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  • Hello and welcome everyone, this is Minoo at Anglo-Link.

    哈囉大家好,歡迎你們。我是Anglo-Link的Minoo

  • Today we're going to look at two modal verbs and a semi-modal verb that are often

    今天我們要來學經常被混肴的兩個情態動詞

  • confused with each other.

    和一個半情態動詞。

  • These are: should,

    這些為:should

  • must and have to.

    must 和 have to。

  • We'll have a brief look at their formulation and then we'll look at their

    我們會先簡短地看一下這些詞的結構,接著我們會看

  • usage and differences. And. we'll finish this lesson with a gap filling exercise. By the end of

    它們的用法與不同之處。然後以填空練習結束本課程。看完

  • this video, you should have a good idea of the differences between these three verbs.

    這個影片,你應該會對這三個動詞的不同之處有充足的了解。

  • Today's prize draw

    今天的抽獎獎品

  • is a free Premium+ membership to our website.

    是我們網站的免費高級+會員資格。

  • This level of membership gives you access to all the online exercises plus

    此等級的會員資格可讓你使用所有的線上測驗,和

  • the recording of these so you can practise your pronunciation

    這些測驗的錄音檔來練習你的發音

  • and fluency as well.

    以及流暢度。

  • To enter the prize draw,

    想要參加抽獎的話,

  • all you need to do

    你只需要

  • is to make a comment in the section below.

    在影片下方留言。

  • So when you're ready,

    當你準備好了,

  • we can begin our lesson on 'should', 'must' and 'have to'.

    我們就可以開始學習'should', 'must' 和 'have to'的課程。

  • Modal verbs:

    情態動詞:

  • 'should, 'must' and 'have to'.

    'should, 'must' 和 'have to'

  • Let's look at formulation first.

    我們先來看結構。

  • 'Should' and 'must' are real modal verbs

    'Should' 和 'must' 是真的情態動詞。

  • and therefore,

    因此,

  • like all modal verbs,

    就像其他的情態動詞一樣,

  • they're always followed by the 'infinitive without to'.

    它們的後面總是接著"沒有to"的不定詞。

  • "Should do", "Must do".

    "Should do", "Must do"

  • And, they're the same for all the pronouns.

    而,對於所有的代名詞來說,助動詞的形態都是不變的。

  • "I should", "He Should", "It Should" etc.

    "I should", "He Should", "It Should" 等等。

  • Also,

    而且,

  • they do not need auxiliaries;

    它們不需要助動詞;

  • they take direct negative and question forms:

    它們可以直接變化成否定形和疑問形:

  • "I shouldn't.",

    "I shouldn't.",

  • "We mustn't.",

    "We mustn't.",

  • "Should I?",

    "Should I?",

  • "Must we?"

    "Must we?"

  • And finally, they never combine with another modal verb.

    最後,它們從不和其他情態動詞結合。

  • You can't say: "you should can". You have to replace 'can' with an alternative:

    你不能說:"you should can"。你必須用其他的字眼代替'can':

  • "You should be able to..." Or

    "You should be able to..." 或者

  • instead of "He will must".

    代替"He will must"

  • You'll have to say:

    你必須說:

  • "He will have to".

    "He will have to"。

  • 'Have to' is a semi-modal verb.

    'Have to'是一個半情態動詞。

  • It is like a modal verb because it fulfils a specific function,

    它就像是個情態動詞,因為它可執行一個特定的功能,

  • but it behaves like an ordinary verb in its formulation.

    但它的結構就像是一個普通的動詞。

  • It is followed by the 'infinitive without to'

    它的後面接"沒有to"的不定詞。

  • "have to do",

    "have to do",

  • but it is conjugated according to pronouns:

    但是它會隨著代名詞的變化而改變:

  • "I have to",

    "I have to",

  • "He has to" etc.

    "He has to" 等等

  • It needs auxiliaries.

    它需要接助動詞。

  • It doesn't take direct negative and question forms.

    它不能直接變化成否定形和疑問形。

  • "I don't have to."

    "I don't have to."

  • "She doesn't have to."

    "She doesn't have to."

  • "Do I have to?"

    "Do I have to?"

  • "Does she have to?"

    "Does she have to?"

  • And finally, it can combine with modal verbs:

    最後,它能和助動詞組合起來:

  • "You will have to."

    "You will have to."

  • "He might have to."

    "He might have to."

  • Right then,

    好了。

  • let's have a look at usage,

    我們來看它們的用法,

  • starting with should.

    從should開始吧。

  • The first use of should is expressing an opinion

    should的第一個用法是用來表示一個見解

  • or giving or asking for advice.

