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  • I'd like to talk today about the two biggest social trends in the coming century,

    今天要談的是兩大社會趨勢,在未來的一百年,

  • and perhaps in the next 10,000 years.

    甚至是未來的一萬年。

  • But I want to start with my work on romantic love,

    但我想從我對愛情的研究工作開始談起,

  • because that's my most recent work.

    因為那是我最近的研究結果。

  • What I and my colleagues did was put 32 people, who were madly in love,

    我和同事們把32位瘋狂陷入愛河的人們

  • into a functional MRI brain scanner.

    放在MRI機器台上做了腦部掃描。

  • 17 who were madly in love and their love was accepted;

    其中17位愛的瘋狂,愛有得到回應,

  • and 15 who were madly in love and they had just been dumped.

    另15位愛得入骨,但被甩了。

  • And so I want to tell you about that first,

    所以我們先談談那個,

  • and then go on into where I think love is going.

    然後再說未來愛的趨勢如何。

  • "What 'tis to love?" Shakespeare said.

    「情為何物?」莎士比亞曾經問道。

  • I think our ancestors -- I think human beings have been wondering about this question

    我想,我們人類的祖先從很久以前就開始思索這個問題,

  • since they sat around their campfires or lay and watched the stars a million years ago.

    他們在夜空下圍著營火,躺下仰望繁星,百萬年前就開始沉思這個問題。

  • I started out by trying to figure out what romantic love was

    我的工作由研究愛情的本質為何開始,

  • by looking at the last 45 years of research on -- just the psychological research --

    我是從過去45年來的研究文獻著手--心理學範圍,

  • and as it turns out, there's a very specific group of things that happen when you fall in love.

    結果發現,特定的一些事情會集中發生在愛意萌生時。

  • The first thing that happens is what I call --

    第一件事,墜入愛河的人,

  • a person begins to take on what I call, "special meaning."

    所有事物對他而言都有了「特殊意義」

  • As a truck driver once said to me,

    一位卡車司機跟我說,

  • he said, "The world had a new center, and that center was Mary Anne."

    他說:「這世界有了一個新的中心,我的瑪莉安,就是一切的中心。」

  • George Bernard Shaw said it a little differently.

    蕭伯納說的差不多,

  • He said, "Love consists of overestimating the differences between one woman and another."

    他說:「愛的成分不過就是,在兩個女人中過度高估了其中一位」

  • And indeed, that's what we do. (Laughter)

    確實如此,一點也沒錯。

  • And then you just focus on this person.

    然後你就這樣專心一意在一個人身上,

  • You can list what you don't like about them,

    你可以列出你不喜歡他們的那些事情,

  • but then you sweep that aside and focus on what you do.

    但你會把不喜歡清單扔到腦後,單只看喜歡的部份。

  • As Chaucer said, "Love is blind."

    喬叟說過:「愛是盲目的」

  • In trying to understand romantic love,

    當我嘗試著要釐清浪漫愛情,

  • I decided I would read poetry from all over the world,

    我想就先從拜讀全世界的情詩開始吧。

  • and I just want to give you one very short poem from eighth-century China,

    我介紹一首中國第八世紀的短詩,

  • because it's an almost perfect example of a man who is focused totally on a particular woman.

    因為它正是表達了男人對某位特定女人如何癡迷的完美案例。

  • It's a little bit like when you are madly in love with somebody

    它形容十分貼切-當你瘋狂的愛上某人的時候,

  • and you walk into a parking lot --

    當你走入停車場,

  • their car is different from every other car in the parking lot.

    就連你愛的對象的車,都和別的車子長得不一樣,

  • Their wine glass at dinner is different from every other wine glass at the dinner party.

    晚宴上他們所持的酒杯,也和別的玻璃杯都不一樣。

  • And in this case, a man got hooked on a bamboo sleeping mat.

