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  • Jane Austen is loved mainly as a guide to fashionable life in the Regency period,

    珍.奧斯丁受人愛戴主要是因為她引領人們認識攝政時代的上流生活。

  • but her own vision of her task was radically different.

    但是她本人寫作的用意可是大相徑庭。

  • She was an ambitious and stern moralist.

    她是位有野心而且嚴苛的道德家。

  • She was acutely conscious of human failings and wanted, through her novels,

    她意識到人類在走下坡,並且希望透過她的小說。

  • to make people less selfish and more reasonable.

    讓人們更有關懷心也更通情達理。

  • More dignified, and sensitive to the needs of others.

    更加有尊嚴,並顧及他者的需要。

  • Born in 1775, Austen grew up in a small village in Hampshire, where her father was the Anglican rector.

    奧斯丁出生於 1775 年,她成長於漢普夏的一個小鎮,她的爸爸是位英國國教派的教區牧師。

  • They had high social status, but were not well off.

    他們有高社會階級,但是並不富裕。

  • She did much of her writing at a tiny octagonal table.

    她多半的著作都是在一張小小的八角形桌子完成的。

  • She never married, though on a couple of occasions she was tempted.

    雖然她有過幾次念頭,但她未曾結婚。

  • Mostly, she lived in the country with her sister, Cassandra.

    大多時候,她和姐姐卡珊卓一起住在鄉間。

  • The novel was her chosen weapon in the struggle to reform humanity.

    小說則是她選擇用以奮鬥、喚醒人性的利器。

  • She completed six: Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, Northanger Abbey, and Persuasion.

    她完成了六本書:《理性與感性》、《傲慢與偏見》、《曼斯菲爾德莊園》、《艾瑪》、《諾桑覺寺》和《勸導》。

  • Some of the main things she wants to teach you are.

    一些她主要想教導你的事情如下。

  • 1. Let your lover educate you.

    讓你的愛人教導你。

  • In Pride and Prejudice, Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennet start off heartily disliking each other and then gradually realize they're in love.

    在《傲慢與偏見》中,達西先生和伊麗莎白班內特一開始厭惡對方,但接著逐漸意識到他們愛上彼此了。

  • They make one of the great romantic couples.

    他們是十分速配的一對情侶。

  • But why actually are they right for one another?

    但到底為什麼他們會適合彼此?

  • Austen is very clear: it's for a reason we tend not to think of very much today.

    奧斯丁清楚點出:那是因為一個我們今日不會多想的原因。

  • Each can educate and improve the other.

    雙方能互相教育,讓彼此成為更好的人。

  • Darcy starts of feeling superior, because he has more money and higher status.

    達西一開始覺得自己高高在上,因為他有較多的錢和較高的聲望。

  • Then, at a key moment, Elizabeth condemns his arrogance and pride to his face.

    然後,就在關鍵時刻,伊麗莎白當面譴責了他的傲慢和自矜。

  • It sounds offensive, but later he admits:

    聽起來有些冒犯,但後來他也坦誠:

  • Your reproof so well applied, I shall never forget.

    妳的譴責如當頭棒喝,我永遠不會忘懷。

  • You taught me a lesson, hard indeed at first, but most advantageous.

    妳教會了我一課,雖然起先很難接受,但實則助益良多。

  • By you, I was properly humbled.

    因為有妳,我學會了謙卑。

  • They suit each other because by her ease and liveliness, his mind might have been softened, his manners improved.

    他們之所以登對,是因為藉著她的安逸、活潑的性情,他的心腸得以軟化,舉止也有所進步。

  • And from his judgment, information and knowledge of the world, she must have received benefit of greater importance.

    而藉由他的評判與對於世界的知識和掌握,她必定也得到了更多重要的助益。

  • In other words, they balance each other out.

    換句話說,他們彼此達到了一個平衡。

  • We tend to think of love as liking someone for who they are already - total acceptance.

    我們傾向於認為愛一個人就是喜歡他現在的狀態——全然接受。

  • But Austen is saying that the right person has got to be able to help us overcome our failings.

    但是奧斯丁指出,對的人該是幫助我們改善自身缺點。

  • And become more mature, honest, and kind; and we need to do something similar for them.

    幫助我們變得更成熟、誠實、和善的人;同樣的,我們也要替對方做到這點。

  • Darcy and Elizabeth improve one another, and then the novelist lets them get engaged.

    達西和伊麗莎白改善了彼此,於是小說家讓他們訂婚。

  • The story rewards them because they have developed well.

