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  • The most basic function of bodily fat is self-storage of food reserves.

    人體最基本的功能就是將食物轉換成脂肪儲存

  • In prehistoric times, natural selection favored genotypes

    在史前時代,天擇留下的基因,

  • that could endure harsh conditions by stocking the most fat.

    是能靠儲存大部分脂肪生存於嚴酷條件下的

  • With chronic malnutrition being the norm for most of human history,

    由於在大部分人類史之中,長時間的營養不良是稀鬆平常的事情,

  • genetics evolved to favor fat storage.

    基因便演化成傾向於儲存脂肪

  • So when did body fat become problematic?

    那又是從什麼時候開始脂肪成了問題?

  • The negative impacts of being overweight were not even noted in medical literature

    過重的負面影響在十八世紀以前一直都沒有在醫學文獻中被提到

  • until as late as the 18th century.

  • Then, technological advances coupled with public health measures

    接著,科技的發展加上公共衛生的改善

  • resulted in the betterment of the quantity, quality, and variety of food.

    帶動了食物種類的增加,以及質、量的精緻化

  • Sustained abundance of good food enabled a healthier population

    穩定且充足的食物來源確保了人口成長

  • to boom economically.

    夠使經濟更加繁盛

  • Output increased, and with it, leisure time

    當產能提升,休息時間、

  • and waistlines.

    和腰圍也都悄悄增加

  • By the mid 19th century, being excessively overweight, or obese,

    在19世紀中以前,超重或者肥胖被視為是不健康的結果

  • was recognized as a cause of ill health,

  • and another century later, declared deadly.

    而在後來的時代,則被認為是致命的

  • What is the distinction between being overweight and being obese?

    過重跟肥胖差別在哪裡?

  • A calculation called the BMI breaks it down for us.

    一個被稱為BMI的指標能替我們解答

  • For example, if someone weighs 65 kilgorams

    例如,有一個人是65公斤,

  • and is 1.5 meters tall,

    身高是150公分,

  • they have a BMI of about 29.

    那麼他的BMI值就是29

  • Obesity is a condition of excess body fat

    體脂肪過高是肥胖的起因,

  • that occurs when a person's BMI is above 30,

    當一個人的BMI值超過30就會發生

  • just over the overweight range of 25 to 29.9.

    就正好和過重在25-29.9的範圍銜接

  • While BMI can be a helpful estimate of healthy weight,

    雖然BMI可以評估出健康體重的範圍,

  • actual body fat percentage can only really be determined

    但體脂肪的實際比例只能由腰圍和肌肉量此類的數據去計算

  • by also considering information like waist circumference

  • and muscle mass.

  • Athletes, for instance, have a naturally higher BMI.

    舉例來說,運動員自然會有較高的BMI

  • So how does a person become obese?

    那麼一個人到底是怎麼樣變胖的?

  • At its most basic, obesity is caused by energy imbalance.

    簡單來說,肥胖是由能量收支不平衡造成的

  • If the energy input from calories

    如果食物提供的熱量

  • is greater than the energy output from physical activity,

    比從事動態活動消耗的能量還要多,

  • the body stores the extra calories as fat.

    那麼身體就會將剩餘的能量儲存為脂肪

  • In most cases, this imbalance comes from a combination of circumstances

    總體來說,能量的收支不平衡

  • and choices.

    是由每個人不同的情況和選擇造成的

  • Adults should be getting at least 2.5 hours of exercise each week,

    就成人而言,每個禮拜至少要運動2.5小時

  • and children a whole hour per day.

    小孩則是需要每天一小時

  • But globally, one in four adults and eight out of ten adolescents

    然而從全球的數據來看,4個成人中就有1個運動量不足,

  • aren't active enough.

    青少年則是高達10個就有8個運動不到建議時數

  • Calorie-dense processed foods and growing portion sizes

    高熱量的加工食品,精緻化的食物,

  • coupled with pervasive marketing

    再加上無處不在的廣告,

  • lead to passive overeating.