    這位男子藉一張竹席而大發相思之情 (註:「鶯鶯傳」中的張生)

  • And it goes like this. It's by a guy called Yuan Chen:

    詩中這麼說,這是元稹的作品:

  • "I cannot bear to put away the bamboo sleeping mat.

    「竹簟襯重茵,未忍都令捲。

  • The night I brought you home, I watched you roll it out."

    憶昨初來日,看君自施展。」

  • He became hooked on a sleeping mat,

    睹物思人,對一張竹蓆難以忘情,

  • probably because of elevated activity of dopamine in his brain,

    原因可能是大腦釋放旺盛的多巴胺,

  • just like with you and me.

    就像你我的大腦也是如此運作。

  • But anyway, not only does this person take on special meaning,

    但不只是特殊意義的產生而已,

  • you focus your attention on them.

    你的注意力集中在他們身上,

  • You aggrandize them. But you have intense energy.

    你還會誇張擴大你的對象,並且你精力無限,

  • As one Polynesian said, he said, "I felt like jumping in the sky."

    就像一個玻里尼亞人曾說:「我想要一躍騰空。」

  • You're up all night. You're walking till dawn.

    你可以整夜無眠,漫步到天明。

  • You feel intense elation when things are going well;

    一切順利如意時,你會比平常還要開心,

  • mood swings into horrible despair when things are going poorly.

    進展不順,心情盪到谷底,

  • Real dependence on this person.

    你的情緒完完全全隨之起伏。

  • As one businessman in New York said to me, he said, "Anything she liked, I liked."

    就像一位紐約商人所說:「只要是她喜歡的東西,我都喜歡。」

  • Simple. Romantic love is very simple.

    很簡單,愛情就是這麼簡單。

  • You become extremely sexually possessive.

    你在性方面極端地具有獨佔慾。

  • You know, if you're just sleeping with somebody casually,

    如果你跟某人只是床伴,

  • you don't really care if they're sleeping with somebody else.

    他們和別人睡的時候你不會介意。

  • But the moment you fall in love,

    但一旦你愛上對方,

  • you become extremely sexually possessive of them.

    你對他們的性佔有慾會極端強烈。

  • I think that that is a Darwinian -- there's a Darwinian purpose to this.

    我想這在人類物種的演化上中是有其目的,

  • The whole point of this is to pull two people together

    目的就是要把兩個人拉近,連在一起,

  • strongly enough to begin to rear babies as a team.

    非常強的拉近力,好讓他們可以組成兩人團隊養育嬰孩長大。

  • But the main characteristics of romantic love are craving:

    但浪漫愛情的主要特徵是渴求,

  • an intense craving to be with a particular person, not just sexually, but emotionally.

    強烈的想要和某一特定對象長相左右的渴求,不只是性,更是於情感上的需求。

  • You'd much rather -- it would be nice to go to bed with them,

    你會很想要的是—和他們上床當然甚好,

  • but you want them to call you on the telephone, to invite you out, etc.,

    但你更想要的是他們打電話給你,約你出去之類的。

  • to tell you that they love you.

    你想聽見他們說我愛你。

  • The other main characteristic is motivation.

    情的另一個特徵是原動力,

  • The motor in your brain begins to crank, and you want this person.

    就像腦中有一台發電機開始運轉,讓你很想要這個人。

  • And last but not least, it is an obsession.

    最後但很重要的,愛情還是一種癡迷。

  • When I put these people in the machine, before I put them in the MRI machine,

    當我把這些人放在MRI掃描機台上之前,

  • I would ask them all kinds of questions.

    我問他們各式各樣的問題,

  • But my most important question was always the same.

    但我最重要的問題總是同一個,

  • It was: "What percentage of the day and night do you think about this person?"

    那就是:「你有多少時候,白天或晚上,會想到這個人呢?」

  • And indeed, they would say, "All day. All night. I can never stop thinking about him or her."

