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  • This is a story about a world obsessed with stuff.

    這是個關於沈溺於物質的世界的故事

  • It's a story about a system in crisis.

    一個岌岌可危的系統的故事

  • We're trashing the planet,

    我們糟蹋這個地球

  • we're trashing each other, and we're not even having fun.

    我們還互相糟蹋,卻一點都不覺得快樂

  • The good thing is that when we start to understand the system,

    好消息是當我們開始瞭解這個制度時

  • we start to see lots of places to step in and turn these problems into solutions.

    就開始看到許多可以介入之處 把問題變成解決方法

  • I am so glad that the world is finally getting together to try to stop climate change.

    我很高興世界終於團結起來 一起嘗試阻止氣候變遷

  • When I first heard that our leaders were meeting to talk about solutions, I breathed a huge sigh of relief.

    當我第一次聽說各國領導人要 會面討論氣候變遷的解決方案時我大大地鬆了一口氣

  • Didn't you?

    你也是吧?

  • Then I said, wait a minute.

    然後我說,等一下

  • What exactly are they planning to do about this problem? So I looked into it.

    他們到底打算怎麼處理這個問題? 於是我做了點調查

  • And I gotta tell you, not all the solutions they're working on are what I'd call solutions.

    然後我必須告訴你們 他們著手的解決方案,並不盡然我會稱之為解決方案

  • In fact, the leading solution, known as cap and trade - or emissions trading - is actually a huge problem.

    事實上,最主要的解決方式 稱為總量管制與交易制度,或者說排放量交易制其實是個大問題

  • Now I know this is the last thing you want to hear,

    我知道你不想再聽到這種事

  • but the future of our planet is at stake, so we gotta take the time to understand what's going on here.

    但是我們地球的未來正面臨危機 所以我們必須花時間來瞭解到底發生了什麼事

  • Okay, meet the guys at the heart of this so-called solution.

    好,我們來看看這個 號稱是解決方案的核心成員有誰

  • They include the guys from Enron who designed energy trading,

    包括設計能源交易的恩隆企業

  • and the Wall Street financiers like Goldman Sachs who gave us the sub-prime mortgage crisis.

    還包括高盛等華爾街金融機構 他們引發了次級房貸危機

  • Their job is to develop brand new markets.

    他們的任務是開發全新市場

  • They stake their claims and then when everyone and their grandmother wants in,

    他們提出一些主張 然後當每個人和他們的奶奶都想參一腳時

  • they make off with huge amounts of money as the market becomes a giant bubble and then bursts.

    他們就捲款潛逃 讓市場變成一個大泡泡,然後泡泡就破了

  • Well their latest bubble just burst and now they've got a new idea for a market - trading carbon pollution.

    上一個泡泡剛破掉 現在又有了市場的新點子:交易碳污染

  • They're about to develop a new three trillion dollar bubble,

    他們即將開發出一個價值 三兆美元的新泡泡

  • but when this one bursts, it won't just take down our stock portfolios, it could take down everything!

    但是當這個泡泡破掉時 它不只會搞垮我們的股票投資 還可能會毀滅一切

  • So how does cap and trade work?

    那麼到底總量管制與交易制度怎麼運作?

  • Well, pretty much all serious scientists agree that we need to reduce the amount of carbon

    幾乎所有科學家都同意 我們需要降低

  • in the atmosphere to three-hundred fifty parts per million

    大氣層的碳含量到350ppm

  • if we want to avoid climate disaster.

    才能避免發生氣候災難

  • In the U.S., that means reducing our emissions by eighty percent - maybe even more - by 2050.

    就美國而言,也就是在西元2050年前 排放量必須降低80%以上

  • Eighty percent!

    天哪!80%!

  • Now the problem is that most of our global economy runs on burning fossil fuels,

    現在的問題是 我們全球經濟幾乎是靠著燃燒化石燃料來運作

  • which releases carbon:

    而化石燃料會釋放碳

  • the factories that make all our stuff, the ships and trucks that carry it around the world, our

    替我們製造一切用品的工廠 運送到世界各地的船隻和貨車

  • cars and buildings and appliances, just about everything.

    我們的汽車和大樓和電氣用品 幾乎每樣東西都是

  • So, how are we gonna reduce carbon eighty percent and not go back to living like Little

    那麼我們該怎麼減少80%的碳 而又不需要回到

  • House on the Prairie?

