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  • How did Adolf Hitler,

    一位名為希特勒的暴君,

  • a tyrant who orchestrated one of the largest genocides in human history,

    是如何在一個民主國家中掌權,

  • rise to power in a democratic country?

    並揭開人類歷史中最大規模種族屠殺的序幕?

  • The story begins at the end of World War I.

    這要從第一次世界大戰的後期開始說起

  • With the successful Allied advance in 1918,

    1918年,眼看協約國一步步走向勝利,

  • Germany realized the war was unwinnable

    德國明白自己已經不可能扭轉情勢,

  • and signed an armistice ending the fighting.

    就簽署了休戰書,結束了這場戰爭

  • As its imperial government collapsed,

    當德意志帝國在戰後瓦解,

  • civil unrest and worker strikes spread across the nation.

    人民恐慌和罷工席捲全國

  • Fearing a Communist revolution,

    因對共產革命的恐懼,

  • major parties joined to suppress the uprisings,

    為了避免共產分子有所動作,多數政黨同意合作,

  • establishing the parliamentary Weimar Republic.

    建立了以議會制度為基礎的威瑪共和國

  • One of the new government's first tasks

    這個新政府首要的挑戰,

  • was implementing the peace treaty imposed by the Allies.

    就是實踐協約國強加在他們身上的不平等條約,

  • In addition to losing over a tenth of its territory and dismantling its army,

    包括割讓10分之1的領土,和裁減軍隊數量

  • Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war and pay reparations,

    德國必須負起責任,承擔所有戰爭的損失,

  • debilitating its already weakened economy.

    天價的補償重創國家經濟

  • All this was seen as a humiliation by many nationalists and veterans.

    許多國家主義者和退伍軍人認為這使德國蒙羞

  • They wrongly believed the war could have been won

    他們誤以為如果政客和抗議者沒有背叛在前線作戰的軍人,

  • if the army hadn't been betrayed by politicians and protesters.

    德國一定能成為戰勝國

  • For Hitler, these views became obsession,

    對希特勒來說,這些觀點深深令他著了魔,

  • and his bigotry and paranoid delusions led him to pin the blame on Jews.

    而他頑固又偏執的想法讓他把全加諸於猶太人身上

  • His words found resonance in a society with many anti-Semitic people.

    他的想法受到來自國家各地反猶太主義者的廣大回響

  • By this time, hundreds of thousands of Jews

    在這之前,

  • had integrated into German society,

    成千上萬的猶太人已經融入了德國社會,

  • but many Germans continued to perceive them as outsiders.

    然而有很多德國人仍然將他們視為外來移民

  • After World War I, Jewish success led to ungrounded accusations

    第一次世界大戰之後,猶太人莫名其妙被冠上不實的罪名,

  • of subversion and war profiteering.

    包括戰時煽動和不正當獲利

  • It can not be stressed enough that these conspiracy theories

    這些陰謀論是因為恐懼、

  • were born out of fear,

    憤怒、

  • anger,

    偏執

  • and bigotry,

    並且背離事實出現的,

  • not fact.

    仍然還無法對德國社會構成威脅

  • Nonetheless, Hitler found success with them.

    然而,希特勒從這個社會氛圍中嗅到了成功的氣息

  • When he joined a small nationalist political party,

    他加入了一個由國家主義者成立的小黨,

  • his manipulative public speaking launched him into its leadership

    他技巧性的演講讓他順利取得了政黨的領導權,

  • and drew increasingly larger crowds.

    也吸引了越來越多群眾的注目

  • Combining anti-Semitism with populist resentment,

    融合了反猶情節和人民黨員的憎惡,

  • the Nazis denounced both Communism and Capitalism

    納粹黨指責共產主義和資本主義,

  • as international Jewish conspiracies to destroy Germany.

    聲稱這都是猶太人想要推翻德國的陰謀

  • The Nazi party was not initially popular.

    起初,納粹並不太受歡迎

  • After they made an unsuccessful attempt at overthrowing the government,

    在他們第一次試圖推翻政府之後,

  • the party was banned,

    國家就禁止了納粹黨,

  • and Hitler jailed for treason.

    並以叛國罪監禁他

  • But upon his release about a year later,

    然而,在他被釋放的一年後,

  • he immediately began to rebuild the movement.

    他隨即開始重新籌備下一波的行動

  • And then, in 1929, the Great Depression happened.

    接著,在1929年發生了經濟大蕭條

  • It led to American banks withdrawing their loans from Germany,

    促使美國銀行撤回對德國的貸款

  • and the already struggling German economy collapsed overnight.