    他們總是回答:「整日、整夜,我無法停止想念他/她。」

  • And then, the very last question I would ask them --

    然後,最後我會問他們的問題是 —

  • I would always have to work myself up to this question,

    我總是必須花一番功夫才能問這個問題,

  • because I am not a psychologist.

    因為我不是心理醫師,

  • I don't work with people in any kind of traumatic situation.

    我並不處理什麼心理創傷經驗,

  • And my final question was always the same.

    但是我最後一個問題總是一樣,

  • I would say, "Would you die for him or her?"

    我會問:「你是否願意為他/她而死?」

  • And, indeed, these people would say "Yes!"

    這些人總是回答說:「會呀!」

  • as if I had asked them to pass the salt.

    就像我問他能不能遞一下鹽罐子的輕鬆平常,

  • I was just staggered by it.

    這讓我覺得十分驚訝。

  • So we scanned their brains, looking at a photograph of their sweetheart and looking at a neutral photograph,

    進行大腦掃描時,我們給實驗者看一張愛人的照片,另外一張是尋常普通的相片,

  • with a distraction task in between.

    看這些照片之間,會有一個轉移注意力用的小活動,

  • So we could look at the same brain when it was in that heightened state

    我們可以觀察大腦在高度運作時

  • and when it was in a resting state.

    以及在休息狀態的一些狀況。

  • And we found activity in a lot of brain regions.

    我們發現一些特殊活動在腦中許多不同部位發生,

  • In fact, one of the most important was a brain region

    事實上最重要的活動是發生在

  • that becomes active when you feel the rush of cocaine.

    一塊當人吸食古柯鹼而有快感時活躍的部位。

  • And indeed, that's exactly what happens.

    事實上,實況就是如此。

  • I began to realize that romantic love is not an emotion.

    我開始了解到浪漫愛情不是一種情緒。

  • In fact, I had always thought it was a series of emotions,

    過去我一直認為它是一系列的情緒,

  • from very high to very low.

    從高昂到低迷。

  • But actually, it's a drive. It comes from the motor of the mind,

    但事實上,它是一種驅動力,直接從精神上發動出來的力量,

  • the wanting part of the mind, the craving part of the mind.

    精神上想望和渴求的部分。

  • The kind of mind -- part of the mind --

    它像是

  • when you're reaching for that piece of chocolate,

    你要吃那塊巧克力的想要,

  • when you want to win that promotion at work.

    你在工作上想得到升遷的想要,

  • The motor of the brain. It's a drive.

    是大腦的驅動組,它是驅動的力量。

  • And in fact, I think it's more powerful than the sex drive.

    事實上,我認為它比性慾的驅動力更強。

  • You know, if you ask somebody to go to bed with you, and they say, "No, thank you,"

    當你問某人要不要和你上床,他們說「不要」

  • you certainly don't kill yourself or slip into a clinical depression.

    顯然你不會因此而自殺或陷入憂鬱症,

  • But certainly, around the world, people who are rejected in love will kill for it.

    但是全世界都有人,因為在愛中被拒絕,而殺戮。

  • People live for love. They kill for love. They die for love.

    人們為愛而生,為愛而殺,為愛而死。

  • They have songs, poems, novels, sculptures, paintings, myths, legends.

    人為愛譜曲、賦詩、寫小說、刻雕像、繪畫、流傳了迷思和神話,

  • In over 175 societies, people have left their evidence of this powerful brain system.

    世上超過175個社會,人們以此留下了這強大腦系統運作的證據。

  • I have come to think it's one of the most powerful brain systems on earth

    我認為這是地球上最強的一種力量,

  • for both great joy and great sorrow.

    它能帶來狂悲,也能帶來狂喜。

  • And I've also come to think that it's one of three

    這讓我想到,愛情是三者其中之ㄧ,

  • basically different brain systems that evolved from mating and reproduction.

    大腦為了適應求偶和繁殖,在演化過程中發展出三個不同的腦系統。

  • One is the sex drive: the craving for sexual gratification.