    或給予或詢求建議。

  • Let's look at some examples.

    我們來看一些例子。

  • "I believe nurses should have higher salaries."

    我認為護理師應該要有更高的薪水。

  • "You look tired.

    "你看起來很累。

  • I think you should have some rest."

    我想你應該休息一下。"

  • "He shouldn't make a rushed decision."

    "他不應該作出一個匆忙的決定。"

  • "Do you think we should phone her?"

    "你認為我們應該要打電話給她嗎?"

  • "What should I say when I speak to him?"

    "當我跟他說話的時候應該要說些什麼?"

  • The second usage of should is expressing an expectation.

    should的第二個用法是用來表示一個期待。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • "He should arrive any minute."

    "他應該隨時會到達。"

  • "He shouldn't be long now."

    "他現在應該不會太久。"

  • "He should have arrived by now."

    "他現在應該已經到達了。"

  • And the third usage of should is expressing regret about a past action.

    而should的第三個用法是用來表示對過去的行為感到後悔。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • "You should have been more careful."

    "你應該要更小心一點的。"

  • "I shouldn't have said that."

    "我不應該說那句話的。"

  • 'Ought to' is a synonym for 'should'.

    'Ought to'和'should'是同義字。

  • It generally sounds more formal than 'should',

    一般來說,它聽起來比'should'更正式,

  • and is less commonly used,

    也較不被普遍地使用,

  • particularly in the question form:

    尤其是在疑問形:

  • So you could say:

    你可以說:

  • "You ought to have some rest."

    "你應當休息一下"

  • "He oughtn't to make a rushed decision."

    "他不應當作出一個匆忙的決定。"

  • "I oughtn't to have said that."

    "我不應當說那句話的。"

  • But it would be uncommon to say

    但不常說

  • "Ought we to phone her?"

    "Ought we to phone her?"

  • Also 'should'

    而且 'should'

  • (but not 'ought to')

    (但是不是 'ought to')

  • is used to express a small possibility.

    可以被用來表示一個小的可能性。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • "If I should ever go back there, I will not make the same mistake again."

    "如果我可以回到那裏,我不會再犯下同樣的錯誤。"

  • Or

    或者

  • "Should you need any further assistance,

    "如果你需要進一步的協助,

  • do not hesitate to contact me."

    不用猶豫,來聯絡我。"

  • This is a common formula in formal writing.

    這在正式寫作中是一個常見的公式。

  • Right then, let's move on to 'must'.

    好了,我們接著來看"must"。

  • The first usage is expressing a necessity

    第一個用法是用來表示說話者

  • felt by the speaker.

    所感受到的必要性。

  • We use 'must' for the present and future tenses.

    我們使用 'must' 來表達現在式和未來式。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • "He is very ill.

    "他病得非常重。

  • You must call a doctor now."

    你現在必須打電話給醫生。"

  • "We must not lose the match tomorrow,

    "我們明天絕對不能輸掉比賽,

  • or we will be out of the tournament."

    否則我們就會被淘汰出局。'

  • "This is the best book I've ever read.

    "這是我讀過最棒的一本書,

  • You must read it too."

    你也應該要讀它。"

  • "You mustn't hesitate to call me if you need help."

    "如果你需要幫助的話,不必猶豫,打給我。"

  • Looking at the second usage of 'must'.

    來看'must'的第二個用法。

  • It expresses a prohibition.

    它用來表示一個禁令。

  • Once again in the present or future tenses.

    再次提醒它用於現在式或未來式。

  • "You must not use your mobile devices during take-off."

    "你不應在起飛時使用通訊儀器"

  • "You must not be late for your interview tomorrow."

    "明天的面試你絕不能遲到"

  • And the third usage of must is an assumption in the present or past

    'must'的第三個用法是用過去式或現在式表達的假設,

  • in affirmative sentences only.

    且只用於肯定句。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • "You must be tired after your very long day."

    "你經過這漫長的一天,一定很累了吧!"

  • "He must have read my letter,

    "他一定是讀了我的信,

  • because he repeated exactly what I had written."

    因為他一字不漏地說了我寫下的話"

  • Okay let's have a look at 'have to'.

    好,我們來看'have to'。

  • 'Have to' expresses an external obligation

    'have to'用來表示對外的義務。

  • in positive sentences.

    並使用肯定句。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • "You have to make an appointment to see him."

    "要見他的話,你必須先預約"

  • "She has failed her exam.

    "她的考試不及格。

  • She has to retake it."

    她必須要重修。"

  • The second usage is expressing a necessity or obligation in the past.

