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  • This is a story about a world of obsessed with stuff.

    這是個關於沈溺於物質的世界的故事

  • It's a story about a system in crisis. We're trashing the planet,

    一個岌岌可危的系統的故事 我們糟蹋這個地球

  • we're trashing each other, and we're not even having fun.

    我們還互相糟蹋 卻一點都不覺得快樂

  • the good thing is that when we start to understand the system

    好消息是當我們開始 瞭解這個制度時

  • we start to see lots of places to step in and turn these problems into solutions

    就開始看到許多可以介入之處 把問題變成解決方法

  • The other day, I couldn’t find my computer charger.

    有一天,我忽然找不到電腦的充電器。

  • My computer is my lifeline to my work, my friends, my music.

    糟糕,電腦是我跟工作、 朋友和音樂連結的命根子啊!

  • So I looked everywhere,

    我東找西找

  • even in that drawer where this lives.

    連專門放這團充電器的抽屜都找遍了

  • I know you have one too, a tangle of old chargers,

    你大概也有這麼一個抽屜,裡面那堆糾纏不清的舊式充電器

  • the sad remains of electronics past.

    都是以前用過電子產品剩下來的

  • How did I end up with so many of these things?

    我怎麼會累積這麼多充電器呢?

  • It’s not like I’m always after the latest gadget.

    我可不是那種新產品一推出就要趕去買的人

  • My old devices broke or became so obsolete I couldn’t use them anymore.

    但偏偏舊款的東西不是壞了, 就是太過時而不能用

  • And not one of these old chargers fits my computer.

    而且沒有一個舊充電器跟我的新電腦相容

  • Augh. This isn’t just bad luck.

    哇咧~這不只是運氣差

  • It’s bad design.

    根本就是設計爛

  • I call itdesigned for the dump.”

    這些東西簡直就是「為丟棄而設計」

  • Designed for the dumpsounds crazy, right?

    「為丟棄而設計」聽起來很瘋狂是吧?

  • But when youre trying to sell lots of stuff, it makes perfect sense.

    但如果你的目的是要盡快賣出很多東西, 這邏輯就很有道理了

  • It’s a key strategy

    這可是

  • of the companies that make our electronics.

    電子產品公司的關鍵策略

  • In fact it’s a key part of our whole unsustainable materials economy.

    事實上,「為丟棄而設計」也是 構成整個不永續的物質經濟的關鍵

  • Designed for the dump means making stuff to be thrown away quickly.

    「為丟棄而設計」意謂著「讓產品很快被丟掉」

  • Today’s electronics are hard to upgrade, easy to break, and impractical to repair.

    現在的電子產品難以升級、 容易損壞,要修理更是不切實際

  • My DVD player broke and I took it to a shop to get fixed.

    我的DVD播放器壞了,拿去店裡修

  • The repair guy wanted $50 just to look at it!

    維修人員光是看一看那台機器就要收我50美元

  • A new one at Target costs $39.

    而量販店架上的新貨才39美元!

  • In the 1960s, Gordon Moore, the giant brain and semiconductor pioneer,

    話說1960年代,高登‧摩爾這位天才, 也是半導體業界的先驅

  • predicted that electronics designers could double

    曾經預言:「設計師每18個月

  • processor speed every 18 months.

    就能讓處理器的速度加快一倍。」

  • So far he’s been right.

    到目前他都是對的

  • This is called Moore’s Law.

    這叫「摩爾定律」

  • But somehow the bosses of these genius designers got it all twisted up.

    可是不知怎的,這些天才設計師的老闆 把摩爾的原意完全扭曲了

  • They seem to think Moore’s Law means every 18 months we have to throw out our old electronics

    他們似乎認為摩爾定律指的是:每18個月, 我們就該把舊款電子產品丟掉

  • and buy more. 0:02:06.900,0:02:07.289 Problem is, 0:02:07.289,0:02:11.659 the 18 months that we use these things are just a blip in their entire lifecycle.