    以前住在草原小屋的生活呢?

  • Well, these Cap and Trade guys are saying that a new carbon stock market is the best way to get it done.

    總量管制與交易制度提倡者說 全新的碳股票市場是達到這個目的最佳方式

  • The first step would be getting governments around the world to agree to a yearly limit on carbon emissions.

    第一步就是讓世界各地的政府 對每年的碳排放量限額達成共識

  • That's the "cap".

    這就是「總量管制」

  • I think that part's great.

    我認為這想法非常棒

  • So how do they want to insure that carbon emissions stay under this cap?

    那麼他們打算如何確保碳排放量 維持在限額內呢?

  • Well, governments would distribute a certain amount of permits to pollute.

    政府會分配某個數量的碳排放權

  • Every year there would be fewer and fewer permits as we follow the cap to our goal.

    每年分配的碳權會愈來愈少

  • Innovative companies will get on board building clean alternatives and getting more efficient.

    創新公司會加入 發展清潔的替代技術 而隨著我們運用總量管制向目標邁進時

  • As permits get scarcer,

    隨著碳權變得愈來愈稀少

  • they would also become more valuable, so naturally, companies who have extra will want to sell them to companies who still need them.

    他們也會變得愈來愈有價值 所以自然而然地,有額外額度的公司 就會想把它們賣給需要更多額度的公司

  • That's where trading comes in.

    於是就有了交易

  • The logic is as long as we stay under the cap, it doesn't matter who pollutes and who innovates.

    其中的邏輯是,只要我們能維持在限額下的話 不管是誰在污染或誰在創新都沒有關係

  • We'll meet our climate deadline, avoiding catastrophe.

    我們將會達到我們為改善氣候所設下目標期限 並避開災難

  • And oh yeah, these guys take their fee as they broker this multi-trillion dollar carbon racket, I mean market.

    而且別忘了 這些人在仲介這個價值數兆美元的碳交易勾當時 我是說碳市場,還會順便賺走一筆費用

  • Save the planet, get rich,

    拯救地球賺大錢

  • what's not to like, right?

    誰不喜歡呢?對吧?

  • Some of my friends who really care about our future support cap and trade.

    我有些朋友真的很關心我們的未來 所以他們支持總量管制與交易制度

  • A lot of environmental groups that I respect do, too.

    還有許多我尊敬的環保團體也支持

  • They know it's not a perfect solution and don't love the idea of turning our planet's future over to these guys,

    他們知道這並非完美的解決方式 也不喜歡把我們的地球交給這些人管理

  • but they think that it is an important first step and that it's better than nothing.

    這是很重要的第一步 而且總比什麼都不做還要好

  • I am not so sure.

    我並不怎麼確定

  • And I'm not the only one.

    我並非是唯一這麼想的人

  • A growing movement of scientists, students, farmers, and forward thinking business people are saying "wait a minute!"

    有愈來愈多的科學家、學生、農夫 和思想前衛的商業人士都在說「等一等」

  • In fact even the economists who invented the cap and trade system to deal with simpler problems

    事實上,甚至連為了處理像肥料污染和二氧化硫 等較簡單問題

  • like fertilizer pollution and sulfur dioxide,

    而發明總量管制和交易制度的經濟學家

  • say cap and trade will never work for climate change. Here's why I think they're right.

    都認為總量管制和交易制度對氣候變遷沒有效果 以下的理由讓我認為他們是對的

  • When it comes to any kind of financial scam,

    當談到次級房貸或馬多夫詐欺案

  • like subprime mortgages or Bernie Madoff's pyramid scheme,

    等各式各樣的金融詐欺案時

  • the devil is always in the details. And there are a lot of devils in the details of the

    駭人之處總是在細節部份 而且檯面上的總量控制和交易制度的提案裡

  • cap and trade proposals on the table.

    其細節就藏有很多駭人之處

  • Devil number one is known as Free Permits, which is why some people call this system

    第一項駭人之處,就是免費碳權 這就是為什麼有些人稱這個制度為

  • Cap and Giveaway.

    「總量管制和贈送制度」

  • In this scheme, industrial polluters will get the vast majority of these valuable permits for free.

