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  • One of the most common ways of dividing the world

    譯者: Sandy Li 審譯者: Shelley Krishna R. TSANG

  • is into those who believe

    區分世人,其中一種最常見的做法

  • and those who don't --

    是把他們分成「信者」

  • into the religious and the atheists.

    與「不信者」──

  • And for the last decade or so,

    即「有神論者」和「無神論者」

  • it's been quite clear

    近十年來

  • what being an atheist means.

    何謂「無神論者」

  • There have been some very vocal atheists

    一直相當清晰

  • who've pointed out,

    好些無神論者

  • not just that religion is wrong,

    直言不諱

  • but that it's ridiculous.

    說宗教不僅是錯的

  • These people, many of whom have lived in North Oxford,

    而且還是荒謬的

  • have argued --

    這些無神論者,當中有許多居於牛津北部

  • they've argued that believing in God

    他們主張

  • is akin to believing in fairies

    他們認為,相信上帝存在

  • and essentially that the whole thing

    無異於相信童話內的仙女存在

  • is a childish game.

    究其本質

  • Now I think it's too easy.

    宗教是幼稚的

  • I think it's too easy

    但我認為這說法太淺薄

  • to dismiss the whole of religion that way.

    這樣完全否定宗教

  • And it's as easy as shooting fish in a barrel.

    過於輕易

  • And what I'd like to inaugurate today

    輕易如甕中捉鱉

  • is a new way of being an atheist --

    今日,我想說的是

  • if you like, a new version of atheism

    無神論者不必如此

  • we could call Atheism 2.0.

    可以說,這是一種嶄新的無神論

  • Now what is Atheism 2.0?

    我們可稱之為「無神論 2.0」

  • Well it starts from a very basic premise:

    何謂「無神論 2.0」?

  • of course, there's no God.

    我們先從最基本的前提說起

  • Of course, there are no deities or supernatural spirits

    是的,世間沒有上帝

  • or angels, etc.

    而且也沒有甚麼聖靈,或超自然的神明

  • Now let's move on; that's not the end of the story,

    也沒有天使之類的東西

  • that's the very, very beginning.

    這不是結論,而是起點

  • I'm interested in the kind of constituency

    我們繼續說下去

  • that thinks something along these lines:

    我對某些人的想法很感興趣

  • that thinks, "I can't believe in any of this stuff.

    他們會想

  • I can't believe in the doctrines.

    「我不相信這些東西」

  • I don't think these doctrines are right.

    「我不接受那些教條」

  • But," a very important but, "I love Christmas carols.

    「我不認為這些教條是對的」

  • I really like the art of Mantegna.

    「可是」這個心理轉折很重要,「我喜歡聖誕歌」

  • I really like looking at old churches.

    「我很喜歡蒙特納的畫作」

  • I really like turning the pages of the Old Testament."

    「我欣賞古老的教堂」

  • Whatever it may be,

    「我很喜歡翻閱舊約聖經」

  • you know the kind of thing I'm talking about --

    諸如此類

  • people who are attracted to the ritualistic side,

    你懂的

  • the moralistic, communal side of religion,

    有些人會被宗教的某部份吸引,比如是儀式

  • but can't bear the doctrine.

    宗教中的倫理,或是裡面普世共享的東西

  • Until now, these people have faced a rather unpleasant choice.

    但受不了那些教條

  • It's almost as though either you accept the doctrine

    直到目前為止,他們總是陷入兩難

  • and then you can have all the nice stuff,

    要麼,你得一併擁護宗教教條

  • or you reject the doctrine and

    才能享有宗教美好的部份

  • you're living in some kind of spiritual wasteland

    要麼,你在否定宗教教條的同時

  • under the guidance of CNN and Walmart.

    便讓自己置身空茫的精神世界裡

  • So that's a sort of tough choice.

    讓CNN和沃爾瑪作你的精神領袖

  • I don't think we have to make that choice.

    二擇其一,真是個困難的選擇

  • I think there is an alternative.

    但我不認為我們一定要非此即彼

  • I think there are ways --

    其實還有另一個可能性

  • and I'm being both very respectful and completely impious --

    我想我們可以

  • of stealing from religions.

    在非常尊重,但並不崇拜宗教的前提下

  • If you don't believe in a religion,

    從中偷師

  • there's nothing wrong with picking and mixing,

    如果你不相信宗教

  • with taking out the best sides of religion.

    大可萃取並融和宗教裡美好的事物

  • And for me, atheism 2.0

    去蕪存菁

  • is about both, as I say,

    在我而言,無神論2.0

  • a respectful and an impious way

    正正是,如我所言

  • of going through religions and saying, "What here could we use?"

    在尊重但不崇拜宗教的前提下

  • The secular world is full of holes.