    讓原本經濟低迷的德國在一夜之間跌入谷底

  • Hitler took advantage of the people's anger,

    希特勒順著局勢,利用人們的憤怒,

  • offering them convenient scapegoats

    使猶太人作為代罪羔羊,

  • and a promise to restore Germany's former greatness.

    並且承諾要恢復光榮德意志

  • Mainstream parties proved unable to handle the crisis

    當左翼政黨因為爭執而支離破碎後,

  • while left-wing opposition was too fragmented by internal squabbles.

    政府承認已經沒有能力去處理這個危機

  • And so some of the frustrated public flocked to the Nazis,

    因此,一大群心灰意冷的人民轉而支持納粹,

  • increasing their parliamentary votes from under 3% to over 18% in just two years.

    讓他們在國會得票率在兩年內,從3%增長到了18%

  • In 1932, Hitler ran for president,

    1932年,希特勒參加總統競選,

  • losing the election to decorated war hero General von Hindenburg.

    但輸給了一個被塑造成一戰英雄的將軍 von HIndenburg

  • But with 36% of the vote, Hitler had demonstrated the extent of his support.

    不過因為得到36%的支持率,希特勒知道自己在一定程度上仍然受到許多人支持

  • The following year, advisors and business leaders

    隔年,許多企業家和顧問,

  • convinced Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor,

    建議Hindenburg指定希特勒為議會首長,

  • hoping to channel his popularity for their own goals.

    希望能夠透過這樣的舉動,再度打響希特勒的知名度

  • Though the Chancellor was only the administrative head of parliament,

    雖然他只獲得了議會首長的職位,

  • Hitler steadily expanded the power of his position.

    但希特勒卻一步步扎實的擴張自己的權利

  • While his supporters formed paramilitary groups

    而他的支持者已組成了輔助軍隊的團體

  • and fought protestors in streets.

    開始對示威者有攻擊性行為

  • Hitler raised fears of a Communist uprising

    希特勒擔心會有共產主義的反撲,

  • and argued that only he could restore law and order.

    因此宣稱只有他能夠恢復法治

  • Then in 1933,

    接著,在1933年,

  • a young worker was convicted of setting fire to the parliament building.

    有一個年輕工人被指控在議會縱火

  • Hitler used the event to convince the government

    希特勒就利用了這個機會去說服政府,

  • to grant him emergency powers.

    讓他在緊急情況下能有大一點的權力

  • Within a matter of months, freedom of the press was abolished,

    在一個月內,媒體自由被剝奪了

  • other parties were disbanded,

    其他政黨都解散了,

  • and anti-Jewish laws were passed.

    所有反猶的法律都通過議會審查

  • Many of Hitler's early radical supporters were arrested and executed,

    許多在初期支持希特勒的激進份子,或是潛在的敵人

  • along with potential rivals,

    都被逮捕,甚至遭到處決,

  • and when President Hindenburg died in August 1934,

    而當Hindenburg總統在1934年八月逝世,

  • it was clear there would be no new election.

    很明顯地,不會再有總統大選

  • Disturbingly, many of Hitler's early measures didn't require mass repression.

    不斷地,希特勒早期採取的措施並非大量鎮壓

  • His speeches exploited people's fear and ire

    他的演講可以引誘出人民的忿恨與恐懼,

  • to drive their support behind him and the Nazi party.

    促使他們支持納粹、支持希特勒

  • Meanwhile, businessmen and intellectuals,

    同時,許多企業家和知識分子,

  • wanting to be on the right side of public opinion,

    希望自己能不違背大眾的意志,

  • endorsed Hitler.

    並認可了希特勒

  • They assured themselves and each other

    他們說服自己和彼此,

  • that his more extreme rhetoric was only for show.

    希特勒使用的極端用詞不過只是為了作秀、爭取選票

  • Decades later, Hitler's rise remains a warning

    幾十年過去了,希特勒不斷上漲的人氣,

  • of how fragile democratic institutions can be in the face of angry crowds

    警告世界各國,在忿恨的群眾面前,

  • and a leader willing to feed their anger and exploit their fears.

    和善於利用群眾情緒的領導人,民主制度是很脆弱的

How did Adolf Hitler,

一位名為希特勒的暴君,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 希特勒 德國 猶太人 議會 政黨

【TED-Ed】一探希特勒出頭的歷程(中英字幕) (How did Hitler rise to power? - Alex Gendler and Anthony Hazard)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2016 年 10 月 07 日
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