    在這個制度中 工業污染者取得的這些寶貴碳權 有大部分都是免費的

  • Free!

    免費的耶!

  • The more they've been polluting, the more they'll get. It's like we're thanking them for creating

    他們製造愈多的污染,就可以得到愈多的免費碳權 這根本就像是

  • this problem in the first place.

    我們在感謝他們製造出這些問題

  • In Europe where they tried a Cap and Giveaway system,

    歐洲就嘗試了總量管制和贈送制度

  • the value of the permits bounced around like crazy, energy costs jumped for consumers, and guess what?

    碳權的價格因此瘋狂上揚, 消費者的能源成本也跟著上升,你猜發生什麼事?

  • Carbon emissions actually went up!

    碳排放量反而跟著上升!

  • The only part that did work was that the polluters made billions of dollars in extra profits.

    唯一成功的地方是,污染者賺到了數十億美元的額外利潤

  • MIT economists say the same thing would likely happen here in the US.

    MIT經濟學家說美國也可能會發生同樣的事情

  • Those billions come from OUR pockets.

    那數十億美元的金錢來自我們的口袋

  • A real solution would put that money to work stopping climate change.

    而真正的解決方法 應該會把那些錢用在阻止氣候變遷上

  • Instead of just giving permits away to polluters,

    與其把碳權送給污染者

  • we could sell them and use the money to: build a clean energy economy

    我們其實可以賣給他們,然後把錢用在以下事項: 建造乾淨的能源經濟

  • or give citizens a dividend to help pay for higher fuel prices while we transition

    或發紅利給市民,協助他們支付在向乾淨能源經濟轉型期間

  • to that clean energy economy

    會變貴的燃料價格

  • or share it with those who are most harmed by climate change.

    或是分給受氣候變遷傷害最嚴重的人

  • Some people call this paying our ecological debt.

    有些人稱之為償付我們的生態債

  • Since we in the richest countries released the most carbon for centuries, and lived a pretty

    由於住在最富裕國家中的我們 幾個世紀以來釋放出最多的碳

  • comfy lifestyle in the process,

    同時又過著相當舒適的生活方式

  • don't we have a responsibility to help those most harmed?

    難道我們沒有責任幫助那些 受到最多傷害的人嗎?

  • It's like we had a big party, didn't invite our neighbors and then stuck 'em with the clean up bill.

    這就好比說我們舉辦一場大型派對 卻沒邀請我們的鄰居,然後再把收拾殘局的 帳單丟給他們付

  • It's just not cool.

    實在很不酷

  • Did you know that in the next century, because of the changing climate, whole island nations could end up underwater

    你知不知道到了下個世紀 所有島嶼國家都會因為氣候變遷 而降到水面下

  • and the UN says 9 out of 10 African farmers could lose their ability to grow food.

    聯合國還說非洲農夫中 十個有九個會失去他們農作的能力

  • Wouldn't a real solution benefit these people instead of just polluters?

    真正的解決方法應該是要讓這些人受益 而不是污染者,不是嗎?

  • Devil number two is called Offsetting.

    第二項駭人之處叫做抵減

  • Offset permits are created when a company supposedly removes or reduces carbon.

    當一家公司做了應該會移除或降低碳數量的事情時 就會產生被稱之為「抵減」的碳權

  • They then get a permit which can be sold to a polluter who wants permission to emit more carbon.

    然後他們就可以把取得的抵減碳權 賣給想要釋放更多碳的污染者

  • In theory, one activity offsets the other.

    理論上來說,一項活動可以抵銷另一項活動

  • The danger with offsets is it's very hard to guarantee that real carbon is being removed

    抵減的風險在於,我們很難保證 是否真的有碳被移除

  • to create the permit. Yet these permits are worth real money.

    以產生抵減碳權 然而這些碳權卻是相當值錢的

  • This creates a very dangerous incentive to create false offsets - to cheat.

    如此就產生了捏造抵減的危險動機 也就是作弊

  • Now in some cases cheating isn't the end of the world,

    就某些情況而言,作弊並不是世界末日

  • but in this case it is.

    但是就這個情況來說 作弊卻是世界末日

  • And already there's a lot of cheating going on.

