字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 I want to talk about social innovation 今天我想講的是社會創新 and social entrepreneurship. 和公益創業 I happen to have triplets. 我碰巧有三胞胎 They're little. They're five years old. 他們還小,他們五歲 Sometimes I tell people I have triplets. 有時候我告訴人家我有三胞胎 They say, "Really? How many?" 他們說﹐ "真的嗎? 幾個?" Here's a picture of the kids. 這是他們的照片 That's Sage and Annalisa and Rider. 那時Sage, Annalisa, 和Rider Now, I also happen to be gay. 我同時也是同性戀者 Being gay and fathering triplets is by far 同時身為同性戀者和三胞胎的爸爸 the most socially innovative, socially entrepreneurial thing 應該是我做過 I have ever done. 最有創意和最大膽的事 (Laughter) (Applause) (笑) (掌聲) The real social innovation I want to talk about 我真正要談的公益創新是 involves charity. 關於慈善 I want to talk about how the things we've been taught to think 我想講的是我們從小怎樣被灌輸 about giving and about charity 對於幫助別人﹐慈善 and about the nonprofit sector 和非牟利團體的看法 are actually undermining the causes we love 其實它們潛意識破壞我們所愛護的 and our profound yearning to change the world. 以及我們潛在去改變世界的渴望 But before I do that, I want to ask if we even believe 我說這個以前﹐我想問一下我們其實相不相信 that the nonprofit sector has any serious role to play 非牟利組織擔任著 in changing the world. 改變世界的重要角色 A lot of people say now that business will lift up the developing economies, 很多人說既然一般的企業幫助促進發展中的經濟體 and social business will take care of the rest. 那麼就由社會型企業來負責餘下的那部分 And I do believe that business will move 我相信企業會帶動 the great mass of humanity forward. 很大部份的人性前進 But it always leaves behind that 10 percent or more 但同時, 它亦會放棄10%或以上的 that is most disadvantaged or unlucky. 那些最不幸﹐最弱勢的人群 And social business needs markets, 社會型企業需要市場 and there are some issues for which you just can't develop 而它們亦沒有那些龐大的資金 the kind of money measures that you need for a market. 去拓展它們想開發的市場 I sit on the board of a center for the developmentally disabled, 我是一個專門針對成長發展障礙的中心的董事 and these people want laughter 他們需要的是笑容 and compassion and they want love. 關懷﹐他們需要愛 How do you monetize that? 你如何把它們金錢化? And that's where the nonprofit sector 非牟利團體和慈善事業 and philanthropy come in. 便是在這時上場 Philanthropy is the market for love. 慈善工作是一個愛的市場 It is the market for all those people 為了那些沒有其他市場 for whom there is no other market coming. 來幫助他們的人們 And so if we really want, like Buckminster Fuller said, 所以,尤如Buckminster Fuller (美國哲學家、建築師及發明家)說的 a world that works for everyone, 如果我們想要一個服務於所有人 with no one and nothing left out, 不遺漏一個人的世界 then the nonprofit sector has to be 非牟利團體必定 a serious part of the conversation. 要是很重要的一方 But it doesn't seem to be working. 但這似乎不是太順利﹐ Why have our breast cancer charities 為什麼我們的乳癌組織 not come close to finding a cure for breast cancer, 還沒有找到根治乳癌的方法 or our homeless charities not come close 或救助流浪兒團體 to ending homelessness in any major city? 還未解決大城市中無家可歸的問題? Why has poverty remained stuck at 12 percent 為什麼美國四十年來 of the U.S. population for 40 years? 貧乏人口的比例還是停留在12%? And the answer is, these social problems 答案是﹐這些社會問題 are massive in scale, 其實很大 our organizations are tiny up against them, 我們的團體相比之下猶如螳臂當車 and we have a belief system that keeps them tiny. 而且我們有一套信仰體系讓它們顯得更渺小 We have two rulebooks. 我們有兩套規章制度 We have one for the nonprofit sector 一套是對非牟利團體 and one for the rest of the economic world. 另一套是對趨利的世界 It's an apartheid, and it discriminates 這就是種族歧視 against the [nonprofit] sector in five different areas, 它在五個方面歧視了非牟利團體 the first being compensation. 第一是回報 So in the for-profit sector, the more value you produce, 你在非牟利團體裡面製造的價值越多 the more money you can make. 