    第二個用法是用來表示對過去的需要或義務。

  • "He was very ill. We had to call the doctor immediately."

    "他病得很重。我們當下只得馬上打電話給醫生。"

  • "He was very busy.

    "He was very busy. "他那時非常忙碌。

  • I had to make an appointment to see him."

    我得預約才能見到他。"

  • Finally, 'have to' removes a necessity or an obligation

    最後,'have to'可移除一個需要或一個義務,

  • in all the tenses, present, past and future.

    可用於任何一種時態,現在、過去和未來皆可。

  • "He feels much better now.

    "他現在覺得好多了。

  • You don't have to call a doctor."

    你不需要打電話給醫生了。"

  • "I didn't have to make an appointment to see him."

    "我那時和他見面不需要預約。"

  • "She has passed her exam.

    "她通過了考試。

  • She won't have to retake it."

    她不需要重修了"

  • So as you can see,

    如你所見,

  • the main difference between 'must' and 'have to'

    'must'和'have to'最大的差別在於

  • is that 'must' is a necessity felt by the speaker,

    'must'是說話者所感受到的必要性,

  • whereas 'have to' is an external obligation or rule.

    而'have to'是一個對外的義務或規矩。

  • If this difference is not relevant

    如果句子套用兩者的結果無太大差別,

  • you can use 'must' and 'have to' interchangeably

    你可以交替使用'must'和'have to',

  • in positive sentences.

    並使用肯定句。

  • However, be careful

    無論如何,要小心

  • that in the negative,

    在否定句中,

  • 'must not' is still a necessity

    'must not'仍然是表示一個必須性

  • or an obligation

    或一個義務

  • not to do something.

    而不是去做什麼事情。

  • It's a prohibition.

    它用來表示一個禁令。

  • Whereas 'don't have to'

    相反地,'don't have to'

  • removes the necessity or obligation.

    除去了必須性和義務。

  • Also note that as 'must' has no past tense

    而且要注意'must'沒有過去式

  • both obligation and necessity are expressed with

    義務和必須性這兩者的過去式必須使用

  • 'had to' to in the past.

    'had to'來表示。

  • You may have also come across

    你可能有看過

  • the expression 'need to'.

    'need to'的用法。

  • 'Need to' is a softer alternative to both 'must' and 'have to'.

    'need to'是和'must'和'have to'比起來,語氣較委婉的替代用詞。

  • For example:

    舉例來說:

  • you could say, "I must finish this tonight, because I want to take tomorrow off." or

    你可以說:"I must finish this tonight, because I want to take tomorrow off." "我必須在今晚把這完成,因為明天我想休息。"或

  • "I need to finish this tonight, because I want to take tomorrow off."

    "I need to finish this tonight, because I want to take tomorrow off." "我得在今晚把這完成,因為明天我想休息。"

  • or "I have to finish this tonight, my deadline is tomorrow."

    或 "I have to finish this tonight, my deadline is tomorrow." 我必須在今晚把這完成,因為明天是我的繳交期限。"

  • In a softer tone, you could say:

    用較溫和的語氣,你可以說:

  • "I need to finish this tonight, my deadline is tomorrow."

    "I need to finish this tonight, my deadline is tomorrow." "我得在今晚把這完成,因為明天是我的繳交期限。"

  • 'Need to' is an ordinary verb

    'Need to'是一個普通動詞,

  • and takes auxiliaries.

    也接助動詞。

  • "Do I need to finish this tonight?"

    "Do I need to finish this tonight?"

  • I don't need to finish this tonight."

    I don't need to finish this tonight."

  • You may also come across the modal verb 'need'.

    你可能也有看過'need'情態動詞的用法。

  • It is not a very common modal verb and can only be used in negative

    它並非一個常見的情態動詞,且只能用在否定的

  • sentences and questions.

    句子和疑問句中。

  • So you may hear instead of "do I need to finish this?"

    所以你可能會聽到"Need I finish this?"

  • "Need I finish this?"

    而非"do I need to finish this?"

  • or

    或者

  • Instead of "I don't need to finish this."

    不是"I don't need to finish this."

  • you may hear

    你可能會聽到

  • "I needn't finish this."

    "I needn't finish this."

  • Let's do a gap filling exercise now.

    現在讓我們來作填空練習吧!

  • "Have you had your exam results?"

    "你知道你的考試結果了嗎?"

  • "Yes I've failed Biology.

    "嗯,我生物被當了。"

  • I will ......

    我將......

  • retake it in August.

    在八月重修。"

  • I will have to retake it in August."

    我將必須在八月重修"

  • "Oh sorry.