    然後買個新的 0:02:06.900,0:02:07.289 問題是 0:02:07.289,0:02:11.659 我們使用這些東西的18個月, 不過是整個產品生命週期中的一瞬間

  • And that’s where these dump designers aren’t just causing a pain in our wallets.

    足見這些垃圾設計師 不只讓我們的荷包失血

  • Theyre creating a global toxic emergency!

    還製造了全球的毒害危機!

  • See, electronics start where most stuff starts, in mines and factories.

    電子產品的源頭跟其他東西差不多 不外礦坑和工廠

  • Many of our gadgets are made from more than 1,000 different materials,

    我們使用的許多電子產品 都是由上千種原料製成

  • shipped from around the world to assembly plants. There, workers turn them into products,

    這些原料從世界各地運送到組裝工廠 在那裡,工人用一堆有毒的化學物

  • using loads of toxic chemicals, like PVC, mercury, solvents and flame retardants.

    像是PVC、汞、溶劑、阻燃劑, 把材料組裝成產品。

  • Today this usually happens in far off places that are hard to monitor.

    這類加工通常都在偏遠的地方進行 很難監督控管

  • But it used to happen near my home, in Silicon Valley,

    不過,這種事以前可是發生在我家附近,也就是矽谷

  • which thanks to the electronics industry is one of the most poisoned communities

    多虧了電子業,讓這裡成為 美國毒害最嚴重的地區之一

  • in the U.S.

    IBM公司本身的資料顯示, 製造電腦晶片的女性員工流產機率比一般婦女高出40%

  • IBM’s own data revealed that its workers making computer chips had 40% more miscarriages

    而且明顯比一般人更容易死於 血癌、腦癌、腎癌

  • and were significantly more likely to die from blood, brain and kidney cancer.

    同樣的事情,也在世界各地發生

  • The same thing is starting to happen all around the world.

    原來,高科技產業 並不像表面看來那樣乾淨

  • Turns out the high tech industry isn’t as clean as its image.

    這些產品在完成環遊世界的毒害之旅後, 到了我手上

  • So, after its toxic trip around the globe, the gadget lands in my hands.

    被我寵愛大概一年後, 逐漸失去了我的歡心

  • I love it for a year or so and then it starts drifting further

    退出我的書桌或口袋

  • from its place of honor on my desk or in my pocket.

    或許會躺在車庫裡一陣子

  • Maybe it spends a little time in my garage

    最後被掃地出門

  • before being tossed out.

    接下來我們來看看它的廢棄處理

  • And that brings us to disposal,

    我們以為電子產品將就此結束生命

  • which we think of as the end of its life.

    其實它們只是被搬到 我們每年製造的電子垃圾山上

  • But really it’s just moved on to become part of the mountains of e-waste we make every year.

    還記得這些電子產品在組裝過程中,如何被塞滿有毒化學物嗎? 嗯,產品製造有一項簡單原則

  • Remember how these devices were packed with toxic chemicals? Well there’s a simple rule of production:

    就是:毒物進,毒物出

  • toxics in, toxics out.

    電腦、手機、電視...所有這些東西 都等著在我們拋棄它們後,

  • Computers, cell phones, TVs, all this stuff, is just waiting to release all their toxics

    釋放所有蘊含其中的有毒物質

  • when we throw them away.

    有些產品甚至在我們還在使用時, 就已經慢慢釋放毒素了

  • Some of them are slowly releasing this stuff even while were using them.

    你知道那種龐大笨重的舊款電視吧? 人們有了高畫質液晶螢幕後就把它丟掉

  • You know those fat, old TVs that people are chucking for high-def flat screens?

    但每一台舊電視機都含有5磅的鉛 鉛耶!鉛中毒的鉛耶!

  • They each have about 5 pounds of lead in them. Lead! As in lead poisoning!