    故事嘉獎了他們,因為他們一路走來進展許多。

  • That's why the novel feels so beautifully constructed, and it illustrates a basic truth:

    這也是為什麼這部小說令人感覺它架構如此美好,同時它也陳述了一項基本真理:

  • marriage depends on maturity and education.

    婚姻立基於成熟和教育。

  • 2. We shouldn't stop judging people ; but we have to judge more carefully.

    我們不應該停止評斷他人,但我們必須更加小心評斷。

  • Mansfield Park starts when quiet, shy Fanny Price goes to live with her much richer cousins, the Bertrams.

    《曼斯菲爾德莊園》的一開始,安靜、害羞的芬妮普萊斯前去住在她較富有的親戚家——博川一家。

  • In social terms, the Bertrams are stars, and Fanny is a very minor character indeed.

    從社會角度而言,博川一家當屬主角,而芬妮肯定是一個非常次要的角色。

  • But Austen judges by a completely different standard.

    但是奧斯丁從一個完全不同的觀點評斷。

  • She exchanges the normal lens through which people are viewed in society, a lens which magnifies wealth and power, for a moral lens, which magnifies qualities of character.

    她調換了社會評價人的觀點,換掉了那個強調財富和權勢的世俗觀點,改為強調個人特質的道德觀點。

  • Certainly, Fanny has no elegant dresses or money and can't speak French.

    的確,芬妮既沒有華服也沒財富,也不會說法語。

  • But by the end of Mansfield Park, she is revealed as the noble one.

    但是在故事結尾,她卻被認為是最高尚的一位。

  • While the Bertrams, despite their titles and accomplishments, have fallen into moral confusion.

    而博川一家縱使擁有頭銜和顯赫的功績,卻落入了道德混亂。

  • 3. Take money seriously.

    重視財務。

  • Austen is quite frank about money.

    論及財務,奧斯丁還頗直接的。

  • In Pride and Prejudice, she explains that Mr. Bingley has an income of 4000 pounds a year - that's rather a lot - while Darcy has more than twice that.

    在《傲慢與偏見》中,她說明賓利先生年收入 4000 英鎊,那可是一筆大數目,然而達西的收入是賓利的兩倍以上。

  • Rather than feeling it's impolite to discuss money, Austen thinks it's an eminently suitable topic for highbrow literature.

    奥斯丁並不覺得談論收入是不禮貌的,她反而認為那對於士紳文學來說是個特別適合的題材。

  • Because how we handle our finances has a huge effect on our lives.

    因為我們理財的方式會大大影響我們的生活。

  • She takes aim at two big mistakes people make around money.

    她集中闡述論及錢財時,人們會犯的兩個大錯誤。

  • The first is to get over impressed by it. In Mansfield Park, Julia Bertram gets married to Mr. Rushworth, the richest character in all of Austen's novels.

    第一個是太過受金錢迷惑。在《曼斯菲爾德莊園》裡,茱莉亞博川嫁給了勞斯沃先生,也就是在奧斯丁所有小說中最有錢的角色。

  • But they are miserable together, and their marriage rapidly falls apart.

    但他們相處得非常不愉快,婚姻很快就分崩離析了。

  • But equally, Austen is convinced that it's a serious error to get married without enough money.

    但同樣地奧斯丁也相信,沒有足夠的經濟基礎就結婚也是一大錯誤。

  • At one point in Sense and Sensibility, it looks like Elinor Dashwood and Edward Ferrars - who are otherwise well suited - won't be able to get married.

    在《理性與感性》的某部分,艾麗諾達士伍和愛德華菲若斯,這對看來登對的佳偶,看似無法結婚。

  • She writes, "They were neither of them quite enough in love to think that 350 pounds a year would supply them with the comforts of life."

    她寫道,「他們任一方的熱戀程度都還不及讓他們覺得,一年 350 英鎊足夠讓他們擁有舒適的生活。」

  • Elinor takes the view that wealth has much to do with happiness.

    艾麗諾認為財富和幸福息息相關。

  • Though, by wealth, she doesn't mean great luxury, just enough to live carefully in moderate comfort.

    雖然她所謂的財富也並非意味著奢華,而只是足夠過得簡單舒適。

  • And Austen agrees.

    奧斯丁同意了這點。

  • Marriage without a reasonable economic basis is just a folly.

    沒有一定經濟基礎的婚姻只是場兒戲。

  • Austen is showing us an elusive but crucial attitude.

