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  • Evidence suggests that humans in all ages and from all cultures

    研究顯示不同年紀與文化的人們

  • create their identity in some kind of narrative form.

    從不同的敘事文本創造自我認同

  • From mother to daughter, preacher to congregant,

    從母親到女兒,牧師到會眾

  • teacher to pupil, storyteller to audience.

    老師到學生,說書人到聽眾

  • Whether in cave paintings

    不管在洞穴壁畫

  • or the latest uses of the Internet,

    或近來的網路使用

  • human beings have always told their histories and truths

    人類不斷傳頌他們的歷史與真理

  • through parable and fable.

    透過寓言或故事

  • We are inveterate storytellers.

    我們都是本能的說故事者

  • But where, in our increasingly secular and fragmented world,

    但在日漸世俗、破碎無條理的世界中

  • do we offer communality of experience,

    我們要在哪裡分享共通的經驗

  • unmediated by our own furious consumerism?

    且不受到浮誇消費主義的影響?

  • And what narrative, what history,

    而哪種敘事、歷史

  • what identity, what moral code

    身份、道德規範

  • are we imparting to our young?

    我們正在灌輸給我們的年輕人?

  • Cinema is arguably

    電影可以說是

  • the 20th century's most influential art form.

    20世紀以來最有影響力的藝術形式

  • Its artists told stories

    藝術家藉由電影說故事

  • across national boundaries,

    跨越國際疆界

  • in as many languages, genres and philosophies

    語言隔閡、類型和思潮

  • as one can imagine.

    你想的到電影就做得到

  • Indeed, it is hard to find a subject

    是的,沒有主題

  • that film has yet to tackle.

    是電影仍未涉及的

  • During the last decade

    過去十年

  • we've seen a vast integration of global media,

    我們看見大量結合的全球媒體

  • now dominated by a culture of the Hollywood blockbuster.

    被現今好萊塢的商業大片文化所占據

  • We are increasingly offered a diet

    我們不斷被賦予這樣的胃口

  • in which sensation, not story, is king.

    讓感官刺激,非故事本身,重於一切

  • What was common to us all 40 years ago --

    40年前我們視為普及的

  • the telling of stories between generations --

    世代間故事傳頌的方式

  • is now rarified.

    現今已不復存在

  • As a filmmaker, it worried me.

    身為電影工作者,這使我憂慮

  • As a human being, it puts the fear of God in me.

    身為人類,它使我感到恐懼

  • What future could the young build

    我們的年輕人要如何創造未來?

  • with so little grasp

    他們如此缺乏

  • of where they've come from

    對自身背景的了解

  • and so few narratives of what's possible?

    對未來的可能性,也幾乎沒有文本可參照

  • The irony is palpable;

    這十分諷刺

  • technical access has never been greater,

    當科技史無前例的發達

  • cultural access never weaker.

    接觸文化的機會卻前所未有的貧乏

  • And so in 2006 we set up FILMCLUB,

    在2006年我們創立「電影俱樂部」組織

  • an organization that ran weekly film screenings in schools

    每週在學校放映電影

  • followed by discussions.

    並舉辦映後座談

  • If we could raid the annals of 100 years of film,

    如果我們能取得這100年來的電影資料

  • maybe we could build a narrative

    也許我們能建立一套論述

  • that would deliver meaning

    能賦予意義

  • to the fragmented and restless world of the young.

    給這些生活在片斷、浮躁社會中的年輕人

  • Given the access to technology,

    因為科技的發達與便利

  • even a school in a tiny rural hamlet

    即使在小鄉村的偏遠學校

  • could project a DVD onto a white board.

    也能在白牆上投影DVD

  • In the first nine months

    在剛開始的9個月中

  • we ran 25 clubs across the U.K.,

    我們在英國設立25個俱樂部

  • with kids in age groups between five and 18

    讓5到18歲的小孩

  • watching a film uninterrupted for 90 minutes.

    不間斷的看完一部90分鐘的電影

  • The films were curated and contextualized.

