • his work unfortunately reinforced a long-standing elitist aspect of art.

    反而不巧地強化了 存在已久的美術菁英主義。

  • Elitist,

    菁英主義、

  • innovative,

    創新、

  • whatever you choose to call it,

    什麼叫法都可以,

  • the history embedded in Abstract Expressionism

    但深植於抽象表現主義的歷史,

  • is one that no cat, however talented, can claim.

    即便是再有才華的貓 也取代不得。

If you visit a museum with a collection of modern and contemporary art,

若你參觀一間收藏現代藝術的博物館,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 抽象 作品 主義 畫作 表現

【TED-Ed】什麼是抽象表現主義? (What is abstract expressionism? - Sarah Rosenthal)

  • 710 99
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 22 日
影片單字