你賺的錢越多 But we don't like nonprofits to use money 但我們不喜歡非牟利團體花錢 to incentivize people to produce more in social service. 激勵人們在公益服務上創造更多 We have a visceral reaction to the idea that anyone 我們對某些人通過幫助別人而獲利良多 would make very much money helping other people. 這個想法有本能的厭惡 Interesting that we don't have a visceral reaction 但有趣的是我們對於那些賺賺得盆滿缽溢 to the notion that people would make a lot of money not helping other people. 而又不去幫助別人的人又不厭惡 You know, you want to make 50 million dollars 要是你想靠售賣暴力電腦游戲 selling violent video games to kids, go for it. 賺五千萬﹐去吧﹗ We'll put you on the cover of Wired magazine. 我們會讓你登上Wired 雜誌的封面 But you want to make half a million dollars 但如果你想靠治好患瘧疾的小孩 trying to cure kids of malaria, 賺取五十萬 and you're considered a parasite yourself. (Applause) 你自己就會被看作一條寄生蟲 And we think of this as our system of ethics, 我們都以為這是道德觀念 but what we don't realize is that this system 但我們不知道的其實這套觀念 has a powerful side effect, which is, 有一個非常顯著的弊病 it gives a really stark, mutually exclusive choice 它給出了一個非此即彼的選擇 between doing very well for yourself and your family 要麼最好的給予自己和家人 or doing good for the world 要麼為世界作出貢獻 to the brightest minds coming out of our best universities, 讓精英雲集的頂尖大學 and sends tens of thousands of people 可以每年把數以千計能影響世界的人們 who could make a huge difference in the nonprofit sector 送進非牟利機構裡 marching every year directly into the for-profit sector 就像數以千計直接送到牟利企業的人們一樣 because they're not willing to make that kind of lifelong economic sacrifice. 因為他們並不願意放棄經濟上的長期損失 Businessweek did a survey, looked at the compensation packages 《商業週刊》雜誌做了一項調查 for MBAs 10 years of business school, 把不同工商管理碩士(MBAs)的收入進行統計 and the median compensation for a Stanford MBA, 斯坦福大學的MBA，在三十八歲時的收入中位數 with bonus, at the age of 38, was 400,000 dollars. 加上紅利，是四十萬美元 Meanwhile, for the same year, the average salary 同時，一家資產為五百萬以上的美國醫療慈善機構的 for the CEO of a $5 million-plus medical charity in the U.S. 行政總裁平均收入是二十三萬美元 was 232,000 dollars, and for a hunger charity, 84,000 dollars. 而一家致力解決飢饉問題的慈善機構的總裁收入是八萬四千美元 Now, there's no way you're going to get a lot of people 要很多有能力去賺四十萬的人 with $400,000 talent to make a $316,000 sacrifice 現在放棄三十一萬六， 而當一家飢饉救助會的總裁 every year to become the CEO of a hunger charity. 簡直是天方夜談 Some people say, "Well, that's just because those MBA types are greedy." 有些人會說， "都是因為那些MBA貪婪" Not necessarily. They might be smart. 其實不然,他們是聰明 It's cheaper for that person to donate 一個人每年 100,000 dollars every year to the hunger charity, 捐給飢饉救助會十萬元 save 50,000 dollars on their taxes, 從而少交五萬元的稅是比較便宜的 so still be roughly 270,000 dollars a year ahead of the game, 即使這樣他們還是比救助會的總裁要多賺二十七萬美元 now be called a philanthropist because they donated 又會因為捐了十萬塊錢 100,000 dollars to charity, 被稱做大慈善家 probably sit on the board of the hunger charity, 有時還會出席飢饉慈善的董事會 indeed, probably supervise the poor SOB 監管那些不知死活 who decided to become the CEO of the hunger charity, 非要當飢饉救助會的行政總裁 and have a lifetime of this kind of power and influence 還能終生保有這些勢力和影響力 and popular praise still ahead of them. 並廣受讚譽 The second area of discrimination is advertising and marketing. 第二方面的歧視來自宣傳跟廣告 So we tell the for-profit sector, "Spend, spend, spend on advertising 我們告訴牟利機構，"花，花，把錢都花在廣告上 until the last dollar no longer produces a penny of value." 直到榨乾最後一滴價值" But we don't like to see our donations spent on advertising in charity. 但我們偏不喜歡看到我們的捐款被花在為慈善做廣告上 Our attitude is, "Well, look, if you can get the advertising donated, 我們的態度是，"聽著，如是你真的要做那件事情 you know, at four o'clock in the morning, I'm okay with that. 你在清晨四點鐘做，我沒意見。 