    這些電影都經過篩選和考量

  • But the choice was theirs,

    但孩童有最終的電影選擇

  • and our audience quickly grew

    我們的觀眾很快的

  • to choose the richest and most varied diet that we could provide.

    選擇我們提供影片中 最有價值跟多元性的片子

  • The outcome, immediate.

    很快的,成果顯示

  • It was an education of the most profound and transformative kind.

    這是最影響深遠的教育方式

  • In groups as large as 150 and as small as three,

    我們的俱樂部大至150人,小至3人

  • these young people discovered new places,

    這些年輕人發掘新的事物

  • new thoughts, new perspectives.

    新的想法和觀點

  • By the time the pilot had finished,

    當我們的組織結束試驗階段

  • we had the names of a thousand schools

    有1000多個學校

  • that wished to join.

    都希望能加入俱樂部

  • The film that changed my life

    改變我人生的電影

  • is a 1951 film by Vittorio De Sica, "Miracle in Milan."

    是1951年狄西嘉導演的《慈航普渡》

  • It's a remarkable comment

    這部電影深入的探討

  • on slums, poverty and aspiration.

    和貧民窟、貧窮和夢想有關的主題

  • I had seen the film on the occasion of my father's 50th birthday.

    我在我父親50歲生日的那天看了這部片

  • Technology then meant we had to hire a viewing cinema,

    現今的科技迫使我們須租用放映廳

  • find and pay for the print and the projectionist.

    影片、並支付沖洗膠卷和放映師的費用

  • But for my father,

    但對我父親而言

  • the emotional and artistic importance of De Sica's vision was so great

    狄西嘉在情感和藝術上的著墨對他如此重要

  • that he chose to celebrate his half-century

    他選擇在半百生日這天

  • with his three teenage children and 30 of their friends,

    與他3個青少年的孩子和其他30位朋友一同觀賞

  • "In order," he said,

    他說:"這是為了

  • "to pass the baton of concern and hope

    將關懷與期望的火棒

  • on to the next generation."

    傳遞給下一代"

  • In the last shot of "Miracle in Milan,"

    《慈航普渡》的最後一幕

  • slum-dwellers float skyward on flying brooms.

    貧民窟的人們乘著掃帚向上飛翔

  • Sixty years after the film was made

    這部電影上映60年後

  • and 30 years after I first saw it,

    也是我第一次看這部片的30年後

  • I see young faces tilt up in awe,

    我看到年輕人臉上著迷的神情

  • their incredulity matching mine.

    和不可置信的樣子與我當時相同

  • And the speed with which they associate it

    他們很快的將之與《貧民百萬富翁》

  • with "Slumdog Millionaire" or the favelas in Rio

    或里約貧民區產生聯結

  • speaks to the enduring nature.

    證明電影內容能歷久不衰

  • In a FILMCLUB season about democracy and government,

    某一季,俱樂部的主題是民主與政府

  • we screened "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington."

    我們放映《史密斯遊美京》

  • Made in 1939, the film is older than most of our members' grandparents.

    本片於1939年上映 比大部分成員的祖父母都還要老

  • Frank Capra's classic values independence and propriety.

    這部導演法蘭克‧卡普拉的經典電影 看重獨立與禮節

  • It shows how to do right,

    這部電影傳達如何做對的事

  • how to be heroically awkward.

    如何見義勇為不畏特立獨行

  • It is also an expression of faith

    電影也宣揚在政治機器中

  • in the political machine as a force of honor.

    如何抱持信念並引以為榮

  • Shortly after "Mr. Smith" became a FILMCLUB classic,

    《史密斯遊美京》成為俱樂部的經典影片 不久之後

  • there was a week of all-night filibustering in the House of Lords.

    英國上議院中正徹夜上演著議事阻撓

  • And it was with great delight

    而我們感到十分欣慰

  • that we found young people up and down the country

    我們發現國內的年輕人

  • explaining with authority

    能帶有權威的解釋

  • what filibustering was

    「議事阻撓」是什麼

  • and why the Lords might defy their bedtime on a point of principle.