    "喔 抱歉。

  • You ......

    你......

  • be pretty upset.

    相當難過。

  • You must be pretty upset.

    你一定相當難過。

  • What about Physics?"

    那麼物理呢?"

  • "I've passed that but with a very low mark.

    "我低空飛過。

  • My teacher thinks I ......

    我的老師認為我 .......

  • retake that too.

    也要重修物理。

  • My teacher thinks I should retake that too."

    我的老師認為我應該也要重修物理。"

  • "Do you think you .....

    "你覺得你 ......

  • retake it?

    重修物理?

  • Do you think you should retake it?"

    你覺得你應該要重修物理?"

  • "No, I strongly feel that I ......

    "不,我強烈地認為我 .......

  • focus on biology.

    專注於生物。

  • I strongly feel that I must focus on Biology.

    我強烈地認為應該要專注於生物。"

  • I ...... fail that one.

    我那科 ........ 不及格。

  • I mustn't fail that one.

    我那科不能不及格。

  • I ...... get at least a B in Biology to study medicine at university.

    如果要在大學讀醫學系,生物學我至少..........要拿個B。

  • I have to get at least a B in Biology to study Medicine at university."

    如果要在大學讀醫學系,生物學我至少必須要拿個B。"

  • "Did you fail Biology last year as well?"

    "你去年的生物學也被當了嗎?"

  • "No I passed it last year.

    "不 我去年及格了。

  • I ......

    今年我.......

  • have passed it this year too.

    也得及格。

  • I should have passed it this year too.

    今年我應該也得及格。

  • I just didn't study enough."

    我只是沒念那麼足。"

  • "You ....... have studied enough! You always do."

    "你 ...... 要念足的!你一直都是這樣的阿。"

  • You must have studied enough you always do.

    你應該要念足的!你一直都是這樣的阿。"

  • The exam .....

    這考試 ......

  • have been difficult.

    很難。

  • The exam must have been difficult."

    這考試一定是很難。"

  • No, the exam wasn't difficult. I was too tired.

    不,考試不難。我是太累了。

  • I ......

    我 .......

  • have partied the night before.

    在考試前一天去參加派對。

  • I shouldn't have partied the night before.

    我不應該在考試前一天去參加派對。

  • I ...... have studied instead.

    我 ....... 念書才對。

  • I should have studied instead."

    我應該要念書才對。"

  • Oh, I see. Well, you are good at Biology.

    喔,我知道了。反正,你的生物很好。

  • You ....... be able to pass it in August.

    你 ....... 可以在八月時考及格。

  • You should be able to pass it in August."

    你應該可以在八月時考及格。

  • "I hope so.

    "我希望囉。

  • I will ......

    我將 ......

  • find a summer job as well. My dad insists!

    也找一份暑期打工。我爸堅持讓我這麼作!

  • I will

    I will 我將

  • have to find a summer job as well."

    必須也找一份暑期打工,我爸堅持讓我這麼作!

  • "Did you have a summer job last year?"

    "你去年有暑期打工嗎?"

  • "No, I didn't .....

    "不,我沒有 .....

  • work last summer.

    在去年暑假工作。

  • I didn't have to work last summer.

    我沒有必須在去年暑假工作。

  • I had some savings then."

    那時我還有一點儲蓄。"

  • "What happened to your savings?"

    "你存的錢怎麼了?"

  • I ......

    我 ......

  • buy a car because my flat was too far from the college.

    買一台車,因為我的公寓離大學太遠了。

  • I had to buy a car."

    我得買一台車。"

  • "Well, good luck with your retake. You .......

    "好吧,祝你重修順利。你 ......

  • let me know how it went.

    讓我知道結果。

  • You must let me know how it went."

    你一定要讓我知道結果。"

  • Right, that's the end of this lesson, I hope you've enjoyed it.

    好了。這個課程到此結束。我希望你學得很愉快。

  • As you know, you can now go to our website anglo-link.com for further explanations

    如你所知道的,現在你可以上我們的網站anglo-link.com去看進一步的解說

  • and exercises.

    和練習題。

  • Thank you for watching, I look forward to seeing you in our next video.

    謝謝你的觀賞,期待在我們下個影片中看到你。

  • Bye now!

    現在掰掰囉!

Hello and welcome everyone, this is Minoo at Anglo-Link.

哈囉大家好,歡迎你們。我是Anglo-Link的Minoo

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 動詞 重修 情態 用法 及格 義務

英文情態助動詞 Should - Must - Have to | English Modal Verbs

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    Zenn   發佈於 2013 年 05 月 01 日
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