    檢視宗教的內容,並思考「這裡面有甚麼值得借鏡的?」

  • We have secularized badly, I would argue.

    去宗教化的現世是千瘡百孔的

  • And a thorough study of religion

    我認為,這個社會的去宗教化,做得並不高明

  • could give us all sorts of insights

    透徹地考究宗教

  • into areas of life that are not going too well.

    能讓人生活各方面

  • And I'd like to run through a few of these today.

    獲得不同的啟發

  • I'd like to kick off by looking at education.

    今天我會挑其中幾樣來說

  • Now education is a field

    首先,我們來看看教育

  • the secular world really believes in.

    今時今日

  • When we think about how we're going to make the world a better place,

    我們對教育抱有莫大信心

  • we think education; that's where we put a lot of money.

    我們相信它能使世界更好

  • Education is going to give us, not only commercial skills, industrial skills,

    於是我們向教育投入龐大資金

  • it's also going to make us better people.

    教育所能作的,不只是授與各項職業技能

  • You know the kind of thing a commencement address is, and graduation ceremonies,

    它還會導人向善

  • those lyrical claims

    在開學演辭中,或畢業典禮上

  • that education, the process of education -- particularly higher education --

    常有這種堂皇動人的說法

  • will make us into nobler and better human beings.

    指教育,尤其是高等教育

  • That's a lovely idea.

    使人變得更好更高尚

  • Interesting where it came from.

    很美好的構想

  • In the early 19th century,

    值得探究的是,這構思的來源

  • church attendance in Western Europe

    十九世紀初

  • started sliding down very, very sharply, and people panicked.

    在西歐,上教會的人

  • They asked themselves the following question.

    愈來愈少,流失得很快,大家開始不安

  • They said, where are people going to find the morality,

    大家想知道

  • where are they going to find guidance,

    從此,人們該從何學習倫理

  • and where are they going to find sources of consolation?

    從何得到指引

  • And influential voices came up with one answer.

    從何得到慰藉?

  • They said culture.

    後來,有人認為答案是

  • It's to culture that we should look

    「文化」

  • for guidance, for consolation, for morality.

    我們會從文化獲得

  • Let's look to the plays of Shakespeare,

    指引、慰藉、和倫理

  • the dialogues of Plato, the novels of Jane Austen.

    在莎士比亞的歌劇

  • In there, we'll find a lot of the truths

    柏拉圖《對話錄》和奧斯汀的小說裡

  • that we might previously have found in the Gospel of Saint John.

    我們可以找到許多真理

  • Now I think that's a very beautiful idea and a very true idea.

    許多我們曾經在約翰福音裡找到的真理

  • They wanted to replace scripture with culture.

    從文化中學習真理,我認為是很美好,而且切實的構思

  • And that's a very plausible idea.

    以文化取代宗教

  • It's also an idea that we have forgotten.

    非常可行

  • If you went to a top university --

    但我們早已把這想法拋諸腦後

  • let's say you went to Harvard or Oxford or Cambridge --

    如果你就讀某頂尖大學

  • and you said, "I've come here

    比方說,哈佛、牛津或劍橋

  • because I'm in search of morality, guidance and consolation;

    你說:「我來到這兒」

  • I want to know how to live,"

    「是為了追尋倫理、指引和慰藉」

  • they would show you the way to the insane asylum.

    「我想知道如果好好生活」

  • This is simply not what our grandest and best institutes of higher learning

    旁人會送你進精神病院

  • are in the business of.

    這些尊貴的高等學府

  • Why? They don't think we need it.

    並非為幫人追尋真理而設的

  • They don't think we are in an urgent need of assistance.

    為甚麼?他們認定我們不需要幫助

  • They see us as adults, rational adults.

    我們沒這逼切需要

  • What we need is information.

    我們被視為成人,理智的成人

  • We need data, we don't need help.

    我們被認為只需要資訊

  • Now religions start from a very different place indeed.

    我們只需要數據,毋須幫忙

  • All religions, all major religions,

    宗教的觀點則截然不同

  • at various points call us children.

    所有宗教,所有主流宗教

  • And like children,

    總是稱教徒為「孩子」

  • they believe that we are in severe need of assistance.

    像小孩一樣

  • We're only just holding it together.

    急切地需要扶一把

  • Perhaps this is just me, maybe you.

    我們只是勉力維持現狀

  • But anyway, we're only just holding it together.

    也許只有我是這樣想的,也許你也有如此想過

  • And we need help. Of course, we need help.

    我們只是勉力維持現狀

  • And so we need guidance and we need didactic learning.