    而為什麼議員們必須犧牲睡眠來捍衛原則

  • After all, Jimmy Stewart filibustered for two entire reels.

    畢竟,這是演員Jimmy Stewart在整部電影裡所做的事

  • In choosing "Hotel Rwanda,"

    當我們放映《盧安達飯店》

  • they explored genocide of the most brutal kind.

    年輕人從最殘酷的方式了解種族屠殺

  • It provoked tears as well as incisive questions

    電影讓年輕人流淚 也激發他們提出尖銳的問題

  • about unarmed peace-keeping forces

    關於沒有武裝的維和部隊

  • and the double-dealing of a Western society

    和西方社會的偽善

  • that picks its moral fights with commodities in mind.

    我們表面上為理念而戰 心裡卻盤算著商業利益

  • And when "Schindler's List" demanded that they never forget,

    而當《辛德勒的名單》中提到 人們將不會忘記這場歷史教訓

  • one child, full of the pain of consciousness, remarked,

    一位感到痛心與自覺的小孩說:

  • "We already forgot,

    "我們已經忘記過去的歷史教訓

  • otherwise how did 'Hotel Rwanda' happen?"

    不然《盧安達飯店》事件怎會重演?"

  • As they watch more films their lives got palpably richer.

    當他們看更多影片時, 他們的生命明顯的更加豐富

  • "Pickpocket" started a debate about criminality disenfranchisement.

    《扒手》激起罪犯是否需被剝奪公民權的思辨

  • "To Sir, with Love" ignited its teen audience.

    《吾愛吾師》激勵青年學子

  • They celebrated a change in attitude

    頌揚人們對於非白人的英國人

  • towards non-white Britons,

    態度的轉變

  • but railed against our restless school system

    但也抱怨我們的學校制度

  • that does not value collective identity,

    因它並不看重集體認同

  • unlike that offered by Sidney Poitier's careful tutelage.

    一點都不像演員Sidney Poitoer的悉心教導

  • By now, these thoughtful, opinionated, curious young people

    現在,這些很有想法、好奇的年輕人

  • thought nothing of tackling films of all forms --

    毫不畏懼的涉獵各種型式的電影

  • black and white, subtitled,

    黑白片、外語片

  • documentary, non-narrative, fantasy --

    記錄片、非敘事性影片、奇幻片

  • and thought nothing of writing detailed reviews

    他們也能輕易的寫出詳細的影評

  • that competed to favor one film over another

    熱情的爭相寫出日益複雜的文章

  • in passionate and increasingly sophisticated prose.

    來比較不同的電影

  • Six thousand reviews each school week

    每個星期,有6000篇的影評投稿

  • vying for the honor of being review of the week.

    競爭以得到「當周影評」的榮耀

  • From 25 clubs, we became hundreds, then thousands,

    一開始只有25個俱樂部,接著成百、上千

  • until we were nearly a quarter of a million kids

    直到我們有將近25萬名學童

  • in 7,000 clubs right across the country.

    分佈於全英國7000個俱樂部中

  • And although the numbers were, and continue to be, extraordinary,

    雖然,這個數目從以前到現在都持續卓越的成長

  • what became more extraordinary

    最特別的是

  • was how the experience of critical and curious questioning

    他們將批判和好奇提問的經驗

  • translated into life.

    帶到日常生活中

  • Some of our kids started talking with their parents,

    許多孩童開始與父母親展開溝通

  • others with their teachers,

    有些與老師

  • or with their friends.

    或跟朋友

  • And those without friends

    而那些沒有朋友的孩童

  • started making them.

    也開始結交新朋友

  • The films provided communality across all manner of divide.

    電影跨越各種分界而帶來共通性

  • And the stories they held provided a shared experience.

