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  • a lot of people including myself have found the study of world war I to

  • be a little bit confusing sometimes

  • and i think the reason is is the world was very different

  • leading up to World War I than it is today.

  • and to some degree the modern world we live in was shaped

  • to a large degree by war one and later world war two

  • and just to get a sense of what our modern world looks like

  • and especially what modern Europe looks like, this is a map of modern Europe.

  • But the interesting thing about this map is instead of being the traditional map

  • that you normally see where you just see the country boundaries

  • the state boundaries this has a state boundaries right here

  • in these little gray lines they show the where where

  • France and say Switzerland or Germany or Italy begin

  • but overlayed on top of that we see where the languages are spoken

  • so this is actually much more focused on where the people speak French

  • where people speak German

  • and i think that you all noticed for the most part throughout most of europe

  • today's boundaries or modern boundaries closely closely match up

  • to where languages are spoken.

  • There a few areas where this isn't clear, there is more of a disconnect with

  • Catalan and Spanish

  • and actually that is leading to uh... some issues,

  • but for the most part in modern europe the country boundaries and the linguistic

  • boundaries of the national boundaries kind of match up.

  • If we go, if we rewind to the world entering into world war one,

  • things were very different.

  • Some of the boundaries we recognize.

  • We recognize, we recognize the United Kingdom and well, Ireland has since been carved out,

  • but we recognize that as not being that differently than it is today.

  • Spain is not that different,

  • France is not that different,

  • Italy is not that different,

  • Germany is a good bit different.

  • In fact if you take Germany the German empire entering into World War I

  • or in the early nineteen hundred's around

  • 1914,

  • between them and the Russian empire they essentially they essentially were

  • swallowing up a bunch of linguistic groups

  • a bunch of linguistic groups right over here that now have their own independent states.

  • The other thing that you might notice is this huge, this huge state called Austria Hungary

  • often called the Austro-Hungarian empire.

  • And people say Oh you know there's uh... you know I'm familiar with

  • some of these nations that have the word Austria Hungary in them,

  • but i'm not, you know "what is the Austro Hungarian empire" and what's interesting about

  • it is that it really was an empire

  • it was really trying to cobble together all of these folks that

  • spoke all different, all of different types of ethnicities.

  • This is kind of a zoom in of the austro-hungarian empire leading

  • into world war one

  • And the austro-hungarian empire is probably the most

  • important thing to understand if we're trying to get a sense

  • of how world war one started.

  • Because leading up to World War I in 1908, the austro-hungarian empire

  • formally annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina,

  • and that's another confusing thing for many of us but that's actually one country.

  • It's called Bosnia and Herzegovina or I guess for the

  • austro-hungarian that was i guess one region that they annexed

  • and what's interesting about that is if you look at the linguistic map, you see

  • that this whole region right

  • over here speaks a very similar, essentially they are dialects of Serbian

  • Croatian and Bosnian.

  • They're all very linguistically an ethnically connected

  • so this whole region right over here this whole region right over here is

  • linguistically and ethnically connected

  • and we will see is is that this desire to to connect people with similar

  • ethnic or linguistic roots was well huh linguistic

  • backgrounds is what led to a lot of what

  • happened in world war or at least was the sparked that fuel to

  • the people sometimes say the powder keg of world war one

  • the other thing that was very different or the other i

  • guess country or nation or empire that we are not used to today

  • is the Ottoman empire

  • so if we go today we see the could the country of turkey which

  • is kind of on the anatolian peninsula so

  • this is turkey this is turkey right over here this is

  • modern-day turkey

  • but entering into world war one in nineteen fourteen turkey was essentially part

  • of the remnants of the Ottoman empire

  • so this right over here is what the ottoman empire look like

  • this is this is right over here is roughly modern-day

  • turkey

  • but the Ottoman empire consisted of modern-day turkey

  • and much of the modern middle east so much of a

  • specially much of the arab especially the arab

  • world syria iraq lebanon uh...

  • much of what we're modern-day israel is

  • some of saudi arabia

  • this was really the dying state of the ottoman empire did

  • At it'€™s peak it controlled much of the muslim world

  • a controlled northern africa as well as all the stuff that

  • you see here

  • and even a little bit and even a little bit of persia and

  • actually a good bit of the balkan southeast europe and even grease

  • at the peak of its on an empire

  • now i'm talking about going hundreds and hundreds of

  • years back into the past

  • so when we entered the world war two

  • we don't have a world where people kind of our

  • where states are defined by linguistic boundaries or by ethnic

  • boundaries

  • to a large degree we have these empires that has existed that

  • existed as we exited out of the eighteen hundreds

  • and this empires were not just in europe like the austria, austro-hungarian

  • empire

  • or not just in the middle east

  • like the ottoman empire

  • right over here is a kind of an empire map at around that point in time

  • and you see probably the most dominant feature here

  • is the british empire that's in this pink color

  • so braided that's

  • that's united kingdom great britain would just be would just be

  • this right over here

  • you throw in ireland you get the united kingdom the

  • great britain was in control of the indian the entire indian subcontinent

  • it was essentially although nominally Egypt was somewhat independent

  • great britain had a huge amount of influence here

  • obviously places like canada and australia and New Zealand were under the control of

  • or part of the british empire

  • well a lot of people don't realize is that significant amount of africa as well

  • a significant amount of africa was also was also under british control

  • and what we have running up into world war one

  • is kind of a race for empire and arms race between the major powers of europe

  • in particular you have great britain or or the united kingdom

  • that obviously had a vast empire

  • the son never sets on the british empire

  • was a better setting on this empire that we just saw here

  • and the german empire was also starting to flex its muscle and starting and starting

  • to militarized

  • and the more than german side of the british ruled rising

  • the more that the british added that the more the british the more

  • the germans and one or two after militarized and vice versa

  • and you said this arms race

  • and they're all trying to build a empires

  • so the germans the there you they were present in africa

  • you have the french who are present in much of africa

  • and you have to remember all of this in context some of this empire building was frankly

  • just about ego and just about spreading someone's

  • influence supplanting their power uh...

  • a lot of it was uh... based on kind of ethnic beliefs about civilization

  • uh...

  • i guess is a rationalizations to kind a take control of other people's resources

  • and a lot of it was we were in a world where access to resources

  • in particular access to row materials and especially oil uh...

  • could to some degree define whether a a power was a power at all

  • and so with that i think we have a pretty good basis for uh... that

  • the state of affairs as we enter into world war I

a lot of people including myself have found the study of world war I to

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第一次世界大戰前的世界版圖 (Empires before World War I)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 07 日
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