    所有的電子廢棄物要不是從我的車庫流浪到垃圾掩埋場, 就是被運到海外,

  • So almost all this e-waste either goes from my garage to a landfill or it gets shipped overseas to the garage

    交給中國貴嶼的廢棄物回收場處理

  • workshop of some guy in Guiyu, China whose job it is to recycle it.

    我造訪過一堆這種所謂的「回收處理場」

  • I’ve visited a bunch of these so-called recycling operations.

    工人沒戴任何護具,坐在地上, 砸碎電器,回收裡面有價值的金屬

  • Workers, without protective gear, sit on the ground, smashing open electronics to recover the valuable

    然後把其他沒賺頭的零件扔掉或燒掉

  • metals inside and chucking or burning the parts no one will pay them for.

    也就是說,當我看上某個電子新歡的時候

  • So while I’m on to my next gadget,

    我的上一個舊愛正在十萬八千里外

  • my last gadget is off

    毒害著貴嶼、印度、奈及利亞的家庭

  • poisoning families in Guiyu or India or Nigeria.

    我們每年製造2,500萬噸的電子廢棄物

  • Each year we make 25 million tonnes of e-waste

    這些廢棄物不是被棄置、燒掉,就是被回收

  • which gets dumped, burned or recycled.

    但那種「回收」壓根談不上環保

  • And that recycling is anything but green.

    難道這些電子產品的天才設計師其實… 想要害人嗎?我想並非如此

  • So are the geniuses who design these electronics actually... evil geniuses? I don’t think so,

    我認為他們製造出來的問題被巧妙遮掩起來, 連設計師自己也被瞞過了

  • because the problems theyre creating are well hidden even from them.

    這些設計師所效力的公司

  • You see, the companies they work

    讓他們看不到這些攸關人類健康和環境的成本 也不登帳

  • for keep these human and environmental costs out of sight and off their accounting books.

    也就是把生產的實際成本外部化了

  • It’s all about externalizing the true costs of production.

    這些公司省下維護設施安全的成本 卻讓員工付出生命健康的代價

  • Instead of companies paying to make their facilities safe the workers pay with their health.

    這些公司省掉重新設計低毒害產品的費用 卻讓村民付出失去乾淨飲水的代價

  • Instead of them paying to redesign using less toxics villagers pay by losing their clean drinking water.

    將成本外部化,讓這些企業得以持續「為丟棄而設計」

  • Externalizing costs allows companies to keep designing for the dump

    也就是利潤自己賺,代價別人付

  • they get the profits and everyone else pays.

    如果我們繼續默許這種事 幾乎就等於放任企業製造毒害亂象 ,還對他們說:

  • When we go along with it, it’s like were looking at this toxic mess and saying to companies

    「你製造,我收拾。」

  • you made it, but well deal with it.”

    我有個更好的主意: 「你製造,你收拾」如何?

  • I’ve got a better idea. How aboutyou made it, you deal with it”?

    這樣不是更合理嗎?

  • Doesn’t that make more sense?

    試想,如果把這些堆滿我們車庫

  • Imagine that instead of all this toxic e-waste piling up

    和貴嶼街道的有毒電子廢棄物

  • in our garages and the streets of Guiyu,

    全都運到那些把它們製造出來的CEO車庫裡

  • we sent it to the garages of the CEOs who made it.

    這些CEO一定馬上打電話給設計師

  • You can bet that they’d be on the phone to their designers demanding they

    叫他們停止設計垃圾

  • stop designing for the dump.

    要求企業處理他們所製造的電子廢棄物, 叫做「生產者延伸責任」

  • Making companies deal with their e-waste is called Extended Producer Responsibility

    或「生產者回收」

  • or Product Takeback.

    如果所有舊產品都成為生產者必須解決的問題

  • If all these old gadgets were their problem,

    那麼這些企業從一開始 就會設計出更耐用、毒性更低

  • it would be cheaper for them to just design longer lasting, less toxic,

    更容易回收的產品

  • and more recyclable products in the first place.