    用故事以提供共通經驗

  • "Persepolis" brought a daughter closer to her Iranian mother,

    《茉莉人生》讓一位女兒與伊朗籍母親更加親近

  • and "Jaws" became the way in which one young boy

    《大白鯊》讓一位年輕男孩有辦法

  • was able to articulate the fear he'd experienced

    說出他害怕的感受和經驗

  • in flight from violence

    當他逃離一場暴力事件

  • that killed first his father then his mother,

    在這場事件裡 他的父親與母親被殺害

  • the latter thrown overboard on a boat journey.

    接著母親在途中被丟下船

  • Who was right, who wrong?

    誰對、誰錯?

  • What would they do under the same conditions?

    在同樣的狀況下他們該怎麼做?

  • Was the tale told well?

    故事有沒有說明白?

  • Was there a hidden message?

    有沒有隱藏含義?

  • How has the world changed? How could it be different?

    這世界怎麼改變?如何變得不一樣?

  • A tsunami of questions flew out of the mouths of children

    許多問題從孩童口中如海嘯般的湧來

  • who the world didn't think were interested.

    我們過去以為他們不會關心這些事

  • And they themselves had not known they cared.

    他們自己過去也不曉得自己對這些議題有興趣

  • And as they wrote and debated,

    當他們書寫、辨論

  • rather than seeing the films as artifacts,

    不將電影看成藝術品

  • they began to see themselves.

    他們開始看見、認識自己

  • I have an aunt who is a wonderful storyteller.

    我有一位很會說故事的阿姨

  • In a moment she can invoke images

    在很短的時間,她便能營造出

  • of running barefoot on Table Mountain and playing cops and robbers.

    在桌山赤足奔跑和扮演警匪的情景

  • Quite recently she told me

    最近,她告訴我

  • that in 1948, two of her sisters and my father

    1948年,她的兩個姊姊和我爸

  • traveled on a boat to Israel without my grandparents.

    一起乘船去以色列 沒有與我祖父母同行

  • When the sailors mutinied at sea in a demand for humane conditions,

    當水手在海上叛變希望得到人道待遇

  • it was these teenagers that fed the crew.

    當時是這些青少年餵飽了船員

  • I was past 40 when my father died.

    我父親去世時我已超過40歲

  • He never mentioned that journey.

    他從來沒告訴我這段故事

  • My mother's mother left Europe in a hurry

    我祖母在緊急狀況下離開歐洲

  • without her husband, but with her three-year-old daughter

    丈夫沒在身邊 但帶著三歲大的女兒

  • and diamonds sewn into the hem of her skirt.

    並把鑽石縫在裙子褶縫

  • After two years in hiding,

    躲藏兩年之後

  • my grandfather appeared in London.

    我祖父到倫敦

  • He was never right again.

    但他整個人從此不對勁

  • And his story was hushed as he assimilated.

    我祖父的故事隨著他被同化而從此塵封

  • My story started in England

    我的故事始於英國

  • with a clean slate and the silence of immigrant parents.

    與開始嶄新人生並沉默的移民雙親一起

  • I had "Anne Frank," "The Great Escape,"

    我看過《安妮日記》、《第三集中營》

  • "Shoah," "Triumph of the Will."

    《大屠殺》、《德意志的勝利》

  • It was Leni Riefenstahl

    是Leni Riefenstahl(舞者、演員)

  • in her elegant Nazi propaganda

    她跟親納粹友好的意識形態

  • who gave context to what the family had to endure.

    讓我更加了解祖父母所歷經的苦難

  • These films held what was too hurtful to say out loud,

    這些電影包含太沉痛而無法說出的故事

  • and they became more useful to me

    對我十分有幫助

  • than the whispers of survivors

    比倖存者的耳語、

  • and the occasional glimpse of a tattoo

    我單身的阿姨手腕上

  • on a maiden aunt's wrist.

    偶爾被我瞧見的刺青都還要多

  • Purists may feel that fiction dissipates

    純粹主義者也許認為虛構故事會消滅

  • the quest of real human understanding,

    對人類知識的探索

  • that film is too crude

    認為電影太粗糙

  • to tell a complex and detailed history,

    無法交代複雜又詳細的歷史

  • or that filmmakers always serve drama over truth.