    我們需要幫忙,當然,我們需要幫助

  • You know, in the 18th century in the U.K.,

    我們需要指引,我們需要教導

  • the greatest preacher, greatest religious preacher, was a man called John Wesley,

    你知道,十八世紀英國

  • who went up and down this country delivering sermons,

    曾有一位非常非常偉大的傳教士,名為約翰.衛斯理

  • advising people how they could live.

    他走入鄉郊佈道

  • He delivered sermons on the duties of parents to their children

    指導人們如果過活

  • and children to their parents,

    他向人宣導,講父母對子女應有之義

  • the duties of the rich to the poor and the poor to the rich.

    講子女對父母有何責任

  • He was trying to tell people how they should live

    講富人與窮人之間的關係

  • through the medium of sermons,

    透過佈道

  • the classic medium of delivery of religions.

    他教人如何生活

  • Now we've given up with the idea of sermons.

    佈道會是傳播宗教的經典形式

  • If you said to a modern liberal individualist,

    但我們已摒棄佈道會

  • "Hey, how about a sermon?"

    如果你告訴一名自由主義者

  • they'd go, "No, no. I don't need one of those.

    「嘿,想去佈道會嗎?」

  • I'm an independent, individual person."

    他會回應道,「不,不用了,我不需要。」

  • What's the difference between a sermon

    「我是一個獨立的個體。」

  • and our modern, secular mode of delivery, the lecture?

    佈道會和現世用以傳播思想的講課

  • Well a sermon wants to change your life

    有何分別?

  • and a lecture wants to give you a bit of information.

    佈道會嘗試改變你的生命

  • And I think we need to get back to that sermon tradition.

    而講課向你提供更多資訊

  • The tradition of sermonizing is hugely valuable,

    我認為我們應該回到佈道會這傳統

  • because we are in need of guidance,

    這是一項富有價值的傳統

  • morality and consolation --

    因為我們的確需要指引

  • and religions know that.

    道德觀,和慰藉

  • Another point about education:

    宗教懂得人們需要甚麼

  • we tend to believe in the modern secular world

    還有一點關於教育

  • that if you tell someone something once, they'll remember it.

    我們傾向相信在無神的現世裡

  • Sit them in a classroom, tell them about Plato

    你只須把事情說一遍,大家便會記得

  • at the age of 20, send them out for a career in management consultancy for 40 years,

    把二十歲的人們留在課室,說說柏拉圖

  • and that lesson will stick with them.

    然後讓他們在顧問公司打拼四十年

  • Religions go, "Nonsense.

    他們仍會牢牢記住柏拉圖的一課

  • You need to keep repeating the lesson 10 times a day.

    宗教會認為這不可能

  • So get on your knees and repeat it."

    你得每天向他們重複十遍才行

  • That's what all religions tell us:

    跪下,然後重複

  • "Get on you knees and repeat it 10 or 20 or 15 times a day."

    這就是宗教要求我們做的

  • Otherwise our minds are like sieves.

    「跪下,每日重複十到二十遍。」

  • So religions are cultures of repetition.

    否則我們會左耳進右耳出

  • They circle the great truths again and again and again.

    換言之,宗教是重複的文化

  • We associate repetition with boredom.

    重要的真理,一而再,再而三地流傳

  • "Give us the new," we're always saying.

    我們會把「重複」和「沈悶」聯想在一起

  • "The new is better than the old."

    我們老是說「給點新意」

  • If I said to you, "Okay, we're not going to have new TED.

    「新的當然比舊的好」

  • We're just going to run through all the old ones

    如果我告訴:「好吧,我們不會再有新的TED

  • and watch them five times because they're so true.

    我們只會重看已有的TED

  • We're going to watch Elizabeth Gilbert five times

    每天看五次,因為它們說得太對了

  • because what she says is so clever," you'd feel cheated.

    我們將會每天重複聽伊利莎白.喬伯五次

  • Not so if you're adopting a religious mindset.

    因為她的演說實在太機智了。」你會感到受騙

  • The other things that religions do

    但用宗教的角度看,事情便不一樣了

  • is to arrange time.

    除了重複,宗教還會

  • All the major religions give us calendars.

    安排時間

  • What is a calendar?

    所有主要宗教都有曆法

  • A calendar is a way of making sure that across the year

    甚麼是曆法?

  • you will bump into certain very important ideas.

    它是要確保我們在一年中

  • In the Catholic chronology, Catholic calendar,

    總有那麼幾天會重溫一些重要的思想

  • at the end of March you will think about St. Jerome

    對天主教徒而言

  • and his qualities of humility and goodness

    每逢三月最後一天,他們會記起聖葉理諾

  • and his generosity to the poor.

    記起他的謙卑和善良

  • You won't do that by accident; you will do that because you are guided to do that.

    還有他對窮人的慷慨

  • Now we don't think that way.