    奧斯丁呈現出一個難以捉摸但卻重要至極的觀點。

  • Money is in some ways extremely important, and in other ways unimportant. We can't just be for it or against it.

    金錢在某些方面十分重要,但在其他方面卻也不重要。我們不行全然支持或是否定某一方。

  • 4. Don't be snobbish.

    別勢利眼。

  • In Emma, the heroine - Emma herself - takes Harriett Smith - a pretty girl from the village - under her wing.

    在《艾瑪》中,女主角艾瑪將海麗葉史密斯——一個來自小鎮的漂亮女子——收編旗下。

  • She wants to make her an impressive match with a smart vicar.

    她希望幫她和一個聰明的教區牧師牽紅線。

  • Swept away by Emma's excessive praise, Harriet turns down an offer of marriage from a farmer because she thinks now that he's not good enough.

    海麗葉被艾瑪過度的讚美吹捧上天,因而拒絕了來自一個農夫的求婚,因為她認為他不夠好。

  • Though in fact, he is good-hearted and quietly prosperous.

    雖然事實上,他既有一副好心腸而且頗為發達。

  • Then the vicar turns out to be horrified at Emma's idea and Harriet has her heart broken.

    結果教區牧師被艾瑪的意圖驚呆了,海麗葉也因而心碎。

  • The underlying point is serious, Emma is unwittingly but cruelly snobbish.

    其中潛藏的含義是很嚴肅的,艾瑪自己不知覺但她其實勢利眼至極。

  • She's devoted to the wrong kind of hierarchy.

    她遵照了錯誤的階級認知。

  • The farmer is essentially a better person than the vicar,

    農夫這個人其實本質上比教區牧師好上許多。

  • but social conventions and manners make it easy to ignore this.

    但是社會傳統和禮節使得人們忽視了這點。

  • Jane Austen is careful to give this fault to Emma, who is in many ways an enchanting character.

    珍奧斯丁小心翼翼地將這個錯失冠到艾瑪頭上,她其實在很多方面上都是一個迷人的角色。

  • In other words, Jane Austen doesn't mock snobbery as the behavior of ghastly and contemptible people.

    換句話說,珍奧斯丁並不嘲諷勢利為恐怖、卑鄙的人的行為。

  • Instead, she regards the snob with pity, as someone who's in need of instruction, guidance, and reform.

    相反地,她以憐憫的角度看到勢利這種行為,認為這個人只是少了提攜、引導和改進。

  • As we all are, in our own way.

    其實我們所有人在某方面都是如此。

  • Austen might have written sermons; she wrote novels instead.

    比起寫佈道說教,奧斯丁選擇寫小說。

  • She doesn't tell us why her sense of priorities is important, instead, she shows us in a story

    她不直接告訴我們何謂輕重緩急,她反倒透過小說闡述,

  • which will also make us laugh, which can grip us enough that we want to finish supper early to read on.

    小說會使我們歡笑,讓我們想要趕緊吃完飯繼續讀。

  • Upon finishing one of the novels, we're invited to go back into the world and respond to others as she has taught us.

    每當讀完了其中一本,我們就會被帶入當時的世界,透過她教導我們的和人們對話。

  • To pick up on, and recoil from greed, arrogance, and pride, and to be drawn to goodness within ourselves and others.

    熟悉了何謂貪慾、傲慢和自矜後,學會擺脫這些弊病,並且引導存在在我們自身和他人心中的良善。

  • Sadly, the moral ambition of the novel has largely disappeared in the modern world.

    令人難過的是,現今人們閱讀時幾乎不會注意到這種道德企圖。

  • Yet it's really the best thing that any novel can do.

    然而這的確是一本小說能成就的最棒的事。

  • The satisfaction we feel when reading Jane Austen is really because she wants the world to be a certain way and we find that immensely appealing.

    我們閱讀珍.奧斯丁的小說感受到的滿足感,實際來自於她希望世道所能呈現的一種特定風貌,而這種世道非常吸引人。

  • It's the secret, largely unrecognized reason why she is such a loved writer.

    儘管這些特點不易察覺,卻也是她身為一個作者如此受愛戴的原因。

Jane Austen is loved mainly as a guide to fashionable life in the Regency period,

珍.奧斯丁受人愛戴主要是因為她引領人們認識攝政時代的上流生活。

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不只是文學!珍.奧斯汀的小說可以讓你過上更美好的人生 (LITERATURE - Jane Austen)

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