    或認為電影導演或製作人會著重戲劇性而非真相

  • But within the reels lie purpose and meaning.

    但電影中其實存在著目的與意義

  • As one 12-year-old said after watching "Wizard of Oz,"

    當一位12歲的小孩看了《綠野仙蹤》後,他說:

  • "Every person should watch this,

    "每個人都應該看這部電影

  • because unless you do

    因為如果你沒看

  • you may not know that you too have a heart."

    你永遠不知道你也有一顆心"

  • We honor reading, why not honor watching with the same passion?

    我們看重閱讀 為什麼我們不也同樣熱切的看重觀影

  • Consider "Citizen Kane" as valuable as Jane Austen.

    認為《大國民》跟珍奧斯汀同樣有價值

  • Agree that "Boyz n the Hood," like Tennyson,

    同意《鄰家少年殺人事件》跟詩人丁尼生一樣

  • offers an emotional landscape and a heightened understanding

    將各式情感與崇高的知識

  • that work together.

    相輔相成

  • Each a piece of memorable art,

    每件令人記憶深刻的藝術品

  • each a brick in the wall of who we are.

    都是建築我們人生的一塊磚

  • And it's okay if we remember Tom Hanks

    這一點都沒有關係 如果我們記得湯姆漢克斯

  • better than astronaut Jim Lovell

    多過太空人Jim Lovell

  • or have Ben Kingsley's face superimposed onto that of Gandhi's.

    或把甘地的臉想像成班金斯利的樣子

  • And though not real, Eve Harrington, Howard Beale, Mildred Pierce

    即使這些都是杜撰,伊娃.哈林頓(演員)、 Howard Beale(角色)、《慾海情魔》

  • are an opportunity to discover

    都是機會去探索

  • what it is to be human,

    人生的各種可能

  • and no less helpful to understanding our life and times

    電影幫助人們了解人生和時代不亞於

  • as Shakespeare is in illuminating the world of Elizabethan England.

    莎士比亞幫人們了解英國的伊莉莎白時期

  • We guessed that film,

    我們認為電影

  • whose stories are a meeting place

    是個匯聚之處

  • of drama, music, literature and human experience,

    聚集戲劇、音樂、文學和人類經驗

  • would engage and inspire the young people participating in FILMCLUB.

    能吸引和啟發參與電影俱樂部的年輕人

  • What we could not have foreseen

    讓我們過去所不能預見的

  • was the measurable improvements

    都能有長足進步

  • in behavior, confidence and academic achievement.

    不論是行為、自信或學業成績

  • Once-reluctant students now race to school, talk to their teachers,

    以前不願上學的學生 現在會衝到學校跟老師談天

  • fight, not on the playground,

    爭吵,但不是為了玩

  • but to choose next week's film --

    而是為了選擇下週的電影

  • young people who have found self-definition, ambition

    年輕人找到自我意義、抱負

  • and an appetite for education and social engagement

    並對教育和社會時間產生渴望

  • from the stories they have witnessed.

    這都來自他們親眼所見的故事

  • Our members defy the binary description

    我們的成員挑戰二元論述

  • of how we so often describe our young.

    挑戰我們對年輕人一向的看法

  • They are neither feral nor myopically self-absorbed.

    他們一點也不可怕也不自私近利

  • They are, like other young people,

    他們,與其他的年輕人一樣

  • negotiating a world with infinite choice,

    正在經歷這充滿無限選擇的世界

  • but little culture of how to find meaningful experience.

    但對於如何找到有意義的人生 缺乏參考文化

  • We appeared surprised at the behaviors

    對於那些年紀輕輕

  • of those who define themselves

    就能找到自我價值的人們

  • by the size of the tick on their shoes,

    我們對這樣的能力感到驚訝

  • yet acquisition has been