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  • The periodic table is instantly recognizable.

    人們一眼就能認出週期表

  • It's not just in every chemistry lab worldwide,

    它不只存在於全球每間化學實研室

  • it's found on t-shirts, coffee mugs, and shower curtains.

    還在 T 恤、咖啡杯及浴簾上出現

  • But the periodic table isn't just another trendy icon.

    但週期表並不只是另一個時尚圖像

  • It's a massive slab of human genius,

    它是人類才華的大集合

  • up there with the Taj Mahal, the Mona Lisa, and the ice cream sandwich --

    可以與泰姬瑪哈陵、蒙娜麗莎的微笑及冰淇淋三明治相媲

  • and the table's creator, Dmitri Mendeleev, is a bonafide science hall-of-famer.

    而此表的創造者——門得列夫 ,是位貨真價實的名人堂成員

  • But why? What's so great about him and his table?

    但此話怎講?他本人及其週期表有什麼偉大之處?

  • Is it because he made a comprehensive list of the known elements?

    就因為他對已知元素作出了一張總表?

  • Nah, you don't earn a spot in science Valhalla just for making a list.

    才不是,你決不會因為弄了張清單就進了科學名人堂  (譯注:原文Valhalla為北歐神話的英靈殿)

  • Besides, Mendeleev was far from the first person to do that.

    況且門得列夫根本不是第一個做這事的人

  • Is it because Mendeleev arranged elements with similar properties together?

    那是因為門得列夫以相似性質來排列元素?

  • Not really, that had already been done too.

    也不盡然,在他之前也有人做過了

  • So what was Mendeleev's genius?

    所以到底門得列夫天才在哪裡?

  • Let's look at one of the first versions of the periodic table from around 1870.

    讓我們看一下約在1870年所創的第一個元素週期表

  • Here we see elements designated by their two-letter symbols arranged in a table.

    這裡我們看見元素以他們的英文簡寫排列在一張表裡

  • Check out the entry of the third column, fifth row.

    來看看第三行第五排這項

  • There's a dash there.

    這有條橫槓

  • From that unassuming placeholder springs the raw brilliance of Mendeleev.

    從這個預留的位置,顯露出門得列夫的聰明才智。

  • That dash is science.

    這就是科學!

  • By putting that dash there, Dmitri was making a bold statement.

    門得列夫以那條橫槓做出一項大膽的聲明

  • He said -- and I'm paraphrasing here --

    他說──我在此重新闡述一番──

  • Y'all haven't discovered this element yet. In the meantime, I'm going to give it a name.

    雖諸君尚未發現此元素,但鄙人要在此替它命名。

  • It's one step away from aluminum, so we'll call it eka-aluminum,

    此元素在鋁下一格,所以我們要稱它為「eka」鋁 (鋁下元素)

  • "eka" being Sanskrit for one.

    「eka」來自梵語,即「一」的意思

  • Nobody's found eka-aluminum yet, so we don't know anything about it, right?

    這個鋁下元素尚未被發現,所以我們應該對其一無所知。 對吧?

  • Wrong! Based on where it's located, I can tell you all about it.

    錯!我可以憑它在週期表的位置來告訴你它的一切

  • First of all, an atom of eka-aluminum has an atomic weight of 68,

    第一,鋁下元素的原子量為68

  • about 68 times heavier than a hydrogen atom.

    比氫原子重約68倍

  • When eka-aluminum is isolated, you'll see it's a solid metal at room temperature.

    鋁下元素被分離出來時,你會看到它在室溫下為固態金屬

  • It's shiny, it conducts heat really well,

    它具金屬光澤,導熱性很好

  • it can be flattened into a sheet, stretched into a wire,

    它能被延展成薄片,拉長成纜線

  • but its melting point is low. Like, freakishly low.

    但是它的熔點很低,簡直是超怪地低

  • Oh, and a cubic centimeter of it will weigh six grams.

    喔,而且它每立方公分只有六公克重

  • Mendeleev could predict all of these things simply from where the blank spot was,

    門得列夫可以僅憑空格的位置來預測這些東西

  • and his understanding of how the elements surrounding it behave.

    而且他了解圍繞在它四周元素的特性

  • A few years after this prediction,

    在他作了這項預測後幾年

  • a French guy named Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

    有個法國人叫保羅·埃米爾·勒科克·德布瓦博德蘭

  • discovered a new element in ore samples

    在礦砂樣品發現了一種新元素

  • and named it gallium after Gaul, the historical name for France.

    並將其命名為鎵(Gallium), 以紀念法國的歷史名稱「高盧」(Gaul)

  • Gallium is one step away from aluminum on the periodic table.

    鎵在週期表上位於鋁下一格

  • It's eka-aluminum. So were Mendeleev's predictions right?

    所以它是鋁下元素。所以門得列夫的預測對嗎?

  • Gallium's atomic weight is 69.72.

    鎵的原子量為69.72

  • A cubic centimeter of it weighs 5.9 grams.

    每立方公分重5.9公克

  • it's a solid metal at room temperature,

    在室溫為固態金屬

  • but it melts at a paltry 30 degrees Celcius,

    但在攝氏30度這麼不起眼的溫度下即熔化

  • 85 degrees Fahrenheit.

    亦即華氏85度

  • It melts in your mouth and in your hand.

    它熔於你口,也熔於你手

  • Not only did Mendeleev completely nail gallium,

    門得列夫不僅僅完全猜到鎵

  • he predicted other elements that were unknown at the time:

    他還預測了其它當時尚未知的元素

  • scandium, germanium, rhenium.

    鈧、 鍺、 錸

  • The element he called eka-manganese is now called technetium.

    他當時稱為「錳下元素」的,現在稱作鎝(鍀)

  • Technetium is so rare it couldn't be isolated until it was synthesized in a cyclotron in 1937,

    鎝是如此稀有,直到1937年 才在迴旋加速器中被人合成並分離出來

  • almost 70 years after Dmitri predicted its existence,

    幾乎是門得列夫預測其存在後70年了

  • 30 years after he died.

    即他死後30年

  • Dmitri died without a Nobel Prize in 1907, but he wound up receiving a much more exclusive honor.

    門得列夫到1907年去世前都與諾貝爾獎無緣, 但他後來得到一項殊榮

  • In 1955, scientists at UC Berkeley successfully created 17 atoms of a previously undiscovered element.

    1955年,加州大學柏克萊分校的科學家 成功創造出17種之前未發現的元素,

  • This element filled an empty spot in the perodic table at number 101,

    這個填在週期表上101空位的元素

  • and was officially named Mendelevium in 1963.

    1963年被正式命名為鍆(紀念門得列夫)

  • There have been well over 800 Nobel Prize winners,

    諾貝爾獎有超過800位得主

  • but only 15 scientists have an element named after them.

    但只有15名科學家擁有以他們為名的元素

  • So the next time you stare at a periodic table,

    所以下回你盯著週期表看時

  • whether it's on the wall of a university classroom or on a five-dollar coffee mug,

    不論是在大學教室的牆上,或是五美元的馬克杯上

  • Dmitri Mendeleev, the architect of the periodic table,

    門得列夫,這位週期表的創造人

  • will be staring back.

    一定也會回盯你看

The periodic table is instantly recognizable.

人們一眼就能認出週期表

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 元素 週期表 預測 金屬 名人堂

【TED-Ed】門得列夫的經典「週期表」 The genius of Mendeleev's periodic table - Lou Serico

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    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 03 日
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