But I don't want my donations spent on advertising. 但我真的不想看到我的捐款用在廣告上 I want it go to the needy." 我是想它用在有需要的人身上啊。" As if the money invested in advertising 誰說投資在廣告上 could not bring in dramatically greater sums of money 就不能帶來巨大的收益 to serve the needy. 去幫助有需要的人 In the 1990s, my company created 1990 年，我的公司開辦了 the long distance AIDSRide bicycle journeys AIDSRide長途單車之旅 and the 60-mile-long breast cancer three-day walks, 和三天六十英哩長的乳癌步行活動 and over the course of nine years, 經過九年的時間 we had 182,000 ordinary heroes participate, 我們有18萬2千名平凡的勇士參與 and they raised a total of 581 million dollars. 一共籌得五億八千一百萬美元的善款 They raised more money more quickly for these causes 他們為了這些目標籌得的錢 than any events in history, 比以往任何活動籌得還要多還要快 all based on the idea that people are weary 因為他們曉得人們厭煩被要求做這些 of being asked to do the least they can possibly do. 起碼他們能夠做到的 People are yearning to measure 人們渴望瞭解自己在所關注的事業上 the full distance of their potential 在所關注的事業上 on behalf of the causes that they care about deeply. 盡力得到的結果。 But they have to be asked. 但得有人邀請他們 We got that many people to participate 我們之所以有那麼多參賽者 by buying full-page ads in The New York Times, 全靠放在紐約時代雜誌 in The Boston Globe, in primetime radio and TV advertising. 波士頓環球報的整版廣告，還有電台，電視黃金時段的廣告 Do you know how many people we would have gotten 你知道如果我們把宣傳放在自助洗衣店門口 if we put up flyers in the laundromat? 會有多少人參加嗎? Charitable giving has remained stuck, in the U.S., 慈善捐助在美國一直停滯不前 at two percent of GDP ever since we started measuring it in the 1970s. 從1970年至今一直維持在國内生產總值的2% That's an important fact, because it tells us 這個告訴我們很重要的一個事情 that in 40 years, the nonprofit sector 就是四十年來，非牟利行業 has not been able to wrestle any market share 到現在還有從牟利行業那處 away from the for-profit sector. 爭得一點點市場 And if you think about it, how could one sector 試想一下 possibly take market share away from another sector 一個連市場行銷都不被允許的行業 if it isn't really allowed to market? 又如何能夠從另一個行業那裡拿走市場? And if we tell the consumer brands, 我們會告訴消費品品牌 "You may advertise all the benefits of your product," "你該宣傳產品所有的好處" but we tell charities, "You cannot advertise all the good that you do," 但那邊，我們告訴慈善機構，"你不能夠宣傳你做過什麼好事" where do we think the consumer dollars are going to flow? 那你認為消費者的鈔票會落入哪一邊? The third area of discrimination is the taking of risk 第三樣歧視是為提高收益而創新 in pursuit of new ideas for generating revenue. 所承受的風險 So Disney can make a new $200 million movie that flops, 迪士尼可以虧掉一部二億元的電影 and nobody calls the attorney general. 沒有人會起訴它 But you do a little $1 million community fundraiser 但要是你為了貧困籌了區區一百萬的款項 for the poor, and it doesn't produce a 75 percent profit 而在頭一年 to the cause in the first 12 months, 沒有達到75%的盈餘 and your character is called into question. 你的聲譽就會遭到質疑 So nonprofits are really reluctant to attempt any brave, 所以非牟利機構其實真的對大膽的，銳意進取的 daring, giant-scale new fundraising endeavors 大型的籌款活動卻步 for fear that if the thing fails, their reputations 怕的是一旦失敗 will be dragged through the mud. 它們便會聲名狼藉 Well, you and I know when you prohibit failure, 你該知道禁止失敗 you kill innovation. 我們便會泄氣。 If you kill innovation in fundraising, you can't raise more revenue. 要是在籌款活動上沒有創新，就不會有任何收入提高 If you can't raise more revenue, you can't grow. 要是沒有收入，你便不會發展 And if you can't grow, you can't possibly solve large social problems. 不能夠發展，你便不能夠解決龐大的社會問題 The fourth area is time. 第四點是時間。 So Amazon went for six years without returning any profit to investors, 亞馬遜網站連續六年沒有發盈利給投資者 and people had patience. 人們都還有耐性 They knew that there was a long-term objective down the line 他們知道這是 of building market dominance. 