    造成人們被動的持續不必要的飲食

  • And scarce resources,

    除此之外,天然食物來源的稀少,

  • and a lack of access to healthy, affordable foods

    和無法取得健康、經濟實惠的食物

  • creates an even greater risk in disadvantaged communities.

    形成了不利的環境,更提高了肥胖的機率

  • Yet, our genetic makeup also plays a part.

    然而,我們基因的影響也是舉足輕重

  • Studies on families and on separated twins

    各項關於雙胞胎的家族基因研究,

  • have shown a clear causal hereditary relationship to weight gain.

    查證了不同基因繼承和體重增加趨勢的關係

  • Recent studies have also found a link between obesity

    進來的研究也發現了

  • and variations in the bacteria species that live in our digestive systems.

    肥胖和各種生存在消化道系統細菌之間的關聯

  • No matter the cause, obesity is an escalating global epidemic.

    無論是哪個原因,肥胖已經成為日益嚴重的全球性課題

  • It substantially raises the probability of diseases,

    它大大的增加了患上各種疾病的機率,

  • like diabetes,

    例如糖尿病,

  • heart disease,

    心臟疾病,

  • stroke,

    中風,

  • high blood pressure,

    高血壓,

  • and cancer.

    以及癌症

  • It affects virtually all ages, genders, and socioeconomic groups

    不論年紀、性別、經濟體,

  • in both developed and developing countries.

    在開發、開發中國家都會被影響

  • With a 60% rise in child obesity globally over just two decades,

    在20年內,肥胖兒童的比例增加了百分之六十,

  • the problem is too significant to ignore.

    這個問題是不容忽視的

  • Once a person is obese, the climb to recovery becomes progressively steeper.

    當一個人變胖之後,減重的過程會變的困難

  • Hormonal and metabolic changes reduce the body's response to overeating.

    荷爾蒙和新陳代謝的變化會使人體忽略過度飲食的行為

  • After losing weight, a formerly overweight person burns less calories

    在減重之後,曾經過重的人,

  • doing the same exercises

    在做相同的運動時,

  • as a person who is naturally the same weight,

    燃燒的脂肪會比原本就在這個體重的人少,

  • making it much more difficult to shed the excess fat.

    使他們更難減去多餘的脂肪

  • And as people gain weight,

    而增加體重的時候,

  • damaged to signaling pathways makes it increasingly difficult

    對訊息傳輸造成的傷害,

  • for the brain to measure food intake and fat storage.

    會使大腦無法準確分析食物的攝取量和脂肪的儲存量

  • There is, however, some evidence

    有一些在行為上被精確觀察,

  • that well-monitored, long-term changes in behavior

    且長期改變的證據,

  • can lead to improvements in obesity-related health issues.

    可以促進肥胖相關疾病的改善

  • And weight loss from sustained lifestyle changes,

    因生活方式改變,

  • or invasive treatments like bariatric surgery,

    或像減肥手術此類方式達成的減重

  • can improve insulin resistance and decrease inflammation.

    會抑制胰島素和減少發炎的機會

  • What was once an advantage for survival is now working against us.

    曾經是生存優勢的功能現在變成拖累自己的絆腳石

  • As the world's population continues to slow down and get bigger,

    當全世界的人開始反思,

  • moving and consciously eating our way towards a healthier weight

    開始有意識地以擁有健康體態為目標去選擇所食用的食物,

  • is essential to our overall well-being.

    是全人類的福祉

  • And with the epidemic affecting every country in the world

    肥胖影響世界上每個國家,

  • for different socioeconomic reasons,

    為了經濟上的各種理由,

  • obesity cannot be seen as an isolated issue.

    肥胖絕對不能被視為個別的議題

  • More global measures for prevention

    找出更多全球性的預防方法,

  • are essential to manage the weight of the world.

    是對控制世界體重有很大影響的

The most basic function of bodily fat is self-storage of food reserves.

人體最基本的功能就是將食物轉換成脂肪儲存

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 肥胖 脂肪 食物 過重 體重

【TED-Ed】什麼是肥胖症?- Mia Nacamulli (【TED-Ed】What is obesity? - Mia Nacamulli)

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    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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