    他們甚至可以建立標準化模組 這麼一來,如果哪個零件壞掉了

  • They could even make them modular, so that when one part broke,

    他們可以直接寄一個新零件給我們, 而不用回收整台產品

  • they could just send us a new piece, instead of taking back the whole broken mess.

    歐洲和亞洲各國已紛紛制定有關 「生產者延伸責任」的法律

  • Already takeback laws are popping up all over Europe and Asia.

    美國的許多州和城市也通過了類似的法律

  • In the U.S. many cities and states are passing similar laws

    但這些法律需要保護和加強

  • these need to be protected and strengthened.

    是時候讓那些設計天才和我們並肩合作了

  • It’s time to get these brainiacs working on our side.

    藉由「生產者延伸責任」的相關法律, 以及要求電子產品更環保的公民行動

  • With takeback laws and citizen action to demand greener products,

    我們將發起一場卓越競賽, 讓設計師比賽設計最耐用

  • we are starting a race to the top, where designers compete to make long-lasting,

    而且無毒的產品

  • toxic-free products.

    讓我們寫下「環保摩爾定律」吧

  • So, let’s have a green Moore’s law.

    「每18個月,有毒化學物使用量減半」,如何?

  • How about:

    還有,讓受毒害工人的數目 以更快的速度減少,怎麼樣?

  • the use of toxic chemicals will be cut in half every 18 months?

    我們要給這些設計師一項令他們振奮的挑戰, 並讓他們做最擅長的事

  • The number of workers poisoned will decline at an even faster rate?

    創新

  • We need to give these designers a challenge they can rise to and do what they do best

    這些設計師當中, 有人已經領悟到自己的聰明才智不該浪費在設計垃圾

  • innovate.

    他們現在正在想辦法 不使用PVC和有毒阻燃劑來製造電腦

  • Already, some of them are realizing theyre too smart to be dump designers

    真是幹得好!

  • and are figuring out how to make computers without PVC or toxic flame retardants.

    但我們還可以做得更多

  • Good job guys.

    當我們要把電子廢棄物交給資源回收商時

  • But we can do even more.

    要確認他們不會把這些廢棄物 出口到發展中國家

  • When we take our e-waste to recyclers,

    當我們真的需要購買新的電子產品時, 要選擇更環保的產品

  • we can make sure they don’t export it to developing countries.

    不過真相是: 我們不可能光靠著改變消費行為,就解決這個問題

  • And when we do need to buy new gadgets, we can choose greener products.

    因為消費者在商店內的選擇, 是由商店外的設計師與決策者決定的

  • But the truth is: we are never going to just shop our way out of this problem

    因此,我們需要更多人通力合作 要求政府制定更全面且嚴格的法律

  • because the choices available to us at the store are limited by choices of designers

    來限制毒性化學物質的使用, 並禁止電子廢棄物的出口

  • and policymakers outside of the store. That’s why we need to join with others to demand

    全球有數十億人口想要遨遊在 電子產品打造出來的

  • stronger laws on toxic chemicals and on banning e-waste exports.

    資訊及娛樂網路中

  • There are billions of people out there who want access to the incredible web of information

    但他們要的是資訊和娛樂

  • and entertainment electronics offer.

    而不是有毒垃圾!

  • But it’s the access they want,

    所以,讓我們集思廣益、同心協力

  • not all that toxic garbage.

    揚棄「為丟棄而設計」的思維

  • So let’s get our brains working on sending that old design for the

    建立環保而永續的電子產業和全球社會

  • dump mentality to the dump where it belongs and instead

  • building an electronics industry and a global society that’s designed to last.

This is a story about a world of obsessed with stuff.

這是個關於沈溺於物質的世界的故事

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B1 中級 中文 產品 電子 廢棄物 設計師 有毒 回收

電子產品的故事 The Story of Electronics

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 03 日
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