    第一是性慾驅動:追求性滿足,

  • W.H. Auden called it an "intolerable neural itch,"

    詩人奧登稱之為「難忍之癢」,

  • and indeed, that's what it is.

    真的,很貼切,

  • It keeps bothering you a little bit, like being hungry.

    它一直不斷的騷擾你,就像饑餓感。

  • The second of these three brain systems is romantic love:

    第二個腦系統是浪漫愛情,

  • that elation, obsession of early love.

    那種在愛情一開始,得意、熱烈、呈癡迷狀態的浪漫。

  • And the third brain system is attachment:

    大腦中第三個系統是依存感,

  • that sense of calm and security you can feel for a long-term partner.

    是相伴已久的伴侶能帶給你的那種平穩、安全感。

  • And I think that the sex drive evolved to get you out there,

    我認為性慾是驅動你出來,

  • looking for a whole range of partners.

    尋找各式各樣可能的對象。

  • You know, you can feel it when you're just driving along in your car.

    就像,當你獨自一人在開車的時候,

  • It can be focused on nobody.

    無意中你會注意到某個陌生人。

  • I think romantic love evolved to enable you to focus your mating energy

    浪漫愛情的演化是為了要讓你在擇偶所花的精力上能產生焦點,

  • on just one individual at a time,

    一次只專注在一個人上面,

  • thereby conserving mating time and energy.

    這樣做可以節省擇偶的時間和精力。

  • And I think that attachment, the third brain system,

    至於大腦中第三種系統:依存感,

  • evolved to enable you to tolerate this human being -- (Laughter) --

    它的演化產生是為了,讓你對某一個人類有大一點的寬容,(笑聲)

  • at least long enough to raise a child together as a team.

    至少寬容的時間夠讓你們能合力把孩子撫養長大。

  • So with that preamble, I want to go into discussing the two most profound social trends.

    有了這樣的前題,我要繼續談到兩大社會趨勢,

  • One of the last 10,000 years and the other, certainly of the last 25 years,

    第一個趨勢存在已一萬年,第二個則是出現於過去這25年—

  • that are going to have an impact on these three different brain systems:

    兩者將對於這三個大腦系統帶來巨大的衝擊。

  • lust, romantic love and deep attachment to a partner.

    這三個系統:性慾、浪漫愛情、和深切的依附感。

  • The first is women working, moving into the workforce.

    第一是職業婦女,進入職場,

  • I've looked at 130 societies through the demographic yearbooks of the United Nations.

    我看過了150 —130個社會,透過聯合國所公告的人口數字年鑑,

  • And everywhere in the world, 129 out of 130 of them, women are not only moving into the job market --

    在世界上每個角落,130當中的129個,女性不只是進入工作市場,

  • sometimes very, very slowly, but they are moving into the job market --

    有時候非常非常緩慢,但她們的確正在逐步進入職場,

  • and they are very slowly closing that gap between men and women

    而且正慢慢地在經濟影響力,健康和教育程度上

  • in terms of economic power, health and education.

    追上男女之間的落差。

  • It's very slow.

    速度很慢,

  • For every trend on this planet, there's a counter-trend.

    地球上每出現一個潮流,也會有個反潮流。

  • We all know of them, but nevertheless --

    我們都知道這是必然的,儘管如此,有句古老的阿拉伯俗語:

  • the Arabs say, "The dogs may bark, but the caravan moves on."

    「狗就算吠,篷車照開。」

  • And, indeed, that caravan is moving on.

    確實,篷車是繼續前行的。

  • Women are moving back into the job market.

    女性又再回到了工作職場中,

  • And I say back into the job market, because this is not new.

    而我說「再」回到了工作職場,因為這不是新鮮事。

  • For millions of years, on the grasslands of Africa,

    遠古世界曾經有百萬年,在非洲大草原上,

  • women commuted to work to gather their vegetables.

    女人以外出採集蔬果為她們的工作,

  • They came home with 60 to 80 percent of the evening meal.