    你不會無緣無故想起他,那是因為曆法提醒了你

  • In the secular world we think, "If an idea is important, I'll bump into it.

    我們現在不這麼想了

  • I'll just come across it."

    無神的世界裡,我們認為「如果這是一個重要的想法,我終究會遇上的

  • Nonsense, says the religious world view.

    終究會遇上的。」

  • Religious view says we need calendars, we need to structure time,

    不可能,宗教如此認為

  • we need to synchronize encounters.

    宗教認為人們需要曆法,人們需要為此安排時間

  • This comes across also

    人們需要同時紀念

  • in the way in which religions set up rituals

    同樣道理

  • around important feelings.

    宗教為各樣情緒

  • Take the Moon. It's really important to look at the Moon.

    設立各項儀式

  • You know, when you look at the Moon,

    比方說月亮。當你看著月亮時

  • you think, "I'm really small. What are my problems?"

    你知道,當你看著它時

  • It sets things into perspective, etc., etc.

    你會想,「我是很渺小的,我的困擾算甚麼?」

  • We should all look at the Moon a bit more often. We don't.

    它使我們用不同觀點看待事物

  • Why don't we? Well there's nothing to tell us, "Look at the Moon."

    我們都應該多點看月亮,但我們沒有

  • But if you're a Zen Buddhist in the middle of September,

    為甚麼不?因為沒有人提醒我們,是時候注視月亮了

  • you will be ordered out of your home, made to stand on a canonical platform

    但如果你是禪宗佛教徒,每年九月中旬

  • and made to celebrate the festival of Tsukimi,

    你會受呼召離開家門,站到神壇上

  • where you will be given poems to read

    慶祝月見節

  • in honor of the Moon and the passage of time

    你會獲發頌詩

  • and the frailty of life that it should remind us of.

    以歌頌月亮,和時間的流浙

  • You'll be handed rice cakes.

    並感悟生命的脆弱

  • And the Moon and the reflection on the Moon

    你會獲發米餅

  • will have a secure place in your heart.

    於是月亮和它的倒影

  • That's very good.

    便印在你心上

  • The other thing that religions are really aware of

    這一切都很好

  • is: speak well --

    此外,宗教還察覺意到

  • I'm not doing a very good job of this here --

    大家該好好說話

  • but oratory, oratory is absolutely key to religions.

    我並不特別擅長說話

  • In the secular world, you can come through the university system and be a lousy speaker

    但演講,演講絕對是宗教活動的核心

  • and still have a great career.

    在去宗教化的現世,即使完成大學,你的演講還是可以很糟糕

  • But the religious world doesn't think that way.

    但還是能找到工作

  • What you're saying needs to be backed up

    但宗教世界不然

  • by a really convincing way of saying it.

    不管你說甚麼

  • So if you go to an African-American Pentecostalist church

    都得讓人信服

  • in the American South

    如果你去美國南部的非裔美藉教堂

  • and you listen to how they talk,

    出席五旬節會

  • my goodness, they talk well.

    聽聽他們如何演講

  • After every convincing point, people will go, "Amen, amen, amen."

    天啊,說得真好

  • At the end of a really rousing paragraph, they'll all stand up,

    說到動人處,會眾會高呼「阿門,阿門,阿門」

  • and they'll go, "Thank you Jesus, thank you Christ, thank you Savior."

    在一段振奮人心的演辭,會眾會全體起立

  • If we were doing it like they do it --

    然後說「感謝耶穌,感謝基督,感謝救主」

  • let's not do it, but if we were to do it --

    現在如果我們照辦煮碗

  • I would tell you something like, "Culture should replace scripture."

    不用真的做,而是,想像我們會這麼做

  • And you would go, "Amen, amen, amen."

    我說的內容,大概會是「文化應該取代宗教」

  • And at the end of my talk, you would all stand up

    你們合該高呼「阿門,阿門,阿門」

  • and you would go, "Thank you Plato, thank you Shakespeare, thank you Jane Austen."

    在我的演說結束後,你們都會起立

  • And we'd know that we had a real rhythm going.

    然後說「感謝柏拉圖,感謝莎翁,感謝珍.奧斯汀」

  • All right, all right. We're getting there. We're getting there.

    我們有默契,知道一來一回的節奏

  • (Applause)

    好了,好了,快到重點了,快到重點了

  • The other thing that religions know is we're not just brains,

    (掌聲)

  • we are also bodies.

    還有一點,宗教知道人們不止有理性的腦袋

  • And when they teach us a lesson,

    我們還有肉身

  • they do it via the body.

    宗教的教義

  • So for example,

    教徒透過身體學習

  • take the Jewish idea of forgiveness.

    舉例說

  • Jews are very interested in forgiveness