    而且目前早已有許多作弊的行為發生

  • Like, in Indonesia,

    好比說,印尼的

  • Sinar Mas corporation cut down indigenous forests, causing major ecological and cultural destruction.

    Sinar Mas公司砍伐原始林 造成重大生態和文化浩劫

  • Then, they took the wasteland they created and planted palm oil trees.

    然後他們在他們造成的荒地上種植棕櫚樹

  • Guess what they can get for it.

    你猜他們因此得到什麼呢?

  • Yup, offset permits.

    沒錯,就是抵減碳權。

  • Carbon out?

    有減到碳嗎?

  • No.

    才沒有

  • Carbon in? You bet.

    碳增加了嗎?當然

  • Companies can even earn offsets for not doing anything at all.

    甚至有公司可以什麼都不做 就獲得抵減

  • Like, operators of a polluting factory can claim they were planning to expand

    好比說,污染工廠的經營人可以宣稱

  • two-hundred percent,

    他們打算擴廠200%

  • but reduced the plans to expand only one-hundred percent.

    但是後來把計畫縮減到只擴廠100%

  • For that meaningless claim, they get offset permits -

    由於這麼一段無意義的聲明 他們就可以獲得抵減碳權

  • permits that they can sell to someone else to make more pollution!

    然後就可以把碳權賣給別人 讓別人製造更多的污染!

  • That is so stupid!

    這真是愚蠢!

  • The list of scams goes on and many of the worst ones happen in the so-called

    這種詐欺的項目數不清 而且許多最糟糕的詐欺情況都發生在所謂的

  • Third World

    第三世界裡

  • where big business does whatever it wants, to whomever it wants.

    在那邊大企業可以為所欲為、無視於人

  • And with lax standards and regulations on offsets they can get permits for just about anything.

    而且由於抵減的標準和法規相當寬鬆 所以他們幾乎可以隨隨便便就獲得碳權

  • Devils one and two, Cap & Giveaway and Offsetting,

    第一項和第二項駭人之處: 總量管制和贈送制度以及抵減

  • make the system unfair and ineffective.

    更是使這一切變得危險 都讓這個制度變得不公平且沒有效率

  • But the last devil, which I call Distraction, makes it downright dangerous.

    不過最後一項駭人之處,我稱為障眼法

  • See, there are real solutions out there,

    你瞧,目前早已有許多真正的解決方案

  • but cap and trade with its loopholes and promises of riches have made many people forget all about them.

    不過充滿漏洞而且保證可以賺錢的 總量管制和交易制度,早已讓許多人忘掉這些解決方案

  • We're not even close to a global agreement on a carbon cap to begin with, and duh,

    世界各國甚至都還沒有對碳排放的總量達成共識

  • this is the whole point of cap and trade.

    而這個量正是總量控制和交易制度的精髓

  • But instead of hammering out a fair and strong deal,

    但是我們並未設計出公平且健全的方案

  • we're putting the cart before the horse and rushing off to trade schemes and offsets. With

    而是本末倒置地匆忙著手交易計畫和抵減

  • all the bogus offset projects,

    有這麼多捏造的抵減計畫

  • huge giveaways to polluters,

    贈送給污染者的龐大碳權

  • and the failure to address the injustices of climate change

    還有無法處理氣候變遷的不公義之處

  • do you think the Third World will get on board with a global cap?

    你認為第三世界國家還會想 參加全球碳總量管制嗎?

  • I doubt it.

    我覺得不會。

  • If a cap and trade proposal is stopping us from actually capping carbon,

    如果總量管制和交易制度 其實會妨礙我們限制碳排放量時

  • it's a dangerous distraction.

    那麼這種障眼法真的是相當危險

  • We don't need to let these guys design the solution.

    我們不需要讓這些人來設計解決方案

  • We - us, our governments -

    我們,我們的政府

  • can make laws and do it ourselves.

    我們可以制定法律,一切自己來

  • In my country, we already have a law -

    在美國已經有法律了

  • the Clean Air Act -

    也就是清淨空氣法

  • that confirms that carbon is a pollutant which our environmental agency is allowed to cap.

    這項法規確認了碳是污染物 而且環保機關可以予以總量管制

  • So what are we waiting for?

    那麼我們到底在等什麼?

  • Go, EPA, go! Cap that carbon!