    帶回家供應晚餐的食物份量達60%到80%,

  • The double income family was the standard.

    雙薪家庭對他們而言是常態。

  • And women were regarded as just as economically, socially and sexually powerful as men.

    女人在經濟、社會地位、性的方面和男人是平起平坐的。

  • In short, we're really moving forward to the past.

    簡言之,我們去向的前方其實是回到了古早以往。

  • Then, women's worst invention was the plow.

    之後,女人最不妙的發明就是「犁」。

  • With the beginning of plow agriculture, men's roles became extremely powerful.

    有了犁田的農業,男人變重要了,

  • Women lost their ancient jobs as collectors,

    女人則失去了他們古老的採集者的工作。

  • but then with the industrial revolution and the post-industrial revolution

    但藉由工業革命和後工業革命,

  • they're moving back into the job market.

    女性又再度回到了就業市場。

  • In short, they are acquiring the status that they had a million years ago,

    簡言之,她們取得的是一百萬年前、一萬年前、

  • 10,000 years ago, 100,000 years ago.

    或十萬年前,就已經存在的社會地位。

  • We are seeing now one of the most remarkable traditions in the history of the human animal.

    我們現在正目擊人類歷史上最鮮明的傳統特質重現,

  • And it's going to have an impact.

    它會帶來一些衝擊,

  • I generally give a whole lecture on the impact of women on the business community.

    關於女性在商業社群中帶來的衝擊效應,就又是另一篇演講了,

  • I'll only just say a couple of things, and then go on to sex and love.

    我在此只略提一二。然後我要講的是性和愛,

  • There's a lot of gender differences;

    兩性間有很大的差異,

  • anybody who thinks men and women are alike simply never had a boy and a girl child.

    那些說男人和女人沒有差別的人,恐怕是自己未曾養育過一男和一女。

  • I don't know why it is that they want to think that men and women are alike.

    我不明白他們為何說男女沒什麼不同,

  • There's much we have in common, but there's a whole lot that we

    我們確實有許多共通點,但也有許多

  • do not have in common.

    非共通點。

  • We are -- in the words of Ted Hughes,

    套一句詩人休斯說的,

  • "I think that we were built to be -- we're like two feet. We need each other to get ahead."

    「人類生而有雙腳,雙腳彼此合作才能邁步向前 — 人類兩性也一樣,彼此需要。」

  • But we did not evolve to have the same brain.

    但在演化的過程中我們有了不一樣的大腦,

  • And we're finding more and more and more gender differences in the brain.

    許多的不同存在於兩性之間,就大腦而言。

  • I'll only just use a couple and then move on to sex and love.

    我舉其中一二為例,然後接著再講性與愛。

  • One of them is women's verbal ability. Women can talk.

    其中之ㄧ是女性的語言能力,女人比較會說話,

  • Women's ability to find the right word rapidly, basic articulation

    女性能比較快找到正確的措辭,基本修辭能力,

  • goes up in the middle of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen levels peak.

    在生理週期正中央時達到巔峰,此時雌激素最旺盛,

  • But even at menstruation, they're better than the average man.

    但即使在行經期間,她的口語表達能力也比一般男人較好,

  • Women can talk.

    女人就是會說話。

  • They've been doing it for a million years; words were women's tools.

    百萬年以來都如此進行,女人的工具就是言語文字。

  • They held that baby in front of their face,

    她們端詳雙臂中懷抱的嬰兒,

  • cajoling it, reprimanding it, educating it with words.

    逗弄、輕聲責罵、用言語教育孩子們,

  • And, indeed, they're becoming a very powerful force.

    而的確,女性們正形成一股強有力的勢力,

  • Even in places like India and Japan,

    甚至是在印度以及日本這些地方,

  • where women are not moving rapidly into the regular job market,

    女性或許沒有很快速的進入一般職場,

  • they're moving into journalism.

    但她們進入了專業新聞領域,

  • And I think that the television is like the global campfire.