一個在市場中獨佔鰲頭的長線項目 But if a nonprofit organization ever had a dream 但要是公益機構夢想要花六年 of building magnificent scale that required that for six years, 創做一個龐大項目 no money was going to go to the needy, 而這些錢都不會被用在有需要的人上 it was all going to be invested in building this scale, 全部金錢都用在投資在項目上 we would expect a crucifixion. 它一定不會有好日子過 And the last area is profit itself. 最後是盈餘 So the for-profit sector can pay people profits 牟利商業可以靠分紅 in order to attract their capital for their new ideas, 來吸引人們來投資它們的新概念 but you can't pay profits in a nonprofit sector, 但非牟利機構不可以， so the for-profit sector has a lock on the multi-trillion-dollar capital markets, 牟利能夠獨霸市場 and the nonprofit sector is starved for growth 但非牟利機構得不到成長 and risk and idea capital. 跟機會以及理想的資本 Well, you put those five things together -- you can't use money 你用五根指頭算算， to lure talent away from the for-profit sector, 你未能把能幹的人從牟利機構中挖過來 you can't advertise on anywhere near the scale 你不能夠像牟利機構般 the for-profit sector does for new customers, 宣傳，賣廣告去吸引新客戶 you can't take the kinds of risks in pursuit of those customers 你沒有牟利機構的能力承受 that the for-profit sector takes, 追求那些客戶的風險 you don't have the same amount of time to find them 你沒有像牟利機構那樣多的時間 as the for-profit sector, 去找那些客戶 and you don't have a stock market with which to fund any of this, 你沒有股票市場去支助你所有這些行為 even if you could do it in the first place, 就算你一開始能這麼做 and you've just put the nonprofit sector 相較於牟利企業非牟利機構已經在 at an extreme disadvantage to the for-profit sector 非牟利機構已經在每個層面上 on every level. 都處於極端的劣勢 If we have any doubts about the effects of this separate rule book, 要是你對這雙種標準的效果有所質疑 this statistic is sobering: 這些統計數字能叫你醒悟過來 From 1970 to 2009, 從1970年 到2009年 the number of nonprofits that really grew, 真正超越了五百萬年收入大關的 that crossed the $50 million annual revenue barrier, 非牟利機構 is 144. 有144個 In the same time, the number of for-profits that crossed it 如此同時，能夠跨過那收入關卡的牟利機構 is 46,136. 有46,136個 So we're dealing with social problems that are massive in scale, 我們在處理那些龐大的社會問題 and our organizations can't generate any scale. 但我們的機構自己卻無法成長 All of the scale goes to Coca-Cola and Burger King. 全部的規模效益都落入到可口可樂和漢堡王 So why do we think this way? 我們為何會這樣想? Well, like most fanatical dogma in America, 美國的這些狂熱信條 these ideas come from old Puritan beliefs. 來源于從前的清教徒的教義 The Puritans came here for religious reasons, or so they said, 清教徒們，或者按他們自己的說法，來這裡出於宗教理由 but they also came here because they wanted to make a lot of money. 但他們也是為了賺大錢 They were pious people but they were also 他們是虔誠的教徒 really aggressive capitalists, 也是激進的資本家 and they were accused of extreme forms of profit-making tendencies 比起其他殖民者 compared to the other colonists. 他們被指責使用極端手段來牟利 But at the same time, the Puritans were Calvinists, 但同時﹐清教徒也是加爾文主義者 so they were taught literally to hate themselves. 所以他們被教導要怨恨自己 They were taught that self-interest was a raging sea 他們被教導利己主義是罪惡的源頭 that was a sure path to eternal damnation. 是一條通向永恆詛咒必經的道路 Well, this created a real problem for these people, right? 這樣不就會產生真正的問題? Here they've come all the way across the Atlantic to make all this money. 他們不辭萬里越洋來賺錢 Making all this money will get you sent directly to Hell. 但賺這些錢又會把你直接推向地獄 What were they to do about this? 他們該怎樣做? Well, charity became their answer. 慈善公益就是他們的答案 It became this economic sanctuary 這是他們經濟的避難所 where they could do penance for their profit-making tendencies 他們可以繼續 at five cents on the dollar. 每一塊錢裡的五分錢懺悔 So of course, how could you make money in charity 理所當然地﹐要是慈善是你為牟利而懺悔 if charity was your penance for making money? 那你怎樣能夠以它來賺錢?