    環保署加油!把碳管一管吧!

  • Instead,

    不過

  • a U.S. cap and trade law proposed in 2009 guts the Clean Air Act,

    美國在2009年提出的一項總量管制和交易法案 排除掉清淨空氣法

  • leaving it to the market to fix the problem.

    把問題丟給市場去解決

  • If a cap and trade proposal weakens our ability to make strong laws,

    如果總量管制和交易制度 削弱我們制定強力法律的能力

  • it's a distraction.

    那麼它就是種障眼法

  • Concerned citizens around the world need to speak out and demand we redesign our economies

    世界各地關心這個議題的公民 需要說出他們想法和要求,我們要重新設計經濟架構

  • away from fossil fuels.

    遠離化石燃料

  • But cap and trade makes citizens think everything will be okay if we just drive a little less,

    不過總量管制和交易制度會讓這些公民認為一切沒事 只要我們少開點車,換燈泡

  • change our light bulbs and let these guys do the rest.

    並且讓這些人處理其它事情就好

  • If cap and trade creates a false sense of progress, it's a dangerous distraction.

    如果總量管制和交易制度製造出進步的錯覺 這就是危險的障眼法

  • These cap and trade proposals are mostly about protecting business as usual.

    這些總量管制和交易制度的提案 絕大多數是在保護一如往常的作法

  • Right now, the U.S. subsidizes fossil fuels at more than twice the rate of renewables.

    目前美國補助化石燃料的費率 是再生能源價格的兩倍

  • What? We shouldn't be subsidizing fossil fuels at all!

    這是怎麼回事?我們根本不該補助化石燃料!

  • These guys don't seem to realize that the simplest way to keep carbon out of the atmosphere

    這些人似乎不瞭解 不要讓碳進入大氣層的最簡單方法

  • is to leave it safely in the ground.

    就是讓碳安全地待在地底下就好

  • U.S. congressman, Rick Boucher, a well-known friend of the coal industry voted for cap and trade.

    美國國會議員Rick Boucher是相當知名的煤炭工業好友 他投票支持總量管制和交易制度

  • He said it "strengthens the case for utilities to continue to use coal."

    事實就是這樣他說:「這有助於電力事業繼續使用煤炭。」

  • No law that encourages coal use can stop climate change. Period.

    鼓勵使用煤炭的法律,絕對無法阻止氣候變遷

  • Solid caps, strong laws, citizen action, and carbon fees to pay off ecological debt

    確實的總量管制 強有力的法律、公民行動、碳稅(費) 以便償還生態債

  • and create a clean energy economy,

    並建立乾淨能源經濟

  • that's how we can save our future.

    這就是我們拯救未來的方法

  • Next time someone tells you Cap and Trade is the best we're gonna get,

    下次有人告訴你總量管制和交易制度 是當前最棒的方法時

  • don't believe them!

    請不要相信他們!

  • Better yet, talk to them.

    最好是,你要告訴他們

  • They probably want a future safe from climate change too.

    不能讓解決方案 他們大概也希望他們的未來能夠不受氣候變遷威脅

  • Maybe they've just forgotten that you can only compromise to a point before a solution isn't really a solution.

    或許他們只是忘記,妥協也要有其限度 變得無法真正解決問題

  • I know we'd all love to sacrifice nothing, save the planet and get rich doing it.

    我知道我們都希望不必犧牲, 就可以拯救地球,同時還能賺錢

  • But get real!

    但是請醒醒吧!

  • This is the biggest crisis humanity has ever faced.

    這是人類有史以來,所面臨的最大危機。

  • We can't solve it with the mindset - their mindset - that got us into this mess.

    我們想解決問題的話,就不能有這種心態 或者說那些人的心態,就是他們這種心態讓我們掉進這淌混水

  • We need something new.

    我們需要全新的作法

  • It won't be easy but it's time we dreamed bigger.

    而且現在正是時候 雖然這麼做並不容易,但是我們應該要把夢做大

  • It's time to design a climate solution that will really work!

    是時候開始想出一個真正有效的氣候解決辦法了!

This is a story about a world obsessed with stuff.

這是個關於沈溺於物質的世界的故事

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 制度 交易 污染 氣候 解決 變遷

碳交易的故事 (The Story of Cap & Trade)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 03 日
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