    我認為電視像是全球以之為中心的一團營火,

  • We sit around it and it shapes our minds.

    我們都環繞電視而坐,讓心智接收電視的教化。

  • Almost always, when I'm on TV, the producers who call me,

    每次當我上電視,前來和我溝通

  • who negotiate what we're going to say, is a woman.

    待會要說什麼內容的製作人幾乎全是女性。

  • In fact, Solzhenitsyn once said,

    索忍尼辛曾說:

  • "To have a great writer is to have another government."

    「好作家的功用,等同於另一個政府。」

  • Today 54 percent of people who are writers in America are women.

    今天有54%的美國作家是女性,

  • It's one of many, many characteristics that women have

    語言能力只是女性帶進工作職場

  • that they will bring into the job market.

    的許許多多專有特色之一。

  • They've got incredible people skills, negotiating skills.

    女性還有絕佳人際溝通技巧、協商技巧

  • They're highly imaginative.

    以及高度想像力。

  • We now know the brain circuitry of imagination, of long-term planning.

    如今我們明白大腦中有想像力的線路,有長期規劃的線路。

  • They tend to be web thinkers.

    女性是網路型思考者,

  • Because the female parts of the brain are better connected,

    因為女性大腦的連結程度比較好,

  • they tend to collect more pieces of data when they think,

    思考時會收集較多的資訊,

  • put them into more complex patterns, see more options and outcomes.

    也將資訊放進較複雜的架構中,因此看出更多的選項和後果。

  • They tend to be contextual, holistic thinkers, what I call web thinkers.

    她們是比較完整、能觀前顧後的思考者,我稱之為網路型思考者。

  • Men tend to -- and these are averages -- tend to get rid of what they regard as extraneous,

    男性則是 — 一般而言 — 捨棄他們認為多餘的,

  • focus on what they do, and move in a more step-by-step thinking pattern.

    只看他們要做的,採取一種規律步驟型的思考方式。

  • They're both perfectly good ways of thinking.

    兩種思考方式都很好,

  • We need both of them to get ahead.

    人類同時需要這兩種思考方式才能邁步向前。

  • In fact, there's many more male geniuses in the world.

    事實上,世界上男性天才是比較多的,

  • When the -- and there's also many more male idiots in the world. (Laughter)

    但是男性的笨蛋也比較多。(笑聲)

  • When the male brain works well, it works extremely well.

    當男性的大腦運作良好的時候,呈現的結果非常好。

  • And what I really think that we're doing is, we're moving towards a collaborative society,

    我認為,我們正朝向一個協同共工的社會演進,

  • a society in which the talents of both men and women are becoming understood

    在這社會中男性和女性的天賦都獲得彼此了解、

  • and valued and employed.

    珍惜和發揮。

  • But in fact, women moving into the job market is having a huge impact

    事實上女性進入職場帶來的一個極大衝擊

  • on sex and romance and family life.

    是在性、浪漫愛情及家庭生活方面。

  • Foremost, women are starting to express their sexuality.

    最重要的是,女性的性自主開始覺醒。

  • I'm always astonished when people come to me and say,

    我總是覺得驚訝當有人問我:

  • "Why is it that men are so adulterous?"

    「為什麼男人都那麼愛出軌?」

  • And I say, "Why do you think more men are adulterous than women?"

    而我總說:「你憑什麼覺得是男性比較愛出軌呢?」

  • "Oh, well -- men are more adulterous!"

    「嗯,出軌的男性比較多啊!」

  • And I say, "Who do you think these men are sleeping with?"

    我說:「那你認為這些出軌男人都是和誰上床了?」

  • And -- basic math! (Laughter)

    這是 — 基本算術! (笑聲)

  • Anyway.

    無論如何,

  • In the Western world,

    在西方世界,女孩們,嗯,

  • women start sooner at sex, have more partners,

    女性較早開始有性生活,也有較多的對象經